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See detailSatellite Orbits in the Atmosphere: Uncertainty Quantification, Propagation and Optimal Control
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

From the massive international space station to nanosatellites, all space missions share a common principle: orbiting an object requires energy. The greater the satellite's mass, the higher the launch ... [more ▼]

From the massive international space station to nanosatellites, all space missions share a common principle: orbiting an object requires energy. The greater the satellite's mass, the higher the launch cost. In astrodynamics, this translates into the motto ``use whatever you can''. This concept encompasses a broad spectrum of missions, e.g., the Earth's oblateness is exploited for sun-synchronous orbits and the kinetic energy of a planet is used to accomplish fly-by maneuvers. Nowadays, the same paradigm is coming on stream in the context of distributed space systems, where complex missions are envisaged by splitting the workload of a single satellite into multiple agents. Orbital perturbations -- often regarded as disturbances -- can be turned into an opportunity to control the relative motion of the agents in order to reduce or even remove the need for on-board propellant. This thesis is an attempt to combine uncertainty quantification, analytical propagation, and optimal control of satellite trajectories in the atmosphere for effectively and robustly exploiting the aerodynamic force. Specifically, by means of a probabilistic estimation and prediction of the aerodynamic force and an efficient and consistent propagation of low-Earth orbits, a robust reference trajectory for the realization of relative maneuvers between two satellites in a realistic environment can be generated. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of stress field evolution in bimetallic rolling mill rolls during the manufacturing process
Gilles, G.; Neira Torres, I.; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 5th Conference on rolling mill rolls for metals processing Rolls 5 2015 (2015, April 22)

This paper presents a study of the phase transformation histories and stress profiles in a typical bimetallic roll subjected to a post-casting cooling followed by a tempering heat treatment. The ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a study of the phase transformation histories and stress profiles in a typical bimetallic roll subjected to a post-casting cooling followed by a tempering heat treatment. The simulations are performed using the non-linear finite element code "Lagamine" and a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical model able to take into account coupled effects. The sensitivity of the finite element results to some parameters which are not accurately identified is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe pli du dehors et le cri de la raison. Deleuze, le dernier Foucault et le cas Leibniz
Soskin, Jonathan ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 21)

La philosophie de Deleuze, de part en part préoccupée du rapport entre vie et pensée, noue peut-être aussi intimement que le dernier Foucault la constitution d'un soi et une certaine épreuve de la vérité ... [more ▼]

La philosophie de Deleuze, de part en part préoccupée du rapport entre vie et pensée, noue peut-être aussi intimement que le dernier Foucault la constitution d'un soi et une certaine épreuve de la vérité. Cependant, et au-delà de la variété des modalités historiques de cette épreuve repérées par Foucault, nous faisons l'hypothèse que fondamentalement, Deleuze n'entend pas une telle épreuve de la même manière que Foucault. La lecture deleuzienne de Leibniz, parce qu'elle remobilise un cadre conceptuel employé pour commenter Foucault sur un cas singulier d'épreuve subjectivante de la vérité, manifeste exemplairement l'écart, invisible dans l'ouvrage sur Foucault, entre la conception deleuzienne et la conception foucaldienne de cette épreuve. [less ▲]

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See detailAlthusser, Spinoza et la transition éthique
Mancuso, Eva ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 21)

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See detailIntroduction to the relatiosn between Brazil and Africa
Santander, Sébastian ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
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See detailValidation of SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O measurements using the TCCON and NDACC-MUSICA networks
Scheepmaker, R. A.; Frankenberg, C.; Deutscher, N. M. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8(4), 1799-1818

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an updated version of the column-averaged HDO/H2O ratio data set from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The data set is extended with 2 additional years, now covering 2003–2007, and is validated against co-located ground-based total column δD measurements from Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, produced within the framework of the MUSICA project). Even though the time overlap among the available data is not yet ideal, we determined a mean negative bias in SCIAMACHY δD of −35 ± 30‰ compared to TCCON and −69 ± 15‰ compared to MUSICA (the uncertainty indicating the station-to-station standard deviation). The bias shows a latitudinal dependency, being largest (∼ −60 to −80‰) at the highest latitudes and smallest (∼ −20 to −30‰) at the lowest latitudes. We have tested the impact of an offset correction to the SCIAMACHY HDO and H2O columns. This correction leads to a humidity- and latitude-dependent shift in δD and an improvement of the bias by 27‰, although it does not lead to an improved correlation with the FTS measurements nor to a strong reduction of the latitudinal dependency of the bias. The correction might be an improvement for dry, high-altitude areas, such as the Tibetan Plateau and the Andes region. For these areas, however, validation is currently impossible due to a lack of ground stations. The mean standard deviation of single-sounding SCIAMACHY–FTS differences is ∼ 115‰, which is reduced by a factor ∼ 2 when we consider monthly means. When we relax the strict matching of individual measurements and focus on the mean seasonalities using all available FTS data, we find that the correlation coefficients between SCIAMACHY and the FTS networks improve from 0.2 to 0.7–0.8. Certain ground stations show a clear asymmetry in δD during the transition from the dry to the wet season and back, which is also detected by SCIAMACHY. This asymmetry points to a transition in the source region temperature or location of the water vapour and shows the added information that HDO/H2O measurements provide when used in combination with variations in humidity. [less ▲]

