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See detailBelgium
Husson, Jean-François ULiege

in Yearbook of Muslims en Europe (2018), 9

This article reviews the position of Muslims in Belgium in 2016 in various aspects: demography, discrimination, relations with public authorities, public funding, Muslim organisations, etc.

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See detailMorphotectonics and past large earthquakes in eastern Belgium
Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; Verbeeck, K. et al

in Demoulin, Alain (Ed.) Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

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See detailStreamlining EU law enforcement in a regulated digital market environment
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

in Rusu, Catalin; Veenbrink, Marc; Looijestein-Clearie, Anne (Eds.) Digital markets in the European Union (2018)

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See detailThe Flemish Valley: Response of the Scheldt drainage system to climatic and glacio-eustatic oscillations
Heyse, I.; Demoulin, Alain ULiege

in Demoulin, Alain (Ed.) Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

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See detailLandslides in Belgium: two case studies in the Flemish Ardennes and the Pays de Herve
Dewitte, O.; Van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J. et al

in Landscapes and landforms of Belgium and Luxembourg (2018)

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See detailTypologies of solidarity in EU law: a non–shifting landscape in the wake of economic crises
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

in Biondi, Andrea; Dagilyte, Egle; Küçük, Esin (Eds.) Solidarity in EU Law Legal Principle in the Making (2018)

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See detailThe role(s) of innovation in competition law analysis
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege; Nihoul, Paul

Book published by Edward Elgar (2018)

This volume assembles the contributions presented at the ASCOLA Conference 2016 on innovation in (EU) competition law, which I co-organised.

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See detailChapter Ground-based soil moisture determination. In: Ecohydrology. Observation and Measurement of Ecohydrological Processes
Jonard, François; Bogena, Heye; Caterina, David et al

Book published by Springer (2018)

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See detailA fully coupled hydro-mechanical model for the modeling of coalbed methane recovery
Bertrand, François ULiege; Cerfontaine, Benjamin ULiege; Collin, Frédéric ULiege

in Natural Gas science and Engineering (2018)

Most coal seams hold important quantities of methane which is recognized as a valuable energy resource. Coal reservoir is considered not conventional because methane is held adsorbed on the coal surface ... [more ▼]

Most coal seams hold important quantities of methane which is recognized as a valuable energy resource. Coal reservoir is considered not conventional because methane is held adsorbed on the coal surface. Coal is naturally fractured, it is a dual-porosity system made of matrix blocks and cleats (i.e fractures). In general, cleats are initially water saturated with the hydrostatic pressure maintaining the gas adsorbed in the coal matrix. Production of coalbed methane (CBM) first requires the mobilization of water in the cleats to reduce the reservoir pressure. Changes of coal properties during methane production are a critical issue in coalbed methane recovery. Indeed, any change of the cleat network will likely translate into modifications of the reservoir permeability. This work consists in the formulation of a consistent hydro-mechanical model for the CBM production modeling. Due to the particular structure of coal, the model is based on a dual-continuum approach to enrich the macroscale with microscale considerations. Shape factors are employed to take into account the geometry of the matrix blocks in the mass exchange between matrix and fractures. The hydro-mechanical model is fully coupled. For example, it captures the sorption-induced volumetric strain or the dependence of permeability on fracture aperture, which evolves with the stress state. The model is implemented in the finite element code Lagamine and is used for the modeling of one production well. A synthetic reservoir and then a real production case are considered. To date, attention has focused on a series of parametric analyses that can highlight the influence of the production scenario or key parameters related to the reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of different hydrocolloids on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free steamed bread based on potato flour
Liu, Xingli ULiege; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan et al

in Food Chemistry (2018), 239

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties ... [more ▼]

The effects of hydrocolloids (Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), Xanthan gum (XG), and Apple pectin (AP)) at different concentrations on dough thermo-mechanical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free potato steamed bread were investigated. Results showed that hydrocolloids addition significantly increased the gelatinization temperature (from 52.0 to 64.2 °C) and water absorption (from 56.22 to 66.50 %) of potato dough. Moreover, hydrocolloids may be interacted with protein and starch, the density of potato protein bands was decreased by hydrocolloids addition, the reason might be that higher molecular weight complexes might be formed between proteins-hydrocolloids or proteins-proteins, thus change the protein solubility. Furthermore, steamed breads with hydrocolloids presented higher specific volume and lower hardness, and the rapidly digestible starch and estimated glycemic index were significantly decreased from 45.51 to 20.64, from 69.54 to 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, HPMC and XG could be used as improvers in the gluten-free potato steamed bread. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULiege; Viehöver, Vera ULiege

