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See detailLes itinéraires cliniques en support aux mesures transversales d’organisation des soins au patient : expérience de gestion de projet bottom-up
ERPICUM, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Our work contributes to the study of the health care organization’s evolution, by an integrating approach of clinical, research and teaching fields, in a bottom-up project management which aims ... [more ▼]

Our work contributes to the study of the health care organization’s evolution, by an integrating approach of clinical, research and teaching fields, in a bottom-up project management which aims integration of multidisciplinary and transversal care processes. From a research project was born a service project for the development of a blood management program in cardiac surgery. This project led to the development of a clinical pathway in cardiac surgery. The methodology of clinical pathways has been integrated in the new institutional strategic plan; the concept of “Care pathways” is developed to reinforce the implementation of "patient's pathway" and "Integrated Care" measures. This concept also finds an echo in the legislative and accreditation standards. Our researches and projects highlight the value of nurses for the integration of research and clinical care process. This approach is taught to Public Health Science Master’s students through educational missions in the Advanced Practice Nursing Science. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards workable transparency in the context of exchanges of and access to information relating to EU central bank activities?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2016, June 16)

I presented my research project, which was awarded an ECB Legal Research Programme Scholarship on the principle of transparency in the operations of the European Central Bank. As part of the the ... [more ▼]

I presented my research project, which was awarded an ECB Legal Research Programme Scholarship on the principle of transparency in the operations of the European Central Bank. As part of the the presentation, I also participated in a discussion seminar with ECB lawyers. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmaceutical applications of supercritical fluids
Evrard, Brigitte ULg

Conference (2016, June 16)

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See detailInstitutional Pedagogies on the Edge between Politics and Therapy
Wustefeld, Sophie ULg; Janvier, Antoine ULg

Conference (2016, June 16)

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See detailLa gestion des ressources avec Alma à l'Université de Liège
Richelle, Laurence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Retour d'expérience client sur la gestion des ressources imprimées et électroniques avec le système de gestion de bibliothèque Alma depuis février 2015.

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See detailHépatocarcinome: Place de la chirurgie
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailL'insuffisance hépatique
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2016, June 16)

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See detailLes écrits anti-simoniaques interpolés à l'abbaye de Saint-Trond au XIIe siècle
Schmidt, Kevin ULg

Scientific conference (2016, June 16)

Dénoncées dans l’Église dès le IVe siècle, les pratiques simoniaques suscitèrent de plus en plus l’indignation, jusqu’à apparaître comme l’un des combats majeurs de la réforme grégorienne. Si la lutte a ... [more ▼]

Dénoncées dans l’Église dès le IVe siècle, les pratiques simoniaques suscitèrent de plus en plus l’indignation, jusqu’à apparaître comme l’un des combats majeurs de la réforme grégorienne. Si la lutte a été majoritairement menée contre l’investiture laïque et a mené à la déposition d’un certain nombre de dignitaires du clergé séculier, elle n’est pas pour autant restée étrangère au milieu monastique ; dans le cloître aussi, le débat faisait rage. Si le fait est indéniable, saisir l’état d’esprit des individus d’une communauté à l’égard de la simonie est malaisé. En effet, dans la majorité des abbayes, seuls quelques membres sont sortis de l’anonymat et ont marqué de leur empreinte la production intellectuelle. Toutefois, il reste probable que, si les moines sont majoritairement restés cloîtrés dans le silence, ils ne se sont pas pour autant abstenus de méditer et de consigner par écrit leurs pensées ou les nouvelles idées dont ils auraient pris connaissance. Nous en tenons pour preuve quelques pièces inédites ou très largement méconnues recopiées sur les feuillets restés vierges ou sur les pages de garde des manuscrits d’un même scriptorium et qui attestent la vivacité de la lutte anti-simoniaque. Ces textes polémiques anonymes d’origine monastique sont d’autant plus révélateurs du fait que plusieurs d’entre eux s’avèrent être des copies interpolées de traités ou de poèmes bien connus par ailleurs, dont le propos ainsi modifié semble trahir la pensée d’une partie représentative des membres de la communauté. Le scriptorium de l’abbaye de Saint-Trond (diocèse de Liège, Belgique) nous en a transmis quelques-uns. Examinant deux d’entre eux, redécouverts dans des manuscrits de la bibliothèque de l’Université de Liège et spécifiquement dirigés contre les moines qui se rendent coupables de pratiques simoniaques, nous tenterons de cerner les remises en question et combats de scribes trudonnaires anonymes en ces temps agités. [less ▲]