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See detailSedimentary impacts of recent moderate earthquakes in different settings in the Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Mortier, Clément; Beck, Christian et al

Poster (2015, April 21)

11 short gravity cores retrieved in the Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece, allowed identifying event deposits whose age ranges were compared to an updated earthquakes catalogue for the area. 210Pb-derived ... [more ▼]

11 short gravity cores retrieved in the Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece, allowed identifying event deposits whose age ranges were compared to an updated earthquakes catalogue for the area. 210Pb-derived age-depth curves show that the majority of the event deposits may have been triggered by earthquakes. These results show that moderate earthquakes (Mw ~6.0-6.5) may significantly impact different marine settings, from shallow shelves (70-100 m deep) to the basin floor (330 m deep). The deepest coring sites show the best possible record, but one major earthquake is missing and the age of one event deposit does not fit with any known earthquake. More cores are needed to check the spatial extent of each deposit and to validate the absence of record of some earthquakes, like the 1995 Aigion earthquake. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Histoire des relations internationales. Du Concert européen au multilatéralisme (1815-1970)
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
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See detailGraded-commutative nonassociative algebras: higher octonions and Krichever-Novikov superalgebras; their structures, combinatorics and non-trivial cocycles.
Kreusch, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

This dissertation consists of two parts. The first one is the study of a series of real (resp. complex) noncommutative and nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ (resp. $\bbO_{n}$) generalizing the algebra ... [more ▼]

This dissertation consists of two parts. The first one is the study of a series of real (resp. complex) noncommutative and nonassociative algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ (resp. $\bbO_{n}$) generalizing the algebra of octonion numbers $\bbO$. This generalization is similar to the one of the algebra of quaternion numbers in Clifford algebras. Introduced by Morier-Genoud and Ovsienko, these algebras have a natural $\bbZ_2^n$-grading ($p+q =n$), and they are characterized by a cubic form over the field $\bbZ_2.$ We establish all the possible isomorphisms between the algebras $\bbO_{p,q}$ preserving the structure of $\bbZ_2^n$-graded algebra. The classification table of $\bbO_{p,q}$ is quite similar to that of the real Clifford algebras $\cC l_{p,q}$, the main difference is that the algebras $\bbO_{n,0}$ and $\bbO_{0,n}$ are exceptional. We also provide a periodicity for the algebras $\bbO_n$ and $\bbO_{p,q}$ analogous to the periodicity for the Clifford algebras $\cC l_{n}$ and $\cC l_{p,q}$. In the second part we consider superalgebras of Krichever-Novikov (K-N) type. Krichever and Novikov introduced a family of Lie algebras with two marked points generalizing the Witt algebra and its central extension called the Virasoro algebra. The K-N Lie (super)algebras for more than two marked points were studied by Schlichenmaier. In particular, he extended the explicit formula of $2$-cocycles due to Krichever and Novikov to multiple-point situation. We give an explicit construction of central extensions of Lie superalgebras of K-N type and we establish a $1$-cocycle with values in its dual space. In the case of Jordan superalgebras related to superalgebras of K-N type, we calculate a 1-cocycle with coefficients in the dual space. [less ▲]

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See detailZinc triggers a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the metal homeostasis gene FRD3 in Arabidopsis relatives
Charlier, Jean_Benoit; Polese, Catherine; Nouet, Cécile ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2015)

In Arabidopsis thaliana, FRD3 (Ferric Chelate Reductase Defective 3) plays a central role in metal homeostasis. FRD3 is among a set of metal homeostasis genes that are constitutively highly expressed in ... [more ▼]