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2018), 11

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See detail"Des muets qui veulent parler". Lectures politiques, des Temps Modernes à L'Idiot de la famille
Cormann, Grégory ULiege

in Bolmain, Thomas; Cormann, Grégory (Eds.) Politiques de la littérature. Bourdieu, Sartre, Foucault (2018)

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See detailConfidentiality behind transparent doors : the European Central Bank and the EU law principle of openness
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULiege

in Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law (2018)

This paper questions to what extent the confidential decision-making structure maintained at the ECB is still compatible with the EU principle of openness recognised in Article 15 TFEU. To that extent, it ... [more ▼]

This paper questions to what extent the confidential decision-making structure maintained at the ECB is still compatible with the EU principle of openness recognised in Article 15 TFEU. To that extent, it analyses the different confidentiality regimes in place as well as the openness features adopted in both monetary policy and prudential supervision. It subsequently questions how those features comply with the letter and spirit of Article 15 TFEU. Aiming better to integrate existing confidentiality features with EU constitutional transparency obligations, the paper finally proposes some minor modifications to the ECB decision-making framework to align it more directly to the spirit of openness reflected in Article 15. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced specificity and enhanced subjective experience of future thinking in ageing: The influence of avoidance and emotion-regulation strategies
Jumentier, Sabrina; Barsics, Catherine ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Memory (2018), 26(1), 59-73

Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this ... [more ▼]

Future thinking in older adults is characterised by a lack of specificity of imagined events and by an equal or even higher subjective experience, compared to younger adults. We considered whether this lack of specificity stemmed partly from the avoidance of a somewhat disturbing future and then examined the extent to which certain types of emotion-regulation strategies, namely positive reappraisal and positive refocusing, contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking. Middle-aged and older adults completed an adapted version of the AMT, in which temporal distance and cue word valence were manipulated, thus resulting in future conditions assumed to represent varying degrees of discomfort. Results indicate that distant future and negative cues restricted both the specificity and the subjective experience of future thinking. In addition, the use of avoidance strategies predicted the nature of future thoughts in the context of a supposed uncomfortable future (i.e., a distant future induced by negative cues), although it followed quite different age-related patterns. Together with the findings that positive reappraisal and positive refocusing (to a lesser extent) contributed to the subjective experience of future thinking, this study indicates that how individuals imagine their personal future also relies on affect- and emotion-regulation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailApproaches to handling future use of the single-family housing stock
Berndgen-Kaiser, Andrea; Kohler, Tine; Marique, Anne-Françoise ULiege et al

in Open House International (2018), 43(03),

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as ... [more ▼]

Single-family houses are a common form of housing in Europe. Most were built in the context of the suburbanization after World War II and are now facing challenges arising from generational changes as well as increasing living and energy standards (Fina, Planinsek and Zakrzewski, 2009). According to the hypothesis of this paper, in several EU regions, single-family houses may face future challenges arising from oversupply and lack of adaptation to current demand. To examine this, the paper analyses the present situation and discusses the prognosis for the challenges described above regarding the three neighbouring north-western European countries Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands, based on available data and a review of country-specific characteristics of housing markets as well as national policies. Despite an impending mismatch between demand and supply, planning policies still support the emergence of new single-family houses. The comparison of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands shows the growing polarization between shrinking and growing regions and central and peripheral sites apparent at different stages in the three countries. While a high rate of vacancies is already registered for some regions in Germany (Effenberger, 2015), in the Netherlands this phenomenon can only be seen near the borders and in villages within the Randstadt conurbation (Hospers et al., 2015). In Belgium also, this phenomenon is not yet widespread, but in some suburban neighbourhoods dating from the 1950’s and 1960’s more and more single-family houses are becoming more difficult to sell, indicating an emerging mismatch between supply and demand (Chambre des Notaires de la Province de Liège, 2015). This article proposes some instruments which enable municipalities to intervene in single family housing neighbourhoods which are largely dominated by private ownership. These instruments are not yet widely established in single-family housing neighbourhoods but that may become important in the future [less ▲]