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See detailInterferences between non-proliferation and science: ‘exporting’ dual-use know-how and technology in conformity with security imperatives
Charatsis, Christos ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Chapter 1 introduces the reasoning underpinning the study: what are the main drivers and the overall objective for undertaking this intellectual endeavour. It also sets the main questions to be answered ... [more ▼]

Chapter 1 introduces the reasoning underpinning the study: what are the main drivers and the overall objective for undertaking this intellectual endeavour. It also sets the main questions to be answered and a hypothesis to be verified. Chapter 2 sets the scene where the study evolves. What is the role of research and what is the mission of different types of research organisations in today’s environment? The chapter discusses also the definitions of related terms such as Research and Development as these are entrenched in texts with universal applicability. Chapter 3 illuminates the role of knowledge from a proliferation point of view. What are the obligations stemming from legally binding treaties for industry and academia? The chapter also offers a comparative analysis of the multilateral export control regimes including main principles, control lists and terminology used. The concluding section attempts to explain the dual-use problem by providing a definition of dual-use research. Chapter 4 explains the main policies applying for EU funded research by focusing on the dissemination and use of research results for practical and commercial purposes. The chapter offers an analysis of the EU legal framework governing technology transfers of dual-use items. Following that, the main scenarios where trade controls come into play in a research context are discussed. Finally, the chapter offers an analysis of a case study exemplifying the interpretation and implementation of provisions and terms discussed all over the study. The H5N1 case study brings to the fore the differences between the EU and US in the oversight of dual-use research. Chapter 5 presents an assessment of the US trade controls towards academia. How do the US authorities interpret the fundamental research exemption? What is a ‘deemed export’ and how does it affect academic research? How the term ‘publicly available information’ should be understood? Chapter 6 sheds light on the role of internal controls in complying with the law and their nature as discretionary measures. The chapter provides a summary of the main principles and key elements of an Internal Compliance Programme (ICP). Then, it highlights the main steps required for designing and implementing ICPs. Chapter 7 examines the export compliance practices followed by firms, universities and public research organisations. In doing so, it identifies challenges encountered and compliance mechanisms used in different research environments. Chapter 8 sets forward a method for identifying export controls risks in the initial phase of development of an internal compliance structure. The risk identification method builds on international standards and previous experience for tackling export control concerns in a research setting. To that effect, an international public research organisation, the European Commission Joint Research Centre is used as a test case. Finally, chapter 9 compiles the main findings of the study responding also to the main questions set forth in the introductory chapter. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep deprivation affects brain global cortical responsivenes
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Chellappa, S; Ly, J et al

Conference (2016, June 15)

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See detailGestion des stupéfiants au bloc opératoire
LOMMEL, Isabelle ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2016)

La gestion des stupéfiants est une obligation légale. Dans le travail quotidien de l’infirmier de salle d’opération, la redondance d’écritures et le manque de disponibilités entrainent une banalisation de ... [more ▼]