In Arabidopsis thaliana, FRD3 (Ferric Chelate Reductase Defective 3) plays a central role in metal homeostasis. FRD3 is among a set of metal homeostasis genes that are constitutively highly expressed in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis halleri, a zinc hyperaccumulating and hypertolerant species. Here, we examined the regulation of FRD3 by zinc in both species to shed light on the evolutionary processes underlying the evolution of hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. We combined gene expression studies with the use of GUS and GFP reporter constructs to compare the expression profile, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of FRD3 in both species. The AtFRD3 and AhFRD3 genes display a conserved expression profile. In A. thaliana, alternative transcription initiation sites from two promoters determine transcript variants which are differentially regulated by zinc supply in roots and shoots to favour the most highly translated variant under zinc excess conditions. In A. halleri, a single transcript variant with higher transcript stability and enhanced translation has been maintained. The FRD3 gene thus undergoes complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis relatives. Our study reveals that a diverse set of mechanisms underlie increased gene dosage in the A. halleri lineage and illustrates how an environmental challenge can alter gene regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailDoctors, Nurses and Patients 2.0: Myth or Reality?
Slomian, Cynthia ULg

Conference (2015, April 21)

This communication aims at drawing the general context underlying the Belgian health care sector and to address the key issues of the computerization of the patient health records. Two case studies are ... [more ▼]

This communication aims at drawing the general context underlying the Belgian health care sector and to address the key issues of the computerization of the patient health records. Two case studies are presented: the introduction of a nursing health record within a hospital and the computerization of the general practitioner's record. Finally, the discussion focuses on the medical knowledge in general, using the embodied, inscribed, enacted phenomenology developed by Richard Freeman and Steven Sturdy. [less ▲]

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See detailForEstimator
Dedry, Laurent ULg; De Thier, Olivier ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg et al

Software (2015)

ForEstimator est un plugin (une extension) QGIS qui permet d'estimer la hauteur dominante de peuplements résineux en Wallonie.

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (13 ULg)
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See detailNonparametric and bootstrap techniques applied to financial risk modeling
Hambuckers, julien ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

For the purpose of quantifying financial risks, risk managers need to model the behavior of financial variables. However, the construction of such mathematical models is a difficult task that requires ... [more ▼]

For the purpose of quantifying financial risks, risk managers need to model the behavior of financial variables. However, the construction of such mathematical models is a difficult task that requires careful statistical approaches. Among the important choices that must be addressed,we can list the error distribution, the structure of the variance process, the relationship between parameters of interest and explanatory variables. In particular, one may avoid procedures that rely either on too rigid parametric assumptions or on inefficient estimation procedures. In this thesis, we develop statistical procedures that tackle some of these issues, in the context of three financial risk modelling applications. In the first application, we are interested in selecting the error distribution in a multiplicative heteroscedastic model without relying on a parametric volatility assumption. To avoid this uncertainty, we develop a set of model estimation and selection tests relying on nonparametric volatility estimators and focusing on the tails of the distribution. We illustrate this technique on UBS, BOVESPA and EUR/USD daily stock returns. In the second application, we are concerned by modeling the tail of the operational losses severity distribution, conditionally to several covariates. We develop a flexible conditional GPD model, where the shape parameter is an unspecified link function (nonparametric part) of a linear combination of covariates (single index part), avoiding the curse of dimensionality. We apply successfully this technique on two original databases, using macroeconomic and firm-specific variables as covariates. In the last application, we provide an efficient way to estimate the predictive ability of trading algorithms. Instead of relying on subjective and noisy sample splitting techniques, we propose an adaptation of the .632 bootstrap technique to the time series context. We apply these techniques on stock prices to compare 12,000 trading rules parametrizations and show that none can beat a simple buy-and-hold strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotochemical generation of reactive oxygen species using plasmonic nanoparticles
Lismont, Marjorie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

During his lecture entitled “ There is plenty of room at the bottom ”, Richard Feyn- man foresaw the possibility of manipulating material at the scale of individual atoms and molecules. Although Feynman’s ... [more ▼]