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See detailParents d'un enfant en rémission de cancer: Prédicteurs psychologiques et cognitifs de l'intolérance à l'incertitude dans le maintien des inquiétudes et dans l'orientation de l'attention sélective
Vander Haegen, Marie ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

In spite of core medical advances realized these last years, the childhood cancer remains a distressing experience for the child and their parents. The cancer history is rarely linear and takes place into ... [more ▼]

In spite of core medical advances realized these last years, the childhood cancer remains a distressing experience for the child and their parents. The cancer history is rarely linear and takes place into a space and a particular time when marks are shaken. The stake in paediatric oncology is double: that the child is cured without side effects and that the child and parents cross this experience without psychological destabilization. When the cancer survivorship is diagnosed, new challenges are expecting for the child and parents. Indeed, the childhood cancer survivorship is considered as integrated into the field of chronic diseases where the factor of uncertainty coexists and requires continuous adjustments of the child and parents. Therefore, it is a period of progressive rehabilitation where the stake is double: control the relapse and treatments’ late effects (or aftereffects) of the child and allow the child and parents, “to pursue their life the most normally possible”. The survivorship experience is thus intense transforming deeply “the psyche” of the child and parents. Since a few years, empirical studies examine the child adjustment and parents in the course of treatments. These reveal namely some adaptation difficulties, anxious and depressive symptoms. However, the social/family support and the problem-focused coping seem positively moderate the distress intensity. Studies investigated the cancer survivorship were mainly centred on the child and showed its effects on the child’s psychological adjustment (e.g. anxiety, depression). Nevertheless, the distress intensity could be positively influenced in particular by social and family support factors. The thorough examination of the literature observes that studies rarely include the parent and that no study has associated the factor of uncertainty with the vulnerability factor of intolerance of uncertainty. The originality of this research lives in the interest centred on the concept of intolerance of uncertainty [IU] and its effects on the psychological and cognitive adjustment among parents of a child cancer survivor. This quasi-experimental, quantitative, longitudinal research combines standardized questionnaires (IUS, NPOQ, CAQ, Mini-CERTS, HADS, and WW-II), questionnaires created for the needs of the study (sociodemographic, QIPS-R15, OncoMed and SomaOnco) and two neuropsychological tasks (classic Stroop and emotional Stroop). The sample consists of 61 parents (45 mothers and 16 fathers) of a child cancer survivor (from 4 to 6 years of survivorship without relapse and with mainly a neoadjuvant chemotherapy during treatments). Three months later, parents returned to the laboratory and completed the same questionnaires and performed Stroop tasks (with the exception of words which are modified). The time was decided with medical teams. It seemed relevant to retest parents when the medical assessment of the child was completed in order to observe if the distress decreased. Besides, this time was sufficient to avoid memory biases. The first aim of this research is the study of parental distress. The proposed hypothesis is the existence of anxious, depressive, somatic symptoms and worries. Results showed that 70 % of parents had anxious symptoms (HADS), 39 % presented depressive symptoms (HADS), 14 % suffered from somatic symptoms (SomaOnco) and 70 % had worries (QIPS-R15). Results from moderation analyses indicated no main effect of gender, remission time, and couple on distress criteria (except the interaction of these three factors for worries). These results demonstrated the existence of a significant distress within the sample but also the presence of additional factors which may influence the parental adjustment. The second aim is the examination of IU and its maintaining factors (i.e. positive beliefs about worry, cognitive avoidance, negative attitude towards problems and repetitive thinking (ruminations)). The advanced hypothesis is the causal track between IU and its maintaining factors. Results of IUS questionnaire demonstrated on average that parents had a low tolerance of uncertainty (64 % of the sample) and that 60 % of the sample were located in a moderated to severe profile of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Concerning IU’s maintaining factors, results of NPOQ, CAQ, WW-II and Mini-CERTS questionnaires highlighted the existence of positive beliefs towards worry (WW-II: problem solving and positive trait of personality) and cognitive avoidance (CAQ: distraction and thought suppression). Results of regressions bear out the predictor status of IU for the development of its maintaining factors. Nevertheless, protective factors arose from analyses, particularly an effective problem orientation and the use of concrete experiential thinking mode (CET; Mini-CERTS), which could protect them from a deterioration of the mood (e.g. depression). These results indicated the negative influence of IU on the psychological adjustment, the protective effect of a positive attitude orientation and the use of CET among parents. The third aim concerns the study of cognitive processes in terms of orientation of selective attention and cognitive inhibition. The proposed hypothesis is the orientation of selective attention towards threat into the IU context. Results seem to indicate a longer latency for negative and coloured words during Stroop tasks. The within-group regression and mediation results reveal the mediating effect of IU between the orientation of selective attention towards threat and distress components (i.e. anxious, depressive, somatic symptoms and worries). Moreover, depressive symptoms contribute to predicting the coloured word latency (cognitive inhibition process). These results seem to demonstrate the negative influence of the IU on the orientation of selective attention and depressive symptoms for cognitive inhibition. Lastly, the fourth aim is the analysis of IU stability and its maintaining factors over time. The proposed hypothesis is the stability of IU and its maintaining factors because IU is considered as a feature of the personality. At the second assessment (n=51/N=61), three significant differences were observed. The first difference concerns a decrease for anxiety symptoms with nevertheless a score being located in the pathological border. The second difference relates to a decrease for the cognitive avoidance with a score situated in the superior border of the standards. Lastly, an increase for somatic symptoms level was observed at the second assessment. Concerning IU, results indicate no significant change. Parents who presented a high level of IU at the first assessment kept it at the second assessment. This observation is also true for parents who had a low level of IU. These results supported the hypothesis of IU stability and its maintaining factors over time. Overall, results emphasize the implication of IU in the psychological distress among parents and its effect on cognitive processes of the orientation of selective attention towards threatening words (negative words). This research brings out the necessity to identify parents who are at risk for IU (and its maintaining factors) at an early stage of the cancer management in order to avoid excessive worries and the use of dysfunctional strategies over time. Furthermore, this research allows future clinical avenues for the development of follow-up tools in paediatric oncology, and recommends the parents’ psychological adjustment follow-up in close collaboration with medical teams. Implications of this research are discussed into the "general discussion" part of the thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining astrophysical parameters of quasars within the Gaia mission
Delchambre, Ludovic ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Quasars are one of the most peculiar types of objects in astronomy. The supermassive black hole these harbour effectively makes the surrounding matter radiates an enormous amount of energy before getting ... [more ▼]