La gestion des stupéfiants est une obligation légale. Dans le travail quotidien de l’infirmier de salle d’opération, la redondance d’écritures et le manque de disponibilités entrainent une banalisation de cette obligation. On oublie que ce médicament ‘différent’ est source de danger, d’addiction, de deal et qu’il peut être mortel. Ce travail est le résultat d’une analyse de la situation existante et de son adéquation avec la loi et la littérature scientifique. Sa conclusion permet de mettre en évidence que les participants au flux des stupéfiants doivent être conscientisés que leurs actions doivent être guidées par une logique. Cette logique de processus doit être institutionnelle. La philosophie Lean est d’application dans ce travail. Par la publication d’une synthèse des pistes de perfectionnement sous forme de délivrable ‘A3’, cette étude sera remise aux dirigeants du bloc opératoire Selon cette philosophie, il faut impérativement implémenter des méthodes de brainstorming consistant à mettre en évidence, entre collègues, les raisons de mal-fonctionnement. C’est également en équipe que des moyens d’amélioration de la situation doivent être élaborés, ce sans bouleversement majeur, c’est la méthode des petits pas. L’équipe du bloc doit mettre en place: 1. Un descriptif de la situation existante. 2. La pose en groupe d’indicateurs de bon fonctionnement. 3. L’étude collégiale de méthodes d’optimalisation des processus existants via des standards de travail. 4. Le suivi des indicateurs pour constater les améliorations et les amplifier par ajustement des processus. 5. Le bénéfice doit être visible tant au niveau de la sécurité du patient et du personnel que du stress ambiant. Cette philosophie doit perdurer dans le temps et s’intégrer dans le LEAN institutionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Crucifix, Benoît ULg; Rommens, Aarnoud ULg; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference (2016, June 15)

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See detailLes juges : décideurs politiques ? Essais sur le pouvoir politique des juges dans l'exercice de leur fonction
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg; Wildemeersch, Jonathan ULg

Book published by Bruylant - 1e édition (2016)

Une des caractéristiques du 21e siècle serait la « judiciarisation » de la société. Cette notion renvoie à l’extension du pouvoir des juridictions, lesquelles sont amenées à traiter un nombre croissant de ... [more ▼]

Une des caractéristiques du 21e siècle serait la « judiciarisation » de la société. Cette notion renvoie à l’extension du pouvoir des juridictions, lesquelles sont amenées à traiter un nombre croissant de problèmes politiques et sociaux. Si elle était confirmée, la « judiciarisation » serait-elle susceptible de remettre en cause les fondements classiques de notre approche occidentale de la démocratie ? En effet, la judiciarisation ne conduit-elle pas, in fine, à transformer les juges en « producteurs de normes » ? C’est autour de ces questions que les directeurs scientifiques de l’ouvrage ont demandé à des auteurs d’horizons scientifiques multiples (juristes, politologues, philosophes, chercheurs, magistrats constitutionnels et administratifs, avocats, etc.) et géographiques divers (Belgique, France, Canada, Luxembourg, Russie, etc.) d’interroger, dans une perspective comparative, les fonctions politiques des juges au niveau national et au niveau européen. L’ouvrage se divise en quatre parties : les juges et le pouvoir politique, les juges et la production de normes, les juges et l’arbitrage des valeurs morales, les juges et la continuité du système politique. Les contributions qui le composent (re)mettent en cause le mode de fonctionnement et/ou de composition des juridictions (judiciaires, administratives ou constitutionnelles) et leur influence sur les processus décisionnels. Elles questionnent, en d’autres termes, la légitimité du juge dans une perspective philosophique, juridique et politique. Par son approche multidisciplinaire, l’ouvrage s’adresse à tous ceux (avocats, politologues, magistrats, journalistes) qui s’intéressent à la place du juge, à son rôle et à ses limites, dans la société contemporaine, qu’ils soient déjà impliqués dans la vie professionnelle ou encore étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fonctions politiques des juges. Propos introductifs sur le pouvoir politique des juges dans l'exercice de leur fonction
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

in Grandjean, Geoffrey; Wildemeersch, Jonathan (Eds.) Les juges : décideurs politiques ? essais sur le pouvoir politique des juges dans l'exercice de leur fonction (2016)

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See detailCogelled xerogel catalysts for applications in gazeous phase
Lambert, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2016, June 15)

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See detailMitochondrial function and aerobic capacity assessed by high resolution respirometry in Thoroughbred horses
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Ceusters, Justine ULg; Nonnenmacher et al

in Comparative Exercise Physiology (2016), 12(2), 67-73

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic ... [more ▼]

