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See detailFonctionnement exécutif et attentionnel consécutif à des lésions cérébrales acquises : une analyse de cas multiples
Hogge, Michael; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie, Neurosciences Cognitives et Cliniques (2015), 7(2), 71-99

Le fonctionnement exécutif a été conceptualisé comme un ensemble de processus cognitifs de haut niveau pouvant être clairement distingués, et dont le substrat cérébral se situerait au sein des régions ... [more ▼]

Le fonctionnement exécutif a été conceptualisé comme un ensemble de processus cognitifs de haut niveau pouvant être clairement distingués, et dont le substrat cérébral se situerait au sein des régions frontales. Un certain nombre de données obtenues notamment chez des patients présentant des lésions cérébrales acquises sont toutefois venues remettre en question cette conceptualisation. Dans ce contexte, nous avons administré une large batterie d’épreuves exécutives et attentionnelles à un petit groupe de patients cérébro-lésés (N=9) afin de déterminer, au moyen d’analyses de cas multiples, l’influence de la localisation et de l’étendue des lésions, ainsi que l’influence de difficultés attentionnelles, sur la survenue d’un syndrome dysexécutif. Les analyses de profils individuels semblent indiquer qu’un mauvais transfert d’information entre régions cérébrales antérieures et postérieures serait responsable de la survenue de troubles exécutifs, et que, dans certains cas, ce soient des difficultés attentionnelles qui déterminent ces déficits. Toutefois, il se pourrait également que l’atteinte de certaines régions clés (relativement focalisées) sous-tendant des processus cognitifs impliqués dans un large éventail de tâches exécutives soit responsable de la survenue d’un dysfonctionnement exécutif massif. [less ▲]

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See detailThe retirement of the migrant labor force: pension portability and beyond
Jousten, Alain ULg

in CESifo Economic Studies (2015), 61(2), 416-437

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – ... [more ▼]

The specificities of the workforce with a migrant background are often neglected in studies of retirement. Similarly, many studies of migration’s impact on pensions often focus on aggregate outcomes – system sustainability or distributive characteristics. The present paper provides a fresh look at the nexus between these two literatures. It discusses the impact of the European social security coordination mechanisms on individual decision-making and on the functioning of social security systems – with a focus on retirement. The paper argues that such effects are non-negligible and are likely to have major policy consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh‐k Gate Stacks on Low Bandgap Tensile Strained Ge and GeSn Alloys for Field-Effect Transistors
Wirths, Stephan; Stange, Daniela; Pampillon, Maria-Angela et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2015), 7

We present the epitaxial growth of Ge and Ge0.94Sn0.06 layers with 1.4% and 0.4% tensile strain, respectively, by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition on relaxed GeSn buffers and the formation of ... [more ▼]

We present the epitaxial growth of Ge and Ge0.94Sn0.06 layers with 1.4% and 0.4% tensile strain, respectively, by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition on relaxed GeSn buffers and the formation of high-k/metal gate stacks thereon. Annealing experiments reveal that process temperatures are limited to 350 °C to avoid Sn diffusion. Particular emphasis is placed on the electrical characterization of various high-k dielectrics, as 5 nm Al2O3, 5 nm HfO2, or 1 nm Al2O3 / 4 nm HfO2, on strained Ge and strained Ge0.94Sn0.06. Experimental capacitance− voltage characteristics are presented and the effect of the small bandgap, like strong response of minority carriers at applied field, are discussed via simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe finite index basis property
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (2015), 219(7), 25212537

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See detailMaximal bifix decoding
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Discrete Mathematics (2015), 338(5), 725742

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See detailBifix codes and interval exchanges
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (2015), 219(7), 27812798

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See detailAcyclic, connected and tree sets
Berthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et al

in Monatshefte für Mathematik (2015), 176(4), 521550

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See detailCell based advanced therapeutic medicinal products for bone repair: Keep it simple?
Leijten, J.; Chai, Y. C.; Papantoniou, I. et al

in Advanced drug delivery reviews (2015), 84

The development of cell based advanced therapeutic medicinal products (ATMPs) for bone repair has been expected to revolutionize the health care system for the clinical treatment of bone defects. Despite ... [more ▼]

