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See detailControlling factors and occurrence of inorganic and organic compounds in groundwater of urban and industrial areas
Gesels, Julie ULg; Dollé, Fabien ULg; Leclercq, Julie et al

Conference (2015, September)

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to ... [more ▼]

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to contaminated sites. More specifically, the most detected inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants are identified and their levels of occurrence are described statistically. Mechanisms that can explain their occurrence in groundwater are discussed. From a more pragmatic point of view, the data set has been also used to derive upper limits of pollutant background concentrations to be used in decision-making related to the management of contaminated groundwater in urban and industrial environments. The results presented are based on 243 samples from 8 sectors located in different geological contexts and different urban and industrial contexts. Each groundwater sample was analyzed for 19 inorganic trace elements, 61 organic micro-pollutants and 10 major and minor elements. Five physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field, at the time of sampling to determine the environmental conditions prevailing in groundwater. For comparison, existing groundwater analyses in natural context, available for the entire Walloon Region, were compiled from several databases. Cumulative distribution function plots allow comparing the distributions of inorganic trace elements in urban and industrial sectors to those obtained at the scale of the entire Walloon region. Cumulative distribution function plots are also used to compare the distribution of the inorganic trace elements in the different lithologies, in urban and industrial contexts. The composition of groundwater is altered in urban and industrial sectors with increased concentrations for most inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants. Anthropogenic influence is not limited to inputs of pollutants but also to alterations of subsurface environmental conditions, in particular redox conditions, resulting in the mobilization of pollutants. The influence of lithology is also marked in the data set. [less ▲]

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See detailA new hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers
Willems, Thibault ULg; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Renard, Philippe et al

Conference (2015, September)

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers ... [more ▼]

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers, namely the Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell (HFEMC) method, is evaluated. The hybrid approach consists in combining a classical finite element (FE) model, to model slow flow in the rock matrix, with spatially distributed lumped reservoirs, to model fast flow in the karst conduits network. Water exchanges between the rock matrix and the conduits network are accounted for by means of an internal Fourier boundary conditions (BC). This BC (1st order exchange relation) allows to control the magnitude of water transfers between fast and slow flow domains. We tested the applicability of the HFEMC method on a schematic synthetic domain and on a real karst system. In the synthetic case analysis, we discussed dynamic processes of groundwater storage occurring in the karst system during a recharge pulse. The study focuses on the influence of selected parameters on representative variables such as the discharge curve of the karst system or pressure and mass transfers between conduits and rock matrix sub-domains. In this way, an inversion of the hydraulic gradient between karst conduits and the surrounding rock matrix is shown to occur during the recharge pulse. This phenomenon results in a temporary storage of water from conduits to the rock matrix, which impacts the modelled discharge curve. The first test performed on a real study site, the Noiraigue spring karst system (Jura mountains, Switzerland), exemplify the use of two separated lumped reservoirs for describing the conduits network, which allows to consider two base levels in the karst system. It also points out the challenges to face when modelling a complex natural karst system with the HFEMC approach. The results obtained show that the HFEMC approach is a good candidate to model groundwater flow in karst aquifers. [less ▲]

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See detailGalland épigraphiste et philologue classique
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Bauden, Frédéric; Waller, Richard (Eds.) Actes du Colloque "Antoine Galland (1646-1715) : orientaliste, antiquaire, numismate, humaniste" (2015, September)

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See detailCoupled modeling of Excavation Damaged Zone in Boom clay: Strain localization in rock and distribution of contact pressure on the gallery’s lining
Salehnia, Fatemeh ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Li, Xiang Ling et al

in Computers and Geotechnics (2015), 69

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for ... [more ▼]

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive waste, the resulting change in the host rock properties in this damaged zone may potentially be important with respect to the long-term evolution and the performance of that system. In this context, predicting the extent of the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and, possibly, the fractures' network topology remains a challenge. This study is aimed to simulate numerically the extension of this zone at the large scale's excavation, around the Connecting gallery (HADES URL, Mol, Belgium), in Boom clay host rock through analyzing the evolution of strain localization in shear bands mode. To realistically model the involved phenomena, the concrete lining is considered on the gallery wall highlighting its impacts on the evolution of convergence and EDZ around the gallery. The focus of the current paper is made on analyzing the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of Boom clay host rock during and after the gallery excavation with respect to the evolution of localized shear bands around the gallery. This study is accompanied by the analysis of the contact mechanism on the interface between the clay massive and the lining. The obtained results reveal some interesting features regarding the contact phenomenon relatively to the evolution pattern of shear bands within the clay around the gallery. To assess the reliability of the proposed approach, a discussion on some in-situ observations during the gallery's construction is also performed based on which a good agreement is found between the in-situ evidence and simulated results. [less ▲]