During the initial stages of training of young Thoroughbred horses, low intensity exercise is employed to increase aerobic capacity. High Resolution Respirometry (HRR) allows the determination of aerobic capacities in small samples of permeabilised muscle fibres. The aim of the study was to measure the mitochondrial function by HRR in Thoroughbred horses, to compare these values to Warmblood horses and to evaluate the effect of a 10-weeks training period. The mitochondrial function was measured by HRR using different substrate-uncoupler protocols (SUIT 1 and 2) in muscle microbiopsies from two groups of untrained horses: 17 Warmblood and 8 Thoroughbred and in the group of 8 Thoroughbred horses before and after a 10-week training period. The SUIT1 protocol employed to compare the two groups of horses showed that in Thoroughbred horses, the mean values for oxygen flux expressed as tissue mass-specific respiration were significantly higher for complex I (CI)Glutamate+Malate, CI + complex II, and maximum electron transport capacities (ETSmax) than the mean values measured in Warmblood horses. The SUIT 1 and SUIT 2 protocols revealed large differences among Thoroughbred horses before and after training. The SUIT 2 protocols showed a significant difference for the complex I activity before and after training but only when the oxygen flux was expressed as percentage of ETSmax. This study shows the interest of HRR in equine sport medicine and exercise physiology, but shows that the technique requires further refinement. Indeed significant differences have been shown between the Thoroughbred and the Warmblood horses highlighting the need to have baseline data for each breed. The Thoroughbred horses had globally a high oxidative phosphorylation capacity with an increase of CI activity induced by an aerobic training program. [less ▲]

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See detailAn efficient and flexible software tool for genome-wide association interaction studies
Van Lishout, François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Humans are made up of approximately 3.2 billion base pairs, out of which about 62 million can vary from one individual to another. These particular base pairs are called single nucleotide polymorphisms ... [more ▼]

Humans are made up of approximately 3.2 billion base pairs, out of which about 62 million can vary from one individual to another. These particular base pairs are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It is well known that some particular combination of SNP values increase dramatically the risk of contracting certain type of disease, like Crohn's disease, Alzheimer, diabetes and cancer, just to name a few. However, there are still a lot of new discoveries to make and specialized software is required for this task. It has been shown that individual SNPs cannot account for much of the heritability on their own. Therefore, this PhD thesis is dedicated to interaction studies, the purpose of which is to identify pairs of SNPs and/or environmental factors that might regulate the susceptibility to the disease under investigation. Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MB-MDR) is a powerful and flexible methodology to perform interaction analysis, while minimizing the amount of false discoveries. Before this thesis, the only available implementation was an R-package taking days to analyze a dataset composed of just hundred of SNPs. However, a typical dataset contains hundreds of thousands or millions of SNPs, even after data cleaning and quality control. The aim of this thesis is to write a software able to analyze such datasets within a few days with the MB-MDR methodology. In other words, the goal is to get 10^8 times faster than the R-package, while still remaining powerful, flexible and keeping the amount of false discoveries low. Several contributions were needed to reach this goal and are presented in this thesis. First, a new software was written from scratch in C++, in order to be able to optimize every single computation, instead of relying on too generic functions as was the case for the R-package. Second, the methodology itself was improved, irrespective of the programming language. Indeed, MB-MDR is based on the maxT algorithm (introduced by Westfall&Young in 1993) to assess significance of the results and it can be customized for interaction analysis. A first major contribution of this PhD work, called Van Lishout's implementation of maxT, was introduced in 2011. The parallel version of this algorithm enables to analyze a dataset composed of hundred thousands of SNPs within a few days. The most important contribution of this thesis, called the gammaMAXT algorithm, was introduced in 2014. The parallel version enables to analyze a dataset composed of one million SNPs within one day. In this thesis, we also propose a new viewpoint to handle population stratification and correct for covariates. Many simulated and real-life data analysis are provided, to highlight the flexibility of the software and its ability to find interesting results from a biological point of view. The latest version, called mbmdr-4.4.1.out, can be downloaded freely at http://www.statgen.ulg.ac.be with the corresponding documentation. [less ▲]

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See detailRhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 as a bioaugmentation starter: mechanisms, constrains and potentialities for the hydrocarbon degradation
Masy, Thibaut ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Since the advent of the industrial revolution in the 19th century, anthropogenic activities and lack of environmental concern gave birth to numerous contaminated areas. Amongst released pollutants ... [more ▼]