The development of cell based advanced therapeutic medicinal products (ATMPs) for bone repair has been expected to revolutionize the health care system for the clinical treatment of bone defects. Despite this great promise, the clinical outcomes of the few cell based ATMPs that have been translated into clinical treatments have been far from impressive. In part, the clinical outcomes have been hampered because of the simplicity of the first wave of products. In response the field has set-out and amassed a plethora of complexities to alleviate the simplicity induced limitations. Many of these potential second wave products have remained "stuck" in the development pipeline. This is due to a number of reasons including the lack of a regulatory framework that has been evolving in the last years and the shortage of enabling technologies for industrial manufacturing to deal with these novel complexities. In this review, we reflect on the current ATMPs and give special attention to novel approaches that are able to provide complexity to ATMPs in a straightforward manner. Moreover, we discuss the potential tools able to produce or predict 'goldilocks' ATMPs, which are neither too simple nor too complex. [less ▲]

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See detailMultifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs.
Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(6), 0130227

To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells ... [more ▼]

To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial 'design of experiments' approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing computational models of bone regeneration to the clinic.
Carlier, Aurelie; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Lammens, Johan et al

in Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine (2015), 7(4), 183-94

Although the field of bone regeneration has experienced great advancements in the last decades, integrating all the relevant, patient-specific information into a personalized diagnosis and optimal ... [more ▼]

Although the field of bone regeneration has experienced great advancements in the last decades, integrating all the relevant, patient-specific information into a personalized diagnosis and optimal treatment remains a challenging task due to the large number of variables that affect bone regeneration. Computational models have the potential to cope with this complexity and to improve the fundamental understanding of the bone regeneration processes as well as to predict and optimize the patient-specific treatment strategies. However, the current use of computational models in daily orthopedic practice is very limited or inexistent. We have identified three key hurdles that limit the translation of computational models of bone regeneration from bench to bed side. First, there exists a clear mismatch between the scope of the existing and the clinically required models. Second, most computational models are confronted with limited quantitative information of insufficient quality thereby hampering the determination of patient-specific parameter values. Third, current computational models are only corroborated with animal models, whereas a thorough (retrospective and prospective) assessment of the computational model will be crucial to convince the health care providers of the capabilities thereof. These challenges must be addressed so that computational models of bone regeneration can reach their true potential, resulting in the advancement of individualized care and reduction of the associated health care costs. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2015, 7:183-194. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1299 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. [less ▲]

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See detailOxygen as a critical determinant of bone fracture healing-a multiscale model.
Carlier, Aurelie; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Gastel, Nick Van et al

in Journal of theoretical biology (2015), 365

A timely restoration of the ruptured blood vessel network in order to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fracture zone is crucial for successful bone healing. Indeed, oxygen plays a key role in the ... [more ▼]

A timely restoration of the ruptured blood vessel network in order to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fracture zone is crucial for successful bone healing. Indeed, oxygen plays a key role in the aerobic metabolism of cells, in the activity of a myriad of enzymes as well as in the regulation of several (angiogenic) genes. In this paper, a previously developed model of bone fracture healing is further improved with a detailed description of the influence of oxygen on various cellular processes that occur during bone fracture healing. Oxygen ranges of the cell-specific oxygen-dependent processes were established based on the state-of-the art experimental knowledge through a rigorous literature study. The newly developed oxygen model is compared with previously published experimental and in silico results. An extensive sensitivity analysis was also performed on the newly introduced oxygen thresholds, indicating the robustness of the oxygen model. Finally, the oxygen model was applied to the challenging clinical case of a critical sized defect (3mm) where it predicted the formation of a fracture non-union. Further model analyses showed that the harsh hypoxic conditions in the central region of the callus resulted in cell death and disrupted bone healing thereby indicating the importance of a timely vascularization for the successful healing of a large bone defect. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that the oxygen model is a powerful tool to further unravel the complex spatiotemporal interplay of oxygen delivery, diffusion and consumption with the several healing steps, each occurring at distinct, optimal oxygen tensions during the bone repair process. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of geriatric assessment-based recommendations in older patients with cancer: A multicentre prospective study
Baitar, Abdelbari; Kenis, Cindy; Moor, Ramona et al

