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See detailHistoire politique de la construction européenne
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULiege

Learning material (2018)

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See detailCerveau et conscience
Cassol, Helena ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailVLTI/GRAVITY observations of the young star beta Pictoris
Defrere, Denis ULiege

in Proceedings of the SF2A symposium (2018, January 15)

The nearby young star beta Pictoris is surrounded by the archetypal debris disc, which provides a unique window on the formation and early evolution of terrestrial planets. While the outer disc has been ... [more ▼]

The nearby young star beta Pictoris is surrounded by the archetypal debris disc, which provides a unique window on the formation and early evolution of terrestrial planets. While the outer disc has been extensively studied since its discovery in 1984, very little is currently known about the inner planetary system (<4AU). Recently, accurate squared visibilities obtained with VLTI/PIONIER revealed the presence of resolved circumstellar emission with an integrated brightness amounting to approximately 1.4% of the stellar brightness in H band. However, it is not clear whether this excess emission originates from thermal emission, reflected light from hot dust grains located in the innermost regions of the planetary system, or is simply due to forward scattering by dust grains located further away (but still within the PIONIER field-of-view, i.e., close to the line of sight). In this paper, we present medium-resolution K-band observations of beta Pic obtained with VLTI/GRAVITY during science verification. The goals of these observations are to better constrain the temperature of the grains (and hence their location and chemical composition) and to showcase the high-precision capabilities of GRAVITY at detecting faint, close-in circumstellar emission. [less ▲]

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See detailReport to the VDGM group. Qualitative analysis of the communications to the WONCA group Vasco De Gama annual meeting 2018, Porto, Portugal.
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege

Report (2018)

Background: Past and current General Practice/ Family Medicine (GP/FM) meeting data is often lost. Or, when available, it is not managed in a proper way, making the retrieval of specific abstracts ... [more ▼]

Background: Past and current General Practice/ Family Medicine (GP/FM) meeting data is often lost. Or, when available, it is not managed in a proper way, making the retrieval of specific abstracts difficult. We argue that GP/FM suffers from a deficit of knowledge management (KM) which hinders the visibility as a scientific corpus. Aim: Qualitative analysis of the 97 communications (including keynotes) exchanged during the 2018 congress of the WONCA Vasco De Gama group. Methods : The analysis is performed with the software ATLAS.ti by an unique researcher, using the Core Content Classification of General Practice (3CGP) as an indexing system. The main domains of interest and the preoccupation of the participaning General Practitioners (GPs) have been examined, identified and coded using 3CGP, a mix of the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) and Q-Codes, a new classification of contextual features in General Practice / Family Medicine. Results: The full database of communications is presented with the results of the coding process. The 97 communications allow one to identify 380 coding with 119 different Q-Codes and 102 coding with 79 ICPC-2 codes. Discussion: The purpose of this study is to identify areas of interest for physicians presenting at the VDGM 2018 Annual Conference. For comparison purposes, four 3CGP coded congresses are available. Various relations between communications, quotations and codes are presented and analyzed. Conclusion: Qualitative techniques give a new visibility to young GPs’ domains of interest. We hope to open a new era of Knowledge Management of the productions of GPs, by giving a better visibility to the intensive and extensive responsibilities of GPs in Primary Care. We also hope, through this study, to make young GPs proud of the work they have done and open new horizons to them. [less ▲]

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See detailDall'edizione all'interpretazione: quale uso per la Storia digitale?
Miesse, Hélène ULiege

Conference (2018, January 15)

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See detailFreezing: An ethnography of crisis reporters
Kotisova, Johana ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2018)