During his lecture entitled “ There is plenty of room at the bottom ”, Richard Feyn- man foresaw the possibility of manipulating material at the scale of individual atoms and molecules. Although Feynman’s conceptual idea of a nanoworld was evoked in 1959, the nanoscience and nanotechnology revolution began 30 years later with the ability to see at the atomic scale with the invention of electronic microscopy and related tools. The size range that has attracted so much attention over these last 30 years is typically from 100 nanometers down to the atomic level. Subsequently, nanomaterials were defined as materials, which have structured components with at least one dimension in this size range. For instance, material with three nanometric dimensions defines a nanoparticle. Among the variety of core materials available to synthesize nanoparticles, noble metal nanoparticles, i.e. gold and silver, have fascinated people for centuries owing to their bright and intense colors, used in particular as decorative pigments in cathedral stained glasses and artworks. The red and yellow colors displayed by gold and silver nanoparti- cles arise from their interaction with light, which one induces collective oscillations of free electrons at the nanoparticle surface in resonance with the light field. This phenomenon is commonly known as the localized surface plasmon resonance. Their remarkable optical properties and the intense electric field generated by plasmonics nanoparticles have brought these nanomaterials in the forefront of nanotechnology research, ranging from photonics to medicine. Shining light on plasmonic nanoparticles to push back limitations of light-activated therapy and so taking part to the societal challenge of cancer treatment improvement defines the global framework of the thesis. Falling within the nanomedicine topic, this one more precisely deals with the development of efficient plasmonic nano-drugs using light to cure diseases. Clearly, nanoplasmonics, which explores how electromagnetic field can be confined over dimension on the order or smaller than the wavelength of light, has come a long way since the stained glass of Roman times. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyphosphate-based amphiphilic copolymers: synthesis and application to drug nanocarriers
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery systems. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications, especially for drug delivery systems. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(lactide), the pentavalency of phosphorus atom allows the easy modification of the polyphosphate properties by simply adjusting the nature, the length and the functionality of the polyphosphate pendants groups. The goal of this thesis focused on the design of drug nanocarriers based on amphiphilic block copolymer micelles well-suited for the encapsulation of poorly soluble drugs. For that purpose, novel diblock copolymers composed of a water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide) block and a polyphosphate block bearing a variety of alkyl side-groups were synthesized. Firstly, n- butyl, i-butyl and n-heptyl cyclic phosphate monomers were synthesized and used for the organo-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization providing a range of PEO-b-polyphosphate amphiphilic copolymers varying by the architecture and length of the polyphosphate pendant group. Then, post-polymerization thiol-ene click reactions on preformed PEO-b- polybutenylphosphate copolymer was used to graft dodecyl or tocopherol side-chains on the polyphosphate block.The micellization of these amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous medium was then investigated and a comparative study of the encapsulation and release of a poorly soluble model drug, i.e. ketoconazole, was carried out. Ultimately, the synthesis of a triblock copolymer was investigated to prepare shell- crosslinked core-shell-corona micelles to improve the nanoparticles stability. [less ▲]

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See detailThalamic and extrathalamic mechanisms of consciousness after severe brain injury.
Lutkenhoff, Evan; Chiang, Jeffrey; TSHIBANDA, Luaba ULg et al

in Annals of Neurology (2015)

Abstract OBJECTIVE: What mechanisms underlie the loss and recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? We sought to establish, in the largest cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness ... [more ▼]

Abstract OBJECTIVE: What mechanisms underlie the loss and recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? We sought to establish, in the largest cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) to date, the link between gold standard clinical measures of awareness and wakefulness, and specific patterns of local brain pathology-thereby possibly providing a mechanistic framework for patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment development. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected, in a continuous sample of 143 severely brain-injured patients with DOC (and 96 volunteers), across 2 tertiary expert centers. Brain atrophy in subcortical regions (bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, basal forebrain, and brainstem) was assessed across (1) healthy volunteers and patients, (2) clinical entities (eg, vegetative state, minimally conscious state), (3) clinical measures of consciousness (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised), and (4) injury etiology. RESULTS: Compared to volunteers, patients exhibited significant atrophy across all structures (p < 0.05, corrected). Strikingly, we found almost no significant differences across clinical entities. Nonetheless, the clinical measures of awareness and wakefulness upon which differential diagnosis rely were systematically associated with tissue atrophy within thalamic and basal ganglia nuclei, respectively; the basal forebrain was atrophied in proportion to patients' response to sensory stimulation. In addition, nontraumatic injuries exhibited more extensive thalamic atrophy. INTERPRETATION: These findings provide, for the first time, a grounding in pathology for gold standard behavior-based clinical measures of consciousness, and reframe our current models of DOC by stressing the different links tying thalamic mechanisms to willful behavior and extrathalamic mechanisms to behavioral (and electrocortical) arousal. Ann Neurol 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailThe System for Adressing Personal Problems-From medicalisation to Socialisation: Shifts in Belgian Psychiatric and Mental Health Institutions
Thunus, Sophie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

My PhD thesis related the growth of a large social system devoted to the treatment of personal problems; i.e. problems successively labelled as madness, mental illness and mental health problems, from the ... [more ▼]