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See detailLes valeurs et les valorisations des images
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Biglari, Amir; Lopes, Iva (Eds.) Valeurs. Aux fondements de la sémiotique (2015)

Cet article vise à explorer la manière dont la sémiotique greimassienne a traité la question des valeurs dans le cadre de l’image, notamment photographique et artistique. Après une relecture critique de ... [more ▼]

Cet article vise à explorer la manière dont la sémiotique greimassienne a traité la question des valeurs dans le cadre de l’image, notamment photographique et artistique. Après une relecture critique de l’ouvrage de Jean-Marie Floch, Les formes de l’empreinte, et de la distinction entre valeurs dans l’image et valorisations des images, ce travail se consacre à l’exposition de nouvelles propositions de la sémiotique des pratiques de Jacques Fontanille en essayant de les lier à des réflexions sur les objets et les pratiques de la photographie artistique (l’utilisation des séries, de l’original, des différents tirages, etc.). Si l’attention est portée surtout sur la photo artistique, ce texte envisage également une comparaison avec les pratiques de l’original et de l’authenticité dans la photo de guerre, la photo de famille et la photo-image pieuse. L’objectif majeur de ce travail est d’étudier les diverses pratiques de valorisation des images photographiques afin de faire éclater la notion ontologique de trace photographique. [less ▲]

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See detailA perfect estimation of a background image does not lead to a perfect background subtraction: analysis of the upper bound on the performance
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still ... [more ▼]

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still unanswered. One of them is the existence of an intrinsic upper bound to the performance. In fact, data are affected by noise, and therefore it is illusory to believe that it is possible to achieve a perfect segmentation. This paper aims at exploring some intrinsic limitations of the principle of background subtraction. The purpose consists in studying the impact of several limiting factors separately. One of our conclusions is that even if an algorithm would be able to calculate a perfect background image, it is not sufficient to achieve a perfect segmentation with background subtraction, due to other intrinsic limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailAn enhanced version of a bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory.
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(12), 1367-1376

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution of the internal variables of the bone microstructure, and its incidence on the modification of the elastic constitutive parameters, may be formulated following the principles of Continuum Damage Mechanics, although no actual damage was considered. The resorption and apposition criteria (similar to the damage criterion) were expressed in terms of a mechanical stimulus. However, the resorption criterion is lacking a dimensional consistency with the remodelling rate. We here propose an enhancement to this resorption criterion, insuring the dimensional consistency while retaining the physical properties of the original remodelling model. We then analyse the change in the resorption criterion hypersurface in the stress space for a 2D analysis. We finally apply the new formulation to analyse the structural evolution of a 2D femur. This analysis gives results consistent with the original model but with a faster and more stable convergence rate. [less ▲]

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See detailBifacial serrated technology in the southern African Still Bay: new data from Sibudu Cave, Kwazulu-Natal
Schmid, Viola; Porraz, Guillaume; Rots, Veerle ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

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See detailThe materiality of Intangible Cultural Heritage: food and social encounters.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, September)

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as ... [more ▼]