RÉSUMÉ La thèse examine la composition technologique des émotions des journalistes face à une situation de crise. Les émotions liées au travail des journalistes sont au cœur du paradoxe posé, d’une part ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ La thèse examine la composition technologique des émotions des journalistes face à une situation de crise. Les émotions liées au travail des journalistes sont au cœur du paradoxe posé, d’une part, par un engagement journalistique traditionnellement en faveur de l'objectivité - celle-ci étant entendue comme une forme de détachement, de neutralité et d'impartialité – et, d’autre part, une obligation morale d'action face à la souffrance humaine. Il s'en suit que les émotions des journalistes face à une situation de crise constituent un élément crucial de notre compréhension des pratiques journalistiques et de leurs conséquences en temps de crise. En s'appuyant sur les notions de 'crise', 'émotion' et 'technologie', j'aborde les questions suivantes : Que signifie la notion de 'crise' dans le rapport du journaliste à la crise ? Quelle est l'expérience émotionnelle d'un journaliste travaillant sur un lieu de crise ? Comment la technologie façonne-t-elle l'expérience émotionnelle de la crise par le journaliste ? Mon itinéraire de recherche se veut résolument opportuniste et se base sur une enquête ethnographique multi-sites consistant principalement en un travail d'observation participante (cinq mois dans trois salles de rédactions de trois médias tchèques) et en trente-trois entretiens approfondis avec de 'grands reporters' tchèques et belges (c’est-à-dire avec des journalistes envoyés sur le terrain de certaines attaques terroristes, guerres, catastrophes naturelles et autres situations de crise). L'analyse démontre comment la présence directe ou médiatisée sur le terrain de crise provoque des sentiments de tristesse, d'indignation, de pitié, de colère, de peur, de stress, de tension, de compassion, d'effroi et d'épuisement. Toutefois, ces émotions sont supprimées ou réprimées. Le fait de devoir rapporter régulièrement sur des événements perturbants ou de témoigner de la douleur proche ou lointaine peut aboutir à la formation de styles émotionnels spécifiques. Parmi ceux-ci, le cynisme occupe une éminente position. Les émotions des journalistes sont liées de façon inaliénable aux caractéristiques intrinsèques de leur profession, mais aussi aux situations de crise et à la l’industrie journalistique, c’est-à-dire à l'ensemble de techniques de production, aux techniques de systèmes de signes, aux techniques de pouvoir et aux techniques de soi. En même temps, la prise en compte de ces émotions entre en tension avec la conception traditionnelle du journaliste professionnel ‘observateur plutôt qu'acteur’ dont l'objectivité constituerait un pilier majeur de professionnalisme. Fondée sur l’analyse des discours à partir desquels les journalistes interprètent (« make sense ») leur développement émotionnel, la thèse questionne également le sens des notions de 'crise', 'émotion' et 'technologie' dans le contexte spécifique du journalisme en situation de crise. La crise est ainsi redéfinie comme une source de propagation de l'idéologie cynique ; l'émotion comme une sensation non-individuelle et non-intime d’individualisation des problèmes sociaux ; et la technologie comme appui permettant la manipulation de toutes les formes de vie. Ces trois redéfinitions permettent ensuite d’entreprendre une analyse critique de l'idéologie professionnelle des journalistes ainsi que de la critique de l'inaction des institutions, médiatiques notamment. Je propose enfin de reconnaitre et d’encourager l'engagement émotionnel (explicite) des journalistes et de redéfinir la notion d'objectivité comme une pratique éthique plutôt qu'une norme objectiviste. Ceci contribuerait en effet à réduire de la dissonance émotionnelle des journalistes et à dépasser le cynisme caractéristique des organisations médiatiques et de leur travail. La thèse, rédigée sous forme de récit, livre, selon une trame narrative fictionnelle, un exposé du matériau empiriquement collecté. Cette forme d'écriture (« créative nonfiction ») remplit cinq fonctions qualifiées d’illustrative, allégorique, organisatrice, effective et auto-réflexive. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-créer, pour quoi ? Justifications et imaginaires socio-techniques sous-tendant une nouvelle vague de participation en sciences et technologies
Macq, Hadrien ULiege

Conference (2018, January 12)

Les dernières années ont vu une évolution notable des formes de participation publique dans les domaines liés aux sciences et aux technologies. En effet, les années 1970 à 2000 ont vu l’émergence de ... [more ▼]

Les dernières années ont vu une évolution notable des formes de participation publique dans les domaines liés aux sciences et aux technologies. En effet, les années 1970 à 2000 ont vu l’émergence de dispositifs participatifs, souvent empreints d’un idéal délibératif, visant à inclure une multiplicité de « publics » dans des processus de prise de décision. De nos jours, cependant, se développent un ensemble de pratiques d’inclusion de publics dans la production de savoir et d’innovation. Ces pratiques, regroupées sous le label de « co-création », sont fréquemment analysées dans la littérature scientifique sous l’angle de leur contribution à la production de savoirs valides, ou d’innovations plus acceptables, voire plus responsables. L’objectif de cette communication est de les analyser en tant que pratiques de participation publique, performatrices de constructions politiques. Cette communication analyse dès lors les justifications mises en avant par les autorités publiques pour appuyer la promotion des pratiques de co-création dans deux contextes socio-politiques : la Commission Européenne et la Région Wallonne. L’analyse des justifications permet de connecter ces pratiques aux espaces plus larges, notamment institutionnels, dans lesquelles elles sont promues et de les lier aux imaginaires dans lesquels elles s’inscrivent et qui témoignent d’une vision particulière de la relation entre science, technologie et société. [less ▲]