Since the advent of the industrial revolution in the 19th century, anthropogenic activities and lack of environmental concern gave birth to numerous contaminated areas. Amongst released pollutants, hydrocarbons (HC) are the most widespread in the environment but they can also constitute a carbon source for numerous microorganisms. Therefore, bioremediation (i.e. the use of microorganisms to degrade pollutants) appears as an ecologically- and cost-effective technique compared to chemical or physical treatments. This biotreatment technology often relies either on stimulating indigenous microorganisms already present in soil (biostimulation) or on adding specific microbial degraders (bioaugmentation) to enhance the natural attenuation of contaminants. However, there is a need for improved understanding of the causes that can lead to its failure or its low efficiency, such as diverse environmental constraints or poor adaptation ability of laboratory-cultivated microorganisms. Amongst bacteria studied, Rhodococcus sp. has been previously described as a potential candidate for bioaugmentation due to its ability to degrade a broad range of organic pollutants, to produce biosurfactants, which improves pollutant bioavailability, and to rapidly adapt to many environmental stresses (e.g. desiccation, low temperature, high salinity). The main objective of this work is thus to assess the potentiality and limitations in the use of a specific strain, Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1, to degrade HC (from simple n-alkanes to polyaromatic) in diverse field conditions. The factors limiting such a process have to be identified and, as much as possible, overcome. A first bioaugmentation experiment in microcosms aimed at identifying these constrains in carbon and clay-rich soils contaminated with heating oil. This treatment was successful in strongly polluted soil, since the addition of the strain T902.1 helped in redirecting the limited quantity of available oxygen towards a higher HC degradation and also correlated with a higher proportion of degrading genes in bioaugmented soils, compared to biostimulated and control ones. However, this effect decreased with time as T902.1 development was curtailed by competition and potentially predation from the endogenous flora. In addition, HC were heterogeneously distributed and this hampered the detection of a real degradation in lowest polluted soils. As a result, inoculation should be targeted to highly polluted areas (e.g. contaminant source zones), but it requires controlling soil heterogeneity.   We thus resorted to electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), to describe this heterogeneity and to monitor bacterial HC degradation activity. This geophysical tool could discriminate lithological heterogeneities that were artificially introduced in a 2 m³ pilot. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, the introduction of R. erythropolis T902.1 in this pilot led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the injection zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. Simultaneously, HC mineralization and biosurfactant production were deduced from the monitoring of ERT, biological and physicochemical parameters. In another study, R. erythropolis T902.1 could form stable biofilms on the materials constituting draining pavement structures, which allowed its long-term survival in a real parking lot and improved the decontamination of runoff water drained through this structure during pollution tests carried out at a pilot scale. This indicates that the strain could be widely used in other decontaminating systems and not only in soil. Furthermore, this biofilm formation could be triggered by an appropriate pre-adaptation of the cells before their injection in the polluted environment, to ensure a higher ecological robustness of the inoculum, compared to the one observed in the microcosm experiment. A third constrain is the poor or slow degrading activity toward some recalcitrant compounds, such as polyaromatic HC (PAH). Metallic nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel process were considered as potential catalysts for the improvement of degradation kinetics. Iron nanoparticles boosted the bacterial catalytic activity of the strain T902.1 in liquid cultures containing biphenyl as the sole carbon source. Following results suggested that the iron encapsulated in the porous silica matrix, was progressively attracted by siderophores (heterobactins) produced by the strain. However, this hypothesis has still to be confirmed by further analyses. From these experiments, R. erythropolis T902.1 globally proved to compete and improve degradation rates in highly polluted soils compared to biostimulation, even under low oxygen and nutrient contents. Notably, the production of trehalolipidic biosurfactants enhances HC bioavailability for their further uptake by the strain and surrounding microorganisms. Furthermore, this strain forms stable biofilms on several supports, which increases its lifespan and paves the way for many applications in bioremediation systems. Finally, it can also be used in synergy with sol-gel iron nanoparticles to treat recalcitrant compounds such as PAH and some chlorinated aromatics, but this combination needs to be further tested in more complex media, such as soil or waste water. [less ▲]

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