in Journal of geriatric oncology (2015), 6(5), 401-10

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to describe geriatric recommendations based on a geriatric assessment (GA) and to evaluate the implementation of these recommendations. PATIENTS AND METHODS ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to describe geriatric recommendations based on a geriatric assessment (GA) and to evaluate the implementation of these recommendations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A two-step approach of screening followed by a GA was implemented in nine hospitals in Belgium. Patients >/=70years were included at diagnosis or at disease progression/relapse. Concrete geriatric recommendations were systematically documented and reported to the treating physicians and consisted of referrals to professional health care workers. Patient charts were reviewed after one month to verify which geriatric recommendations have been performed. RESULTS: From August 2011 to July 2012, 1550 patients were included for analysis. The median age was 77 (range: 70-97) and 57.0% were female. A solid tumour was diagnosed in 91.4% and a haematological malignancy in 8.6%. Geriatric screening with the G8 identified 63.6% of the patients for GA (n=986). A median of two geriatric recommendations (range: 1-6) were given for 76.2% (95%CI: 73.4-78.8) of the evaluable patients (n=710). A median of one geriatric recommendation (range: 1-5) was performed in 52.1% (95%CI: 48.4-55.8) of the evaluable patients (n=689). In general, 460 or 35.3% (95%CI: 32.8-38.0) of all the geriatric recommendations were performed. Geriatric recommendations most frequently consisted of referrals to the dietician (60.4%), social worker (40.3%), and psychologist (28.9%). CONCLUSION: This implementation study provides insight into GA-based recommendations/interventions in daily oncology practice. Geriatric recommendations were given in about three-fourths of patients. About one-third of all geriatric recommendations were performed in approximately half of these patients. [less ▲]

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See detailForEstimator : un nouvel outil cartographique pour mieux connaître la forêt wallonne
Dedry, Laurent ULg; De Thier, Olivier ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg et al

in Forêt-Nature (2015), (135), 40-46

Suite à l’acquisition par le Service public de Wallonie d’une couverture LiDAR de l’ensemble du territoire régional, et à l’établissement d’un modèle numérique de hauteur basé sur cette dernière, Gembloux ... [more ▼]

Suite à l’acquisition par le Service public de Wallonie d’une couverture LiDAR de l’ensemble du territoire régional, et à l’établissement d’un modèle numérique de hauteur basé sur cette dernière, Gembloux Agro-BioTech (GxABt) a mis au point un plugin QGIS, baptisé «ForEstimator», permettant aux gestionnaires et propriétaires forestiers de calculer facilement la hauteur dominante de leurs peuplements d’épicéas et de douglas équiennes. De plus, pour corriger l’ancienneté des données LiDAR, le plugin est couplé à un modèle de prédiction de la croissance de la hauteur dominante. Cette originalité permet d’actualiser l’estimation à une date postérieure à l’acquisition des données LiDAR. Parallèlement, l’équipe de GxABT a pu déterminer l’arbre le plus haut de Wallonie. Il s’agit d’un douglas de 61 mètres de haut au sein d’un peuplement mélangé de douglas et tsuga, planté en 1900, situé à Bouillon. ForEstimator permet aux gestionnaires forestiers de produire facilement des cartes de hauteur dominante, de productivité des peuplements, etc. [less ▲]

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See detail‐ Social relations and cultural ties
Gsir, Sonia ULg

Scientific conference (2015)

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See detailCan we identify patients with high risk of osteoarthritis progression who will respond to treatment? A focus on biomarkers ans frailty
Arden, Nigel; Richette, Pascal; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Drugs & Aging (2015), 32