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See detailFEMxDEM multiscale modeling: model performance enhancement, from Newton strategy to element loop parallelization
Argilaga, Albert ULiege; Desrues, Jacquees; Dal Pont, Stefano et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2018)

This paper presents a multiscale model based on a FEM×DEM approach, a method that couples discrete elements at the microscale and finite elements at the macroscale. FEM×DEM has proven to be an effective ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a multiscale model based on a FEM×DEM approach, a method that couples discrete elements at the microscale and finite elements at the macroscale. FEM×DEM has proven to be an effective way to treat real-scale engineering problems by embedding constitutive laws numerically obtained using discrete elements into a standard finite element framework. This proposed paper focuses on some numerical open issues of the method. Given the nonlinearity of the problem, Newton's method is required. The standard full Newton method is modified by adopting operators different from the consistent tangent matrix and by developing ad-hoc solution strategies. The efficiency of several existing operators is compared, and a new and original strategy is proposed, which is shown to be numerically more efficient than the existing propositions. Furthermore, a shared memory parallelization framework using OpenMP directives is introduced. The combination of these enhancements allows to overcome the FEM×DEM computational limitations, thus making the approach competitive with classical FEM in terms of stability and computational cost. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Book Market between France and the Low Countries in the 16th Century
Adam, Renaud ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

The invention of the printing press by Gutenberg in the mid-fifteenth century is one of the most important technical advances in history. It had a profound impact on European civilization and gave birth ... [more ▼]

The invention of the printing press by Gutenberg in the mid-fifteenth century is one of the most important technical advances in history. It had a profound impact on European civilization and gave birth to the first great “media revolution”. The immediate effect was to multiply the amount of books in circulation and to reduce their cost. The Gutenberg revolution carried the European book market to a new level. Booksellers had to deal with multiple hundreds of copies, not rather than in single copies as at the manuscript age. The name of Gutenberg would not have been associated with the invention of western modernity without the action of these bookmen. Until now, researches on the early history of printed books have been mainly focused on the world of printers, the production of books and on lectors and their reading practices. The intermediate level of the book industry has remained more or less neglected. However, some recent works have highlighted the fact that the engine and the frame of the Gutenberg revolution lied precisely in the structures and the evolution of book diffusion. My conference will focus on the trade relations between France and the Low Countries which have never been the subject of systematic analysis. This is not only a chapter of economic history; it is also an accurate point of view to think about the most fundamental cultural trajectories. My ambition is to present some cultural exchanges from France to the Low Countries through the study of the circulation of books between these two territories. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Typology of Business Models in the Biotechnology Industry
Segers, Jean Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone business models opposed to open or networked business models. A number of illustrative case studies and good practices are presented to show that new biotechnology firms are gradually adopting a “best of both worlds” strategy, with both closed business models and open, networked models as a way for gaining access to the market, in close collaboration with large global pharmaceutical companies. The case firms and good practices are taken from a recent country study for Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomics, Metagenomics and Phylogenomics of Cyanobacteria
Cornet, Luc ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2018)

This PhD thesis concerns the genomics, metagenomics and phylogenomics of Cyanobacteria. It is composed of five main parts, of which four are result manuscripts. In the first part (i.e., Introduction), I ... [more ▼]