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as representative of national food cultures, were chosen to illustrate a shared heritage that historically took a shape around the Mediterranean sea. This heritage, still concretely performed, needed to be stated and preserved against the globalization of food practices. Institutional and political dynamics, occurring on a transnational level, triggered this process, which is nevertheless not detached from the communities involved. Common people played a fundamental role not only in promoting the patrimonialization process itself, but above all in concretely perpetuating some traditions and in spreading them in the contemporary world. In particular, some different cultural groups that found themselves living a common territory and social context thanks to migration, began dialoguing about their own food traditions, starting from some shared elements. As a consequence, some gastronomies interact through people’s practices and define in relation one to the other. This is the case, among others, of Moroccan and Italian cuisine. Throughout a doctoral research conducted within a group of Moroccan women living in the North of Italy, I collected an amount of ethnographic materials showing how social encounters developed through food. The influence of the patrimonialization process on these encounters made people try to find similarities among different traditional practices or to describe some ways of reinterpreting them in reason of the new context. My presentation will focus on these dynamics, thus proving that the Intangible Cultural Heritage is indeed grounded on materiality, that is, in this case, the concrete performance of food practices and their pragmatic effects on relations among humans. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Background Filter to Improve Pedestrian Detection
Wang, Yi; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Su, Song-Zhi et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history image (MHI). Then we apply to each frame of the video a motion-guided nonlinear filter whose goal is to smudge out background details while leaving untouched foreground moving objects. The resulting blurry-background image is then fed to a pedestrian detector. Experiments reveal that for a given miss rate, our motion-guided nonlinear filter can decrease the number of false positives per image (FPPI) by a factor of up to 26. Our method is simple, computationally light, and can be applied on a variety of videos to improve the performances of almost any kind of pedestrian detectors. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit d'auteur et compétence internationale : de la territorialité à la mode de la Cour de justice
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in LAMBRECHT, Maxime; Fossoul, Virginie; Delforge, Véronique (Eds.) et al 20 ans de la loi sur le droit d'auteur (2015)

Ce texte fait le point sur la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice relative au contentieux de la contrefaçon du droit d'auteur. Il s'intéresse en particulier à l'application de l'article 7(2) du Règlement ... [more ▼]

Ce texte fait le point sur la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice relative au contentieux de la contrefaçon du droit d'auteur. Il s'intéresse en particulier à l'application de l'article 7(2) du Règlement Bruxelles IIbis à ce contentieux [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of Diffure Aurora on Mars
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Schneider; Jain et al

Conference (2015, September)

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes ... [more ▼]

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes and longitudes (Figure 1). This widespread aurora differs from the small auroral patches discovered by the SPICAM instrument onboard the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2008; Gérard et al., submitted; Soret et al., submitted) restricted to regions of crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, the northern diffuse aurora appears to peak at altitudes below 100 km, while the crustal field aurora peaked around 120 km. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Results From MAVEN’s Imaging UV Spectrograph
Schneider; McClintock; Stewart et al

Conference (2015, September)

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its ... [more ▼]

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its goals of characterizing the atmospheric composition and structure, enabling studies of atmospheric escape that will contribute to our understanding of Mars’ atmospheric evolution. In addition, the instrument has made unexpected discoveries concerning meteor showers, aurora and nightglow on Mars. [less ▲]

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See detailTwinkling Lights in the Nightside Upper Atmosphere: How Nightglow Contributes to our Understanding of Global Dynamics
Brecht, Amanda; Bougher, S.; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and ... [more ▼]

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and nightglow. There are several mechanisms to create these emissions, but this presentation will focus on nightglow emissions resulting from photochemistry of neutral components. These neutral components originate on the dayside and are transported from the dayside to the nightside of a planet, where they subsequently undergo chemical reactions yielding nightglow. Nightglow emissions serve as effective tracers for planetary middle and upper atmosphere global wind systems due to their variable peak brightness and spatial distributions. The main planetary focus for this presentation will be on Mars and Venus’ atmospheres, due to the similar chemical constituents which populate their upper atmospheres. Currently, NO UV nightglow has been observed (e.g. Venus Express, Mars Express) on both Venus and Mars, while O2 IR nightglow has only been observed on Venus but is predicted to be seen on Mars. The observations show variations in time and location (latitude, local time, and altitude). The locations of the maximum nightglow intensities on each planet are different, but are supportive of the general picture of these two planet’s global circulation patterns. Model implications for both nightglows on both planets can provide valuable insight and understanding of the dynamical and chemical processes creating the nightglow emission variability. Two three-dimensional general circulation models will be utilized: the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) and the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM). The model output will be compared to nightglow datasets for each planet individually and planet to planet, to contrast the variations of the nightglow features and the underlying drivers for those variations. [less ▲]

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See detailIUVS observations of Nitric Oxide nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; The IUVS team

Conference (2015, September)

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See detailExploring the schizophrenic hyperreflexivity on the Rorschach test
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Bataille, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Poster (2015, August 28)