Osteoarthritis (OA), a disease affecting different patient phenotypes, appears as an optimal candidate for personalized healthcare. The aim of the discussions of the European Society for Clinical and ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA), a disease affecting different patient phenotypes, appears as an optimal candidate for personalized healthcare. The aim of the discussions of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group was to explore the value of markers of different sources in defining different phenotypes of patients with OA. The ESCEO organized a series of meetings to explore the possibility of identifying patients who would most benefit from treatment for OA, on the basis of recent data and expert opinion. In the first meeting, patient phenotypes were identified according to the number of affected joints, biomechanical factors, and the presence of lesions in the subchondral bone. In the second meeting, summarized in the present article, the working group explored other markers involved in OA. Profiles of patients may be defined according to their level of pain, functional limitation, and presence of coexistent chronic conditions including frailty status. A considerable amount of data suggests that magnetic resonance imaging may also assist in delineating different phenotypes of patients with OA. Among multiple biochemical biomarkers identified, none is sufficiently validated and recognized to identify patients who should be treated. Considerable efforts are also being made to identify genetic and epigenetic factors involved in OA, but results are still limited. The many potential biomarkers that could be used as potential stratifiers are promising, but more research is needed to characterize and qualify the existing biomarkers and to identify new candidates. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does thymus infection by coxsackievirus contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes?
Michaux, Hélène ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Jaïdane, Hela et al

in Frontiers in Immunology (2015), 6(Article 338), 1-6

Through synthesis and presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by major histocom- patibility complex proteins, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a crucial role in programing central immune self ... [more ▼]

Through synthesis and presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by major histocom- patibility complex proteins, thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a crucial role in programing central immune self-tolerance to neuroendocrine functions. Insulin-like growth factor- 2 (IGF-2) is the dominant gene/polypeptide of the insulin family that is expressed in TECs from different animal species and humans. Igf2 transcription is defective in the thymus of diabetes-prone bio-breeding rats, and tolerance to insulin is severely decreased in Igf2−/− mice. For more than 15 years now, our group is investigating the hypothesis that, besides a pancreotropic action, infection by coxsackievirus B4 (CV- B4) could implicate the thymus as well, and interfere with the intrathymic programing of central tolerance to the insulin family and secondarily to insulin-secreting islet β cells. In this perspective, we have demonstrated that a productive infection of the thymus occurs after oral CV-B4 inoculation of mice. Moreover, our most recent data have demonstrated that CV-B4 infection of a murine medullary (m) TEC line induces a significant decrease in Igf2 expression and IGF-2 production. In these conditions, Igf1 expression was much less affected by CV-B4 infection, while Ins2 transcription was not detected in this cell line. Through the inhibition of Igf2 expression in TECs, CV-B4 infection could lead to a breakdown of central immune tolerance to the insulin family and promote an autoimmune response against insulin-secreting islet β cells. Our major research objective now is to understand the molecular mechanisms by which CV-B4 infection of TECs leads to a major decrease in Igf2 expression in these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 2: Islamic Food Practices in a Migration Context: an Ethnography among Moroccan Women in Milan (Italy)
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

in Toguslu, Erkan (Ed.) Everyday Life Practices of Muslims in Europe (2015)

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See detailWhat do humans eat when forests disappear ?
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Lehnebach, Charlotte et al

in Nature et Faune (2015), 29(2), 34-36

To study the evolution of the alimentary bolus in relation with the loss of forest cover in the Congo Basin, we conducted semi-structured surveys on the composition, origin and amount spent to prepare ... [more ▼]

To study the evolution of the alimentary bolus in relation with the loss of forest cover in the Congo Basin, we conducted semi-structured surveys on the composition, origin and amount spent to prepare meals in three study sites with a contrasted forest cover gradient. At global level, the cost price of meals increases as the forest cover decreases. The share of the alimentary bolus in relation with the use of natural resources such as hunting, fishing and harvesting drops to the benefit of proteins from livestock and agricultural commodities. This leads to a translocation of the demand but also pressures on other anthropized ecosystems. The effects of deforestation are subsequently felt at local level but also in neighboring areas. [less ▲]

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