This PhD thesis concerns the genomics, metagenomics and phylogenomics of Cyanobacteria. It is composed of five main parts, of which four are result manuscripts. In the first part (i.e., Introduction), I review a decade of cyanobacterial phylogeny and molecular dating. I show that, in spite of a considerable literature, the global topology of the cyanobacterial tree is incongruent across 9 of the 12 recent studies. I also raise the issue that cyanobacterial datings are all based on ambiguous fossils, since no genomic data are available for unambiguous fossil calibration points. The second part deals with the problem of public genome contamination. I analyzed 440 genomes of Cyanobacteria with a consensus approach of five methods (two based on ribosomal genes and three based on complete genome analysis), and determined that >5% cyanobacterial genomes are contaminated by foreign DNA. The next two parts are metagenomic analyses. The first metagenomic study is a pipeline for properly assembling complete genomes from non-axenic cultures. To this end, I used 17 cyanobacterial cultures from the BCCM/ULC collection of the ULiège and assembled metagenomic reads into 15 genomes with a very low level of contaminants and a high level of completeness. The second metagenomic study deals with the new field of phylometagenomics. Hence, I developed a new syntenic algorithm designed for metagenomes in mind, and applied it to the study of lichenized Cyanobacteria. I found 90 syntenic and collinear genes shared between 28 Nostocales genomes, including 12 new photobiont metagenomes. The subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed a relatively high level of congruence among these genes. Finally, the last part of the thesis is a large constrained SSU rRNA (16S) tree intended to serve as a guide in organism selection for future sequencing projects. It revealed 31 clusters of Cyanobacteria that are completely devoid of representative genomes (<0.1%). Altogether, the results of this PhD work lay the ground for a better phylogenomic study of the Cyanobacteria, taking advantage of new key organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité et sécurité des soins au travers des enregistrements légaux
THONON, Olivier ULiege; NINANE, Françoise

Conference (2018, January 10)

OBJECTIFS D'APPRENTISSAGE : - Évaluation d’un niveau de preuve des interventions infirmières. - Prédiction du caractère inopportun des séjours à l’hôpital.

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See detailCrise et Adolescence: point de vue du pédopsychiatre
SIMON, Michaël ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailActualités en HTA pendant l'année 2017
XHIGNESSE, Patricia ULiege; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege

Conference (2018, January 09)

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See detailCritical review of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications in the pharmaceutical field
Cailletaud, Johan ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Dumont, Elodie ULiege et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2018), 147

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive analytical tool used in the pharmaceutical field in recent years. SERS keeps all the advantages of classical Raman spectroscopy while being is ... [more ▼]

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive analytical tool used in the pharmaceutical field in recent years. SERS keeps all the advantages of classical Raman spectroscopy while being is more sensitive allowing its use for the detection and the quantification of low-dose substances contained in pharmaceutical samples. However, the analytical performance of SERS is limited due to the difficulty to implement a quantitative methodology correctly validated. Nevertheless, some studies reported the development of SERS quantitative methods especially in pharmaceutical approaches. In this context, this review presents the main concepts of the SERS technique. The different steps that need to be applied to develop a SERS quantitative method are also deeply described. The last part of the present manuscript gives a critical overview of the different SERS pharmaceutical applications that were developed for a non-exhaustive list of pharmaceutical compounds with the aim to highlights the validation criteria for each application. [less ▲]

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See detailAn ortholog of CURLY LEAF/ENHANCER OF ZESTE like-1 is required for proper flowering in Brachypodium distachyon
Lomax, A.; Woods, D.P.; Dong, Y. et al

in Plant Journal (The) (2018)

Many plants require prolonged cold exposure to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization ... [more ▼]

Many plants require prolonged cold exposure to acquire the competence to flower. The process by which cold exposure results in competence is known as vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, vernalization leads to the stable repression of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C via chromatin modification including an increase of trimethylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). Vernalization in pooids is associated with the stable induction of a floral promoter, VERNALIZATION 1. From a screen for mutants with a reduced vernalization requirement in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, we identified two recessive alleles of ENHANCER OF ZESTE-LIKE 1 (EZL1). EZL1 is orthologous to Arabidopsis CURLY LEAF 1, a gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of PRC2. B. distachyon ezl1 mutants flower rapidly without vernalization in long-day (LD) photoperiods; thus, EZL1 is required for proper maintenance of the vegetative state prior to vernalization. Transcriptomic studies in ezl1 revealed mis-regulation of thousands of genes including ectopic expression of several floral homeotic genes in leaves. Loss of EZL1 results in the global reduction of H3K27me3 and H3K27me2, consistent with this gene making a major contribution to PRC2 activity in B. distachyon. Furthermore, in ezl1 mutants, the flowering genes VRN1 and AGAMOUS (AG) are ectopically expressed and have reduced H3K27me3. Artificial microRNA knockdown of either VRN1 or AG in ezl1-1 mutants partially restores wild-type flowering behavior in non-vernalized plants suggesting that ectopic expression in ezl1 mutants may contribute to the rapid-flowering phenotype. [less ▲]