My PhD thesis related the growth of a large social system devoted to the treatment of personal problems; i.e. problems successively labelled as madness, mental illness and mental health problems, from the early fifties to the present days. That system involved heterogeneous networks of actors, including scientific experts, established professions, social movements, policy makers, services users and international organisations; instruments and knowledge ranging from psychoanalytical theories to biological knowledge and models of governance. It meant to explain how institutional change happened in that complex social system, by studying past and ongoing reforms, considered as interrelated steps towards complete paradigm shift, including shifting policy means, policy objectives and social organisation. By relying on in-depth analyses of five past reforms, it conceptualised the system as composed of interrelated ecologies, corresponding to different kinds of knowledge of personal problems, whose development was directed by protective and expansion strategies used by two coalitions of actors, holding different kinds of resources to influence the change process. The traditional coalition was embedded in the Belgian institutional system; it referred to medical knowledge of personal problems; and held many institutions delivering residential treatments. By contrast, the reformist coalition was connected to international professional and policy networks stimulating change in OECD-mental health systems; it referred to practical knowledge of social psychiatry and evidence produced by international organisations as the World Health Organisation; and it held non-profit associations delivering community treatments. Cross-regulations exerted through joint-participation of those coalitions in successive reforms caused rapid changes in the system’s structural configuration while hindering change in its social organisation. Thus, we suggested thinking of the issue of change in the system as consisting in setting conditions in which the reformist coalition might extensively use its resources in conducting a new reform starting in 2010. By relying on that assumption, I presented three case studies analysing the devising of that reform at the policy level and its implementing through local networks. Those case studies drew attention to the kinds of knowledge used by key actors and to the way in which they used it in joint-attempts to take the leadership of the reform. Three main findings resulted from those case studies. First, the designing of the policy guide framing the reform consisted in assembling different kinds of knowledge together, including policy learning achieved through past changes in the system and knowledge of alternative care models implemented in OECD-countries, in a way that encouraged sustained enactments of knowledge specific to the reformist coalition, while decreasing the relevance of resources specific to the traditional coalition. Second, local meetings caused by the implementing of the reform enabled adaptations of knowledge embodied by the participants, i.e. multiple actors representing different ecologies and members of one of the two coalitions, to enacted knowledge, i.e. knowledge collectively produced by thinking about concrete means to implement the reform locally. Third, enacted knowledge caused, in turn, adaptations of the care model inscribed in the policy guide to local particularities. Those adaptations did not prevent, however, the global philosophy of the new reform, inspired by social psychiatry, from pervading in local networks, among other by being inscribed in operational documents resulting from meetings. Thus, by following the policy guide through local networks where it was translated into concrete practices, I have been able to indicate new directions in the global process of change in the system, towards a complete paradigm shift, from medical to social psychiatry, and to highlight social and learning processes making it possible. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamik und Reaktions-Technik am Beispiel PA12
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Haas, Thomas

Conference (2015, April 18)

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See detailBrazil’s South South Cooperation with Africa : a win win Relationship ? The case of biofuel production in Mozambique
Cusson, Gabrielle ULg

Conference (2015, April 18)

Since Lula’s presidency, South-South development cooperation (SSDC) has been at the heart of Brazil foreign policy priorities. Brazil is now recognized as an emerging actor in international development ... [more ▼]

Since Lula’s presidency, South-South development cooperation (SSDC) has been at the heart of Brazil foreign policy priorities. Brazil is now recognized as an emerging actor in international development cooperation considering its financial investments and the deployment of its many technical cooperation projects. Despite its cooperation in its own region, Brazil mobilizes a considerable amount of resources towards SSDC in Africa, and especially in Portuguese speaking countries, where it develops a “solidarity diplomacy”. Among the many technical cooperation partnerships, two fields of SSDS are considered as priorities for Brazil in Africa; agriculture and biofuels production. Being one of the world most important agricultural producer and exporter and due to the fast growing of its agribusiness industry, Brazil possess a specific expertise he wishes to share with Africa to support its agricultural revolution and to insure its food and energy security. Therefore, Mozambique has been identified as a privileged partner to develop agricultural projects, including biofuels production. Among others, ProSAVANA, a trilateral cooperation project developed in collaboration with Japan, is a very important, but controversial project. Being an emerging country, Brazil has its own strategic, political and commercial interests. Therefore, it is relevant to ask ourselves if an emerging country can deploy a selfless SSDC policy and establish a win win relationship? Is Brazil’s SSDC policy motivated by principles of solidarity or is more of a tool to consolidate its status as a global power? This papers wishes to analyses the real motivations behind Brazil’s SSDC towards Africa. [less ▲]

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