L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique peut être définie comme une attitude particulière de la conscience consistant à interroger de façon explicite et réflexive des phénomènes généralement implicites et ... [more ▼]

L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique peut être définie comme une attitude particulière de la conscience consistant à interroger de façon explicite et réflexive des phénomènes généralement implicites et préréflexifs (Sass, 2014). Notre hypothèse est que ce mécanisme se manifeste dans les protocoles du test de Rorschach des sujets schizophrènes (Englebert, 2013). Pour l’éprouver, nous avons administré le test à douze sujets schizophrènes. L’originalité de cette recherche repose sur une seconde présentation des planches (trois jours plus tard) qui a permis d’évoquer avec les sujets la permanence de leurs perceptions et de discuter de l’acception commune de celles-ci (pensez-vous que la plupart des autres personnes pourrait voir ce que vous voyez ?). Les résultats confirment notre hypothèse, tant au niveau quantitatif (les marqueurs de l’hyper-réflexivité que nous avions identifiés se retrouvent dans la majorité des protocoles) que qualitatif (phrases suggérant une interrogation épistémologique du test, par exemple). Enfin, nous remarquerons que l’attitude schizophrénique envers le test de Rorschach est assez subtile puisqu’elle identifie le fondement épistémologique du test reposant sur la nécessité d’une fausse perception – une « violation de la réalité » selon Exner (2003). Les sujets schizophrènes mettent en évidence la règle implicite sur laquelle repose le test qui consiste à ne pas donner la seule véritable bonne réponse (systématique) au test qui est « une tache ». [less ▲]

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See detailA Rorschach study of the borderline personality
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Rommes, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 28)

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura ... [more ▼]

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura (2006), nous avons administré le test à 15 sujets selon les recommandations du Système Intégré. Nos résultats indiquent les tendances spécifiques suivantes : une affectivité qui tend à être extratensive ou ambiéquale (86,7% des sujets), une proportion élevée de réponses couleur/forme (80%), un nombre élevé d’abstractions (66,7%), un nombre important de réponses « agressives » (80%) et « morbides » (86,7%). Une altération variable du testing de la réalité apparait pour chaque protocole. Notons la présence importante (80%) de références personnelles (PER). Signalons également la présence constante de termes particuliers dans le verbatim : énonciation de la couleur rouge (sang, amour), caractère dysphorique de certaines réponses (monstrueux, diabolique), ainsi que des perceptions duales (le bien/le mal). En conclusion, notre étude suggère que le Rorschach en Système Intégré, repérant en première approche des éléments psychologiques que l'on peut raisonnablement mettre en rapport avec la sémiologie clinique et la théorie des personnalités borderlines, l'approfondissement de la recherche peut laisser espérer une meilleure compréhension de ce trouble complexe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rorschach and the theory of art: the sublime and the formal
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Sass, Louis

Conference (2015, August 28)

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System ... [more ▼]

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System has a solid empirical basis offering impressive validity and reliability. By contrast, study and discussion of the psychological correlates of the different codes and their interpretation remains something of a work-in-progress, in much need of both speculative hypotheses and theoretical reflection. In this context, we hope to offer an original hypothesis that is rooted in esthetic theory (Schiller, Burke, Schopenhauer), literature (Stendahl), the philosophy of art (Kant), and existential philosophy (Heidegger). In this paper we propose to introduce the notion of the « sublime », which is to be distinguished from the « beautiful », in order to provide a way of interpreting the significance of both Vista (V) and Form Dimension (FD) responses in the Rorschach. The sublime is associated with a submersion of the cognitive faculties, even a state of feeling overwhelmed, in contrast with the clarity of the beautiful, which is associated with an experience of things being circumscribed in space and under the cognitive/perceptual control of the subject. Our reflection will lead into discussion of the links between perception and anxiety, and to the distinction to be made between anxiety and fear. In concluding, we will take up the adaptive dimension of Vista and FD responses, insofar as they reflect, in accord with Rorschach (1921) and Exner (2003), various forms of introspective awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative Relative Clauses in Late Egyptian. A Functional Perspective
Sojic, Nathalie ULg

Poster (2015, August 26)

The poster contains a functional taxonomy of the negative relative clauses in Late Egyptian

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