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See detailLASER CLAD HIGH SPEED STEEL THICK DEPOSITS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE LOCAL THERMAL HISTORY, THE MICROSTRUCTURES AND THE WEAR MECHANISMS
Mertens, Anne ULiege; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULiege; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULiege et al

Conference (2018, January 04)

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their ... [more ▼]

Thick High Speed Steel (HSS) coatings are Fe-Cr-C-based alloys that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications including machining and cutting, hot stamping and hot strip mills, thanks to their complex microstructure containing very hard carbides as e.g. V-rich MC, Mo- or W-rich M2C, Cr-rich M7C3 or M3C. Direct laser deposition, also known as laser cladding, has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the production and repair of such thick coatings. Indeed, the very high cooling and solidification rates imposed by laser cladding result in strongly refined out-of-equilibrium microstructures and potentially enhanced wear resistance. However, the progressive accumulation of heat in the deposit during fabrication leads to variations of the thermal history as a function of position inside the build, resulting in turn into local variations of microstructure and wear properties. Consequently, this work aims to investigate the correlations between the local thermal history, the microstructures and the wear mechanisms of three HSS grades with varying contents of V, Mo and W so as to vary the type, size, morphology and amounts of the hard carbides. In a first step, 2D finite element simulations compute the thermal field during the direct laser deposition of 20 mm thick HSS coatings (a similar FE approach [Tran 2017] has already been published by the group on Ti alloy). The validated thermal history yields a deeper understanding of the microstructure generated as a function of the position inside the deposits. In a second step, the wear behaviour of the deposits is characterised at two different depths (i.e. at 2 mm from the free surface or at 2/3 of the total height) and for two constant test temperatures (i.e. room temperature [Hashemi 2017] and 300°C) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. In analysing the results of these tests, a particular attention was given to the role of the various carbides – including their type, morphology, hardness and failure mode – in determining the wear mechanisms of laser clad HSS deposits at the two tested temperatures. REFERENCES: Tran H.S., Tchuindjang J.T., Paydas H., Mertens A., Jardin R.T., Duchene L., Carrus R., Lecomte-Beckers J. and Habraken A., 2017, “3D thermal finite element analysis of laser cladding processed Ti-6Al-4V part with microstructural correlations” Mater. Des. 128, 130. Hashemi N., Mertens A., Montrieux H.-M., Tchuindjang J.T., Dedry O., Carrus R. and Lecomte-Beckers J., 2017, “Oxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: Influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology” Surf. Coat. Technol. 315, 519 [less ▲]

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See detailThromboelastometry in trauma care: a place in the 2018 Belgian health care system?
TONGLET, Martin ULiege; Poplavsky, Jean Louis; SEIDEL, Laurence ULiege et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2018)

Introduction Evidence supporting the use of Thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometric (ROTEM®) in the trauma setting remains limited. We present the results of a practical evaluation ... [more ▼]

Introduction Evidence supporting the use of Thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometric (ROTEM®) in the trauma setting remains limited. We present the results of a practical evaluation of the potential interest of ROTEM® in the diagnosis of acute coagulopathy and the need for emergent blood product transfusion in the general trauma population of a non-trauma Belgian emergency department. Methods Extracting a convenience cohort from the initial prospective TICCS study, we performed a retrospective analysis to test the following hypothesis: ROTEM® might be helpful to discriminate trauma patients with or without acute coagulopathy. Fifty patients were included and ROTEM® results were compared to conventional coagulation tests results, blood transfusion need and outcome. Results With a negative predictive value of 97.6% and a positive predictive value of 42.9%, a strictly normal ROTEM® profile at the time of admission seems to be able to exclude the presence of acute coagulopathy. ROTEM® also seems to be accurate in identifying patients without the need for emergent blood product transfusions. Conclusion In a population of trauma patients of a Belgian general emergency department, a strictly normal coagulation profile evaluated by ROTEM® at hospital entry is associated with a normal coagulation profile evaluated by INR and fibrinogen levels and the absence of any indication of blood product transfusion. ROTEM® may be useful for preselection of trauma patients at risk for coagulopathy within the global trauma population. This, however, would need confirmation in further investigations. [less ▲]

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