Quasars are one of the most peculiar types of objects in astronomy. The supermassive black hole these harbour effectively makes the surrounding matter radiates an enormous amount of energy before getting in the vicinity of the black hole horizon out of which it will never escape. This ironically leads to the most luminous phenomenon in the Universe while being non-transient. It is hence quite natural to rely on these cosmic headlights, visible up to ages when the Universe was still very young, so as to achieve some of the currently most important cosmological applications, notably regarding the determination of the cosmological parameters $H_0$, $\Omega_\Lambda$ and $\Omega_m$. The Gaia mission, on its side, is one of a kind given the one billion of celestial objects it is intended to observe, among which more than half a million quasars are expected. Furthermore, owing to its exceptional astrometric precision, Gaia stands out to be extremely well suited for the detection of gravitational lens (GL) systems. In the latter, light rays coming from a distant background quasar are deflected by the presence of a massive galaxy being in the line-of-sight that leads to the production of multiple images of this background quasar upon a favourable alignment between the quasar, the galaxy and the observer. Supplemental constraints on the aforementioned cosmological parameters being then gained based on these GLs. Gaia hence provides an unprecedented opportunity to detect and characterize quasars as well as to identify GLs which ultimately bring a better understanding of the Universe we live in. This thesis is accordingly concerned with the development of software solutions dedicated to the determination of the astrophysical parameters (APs) of the quasars that Gaia will observe, on one hand, and to the recognition of the GLs among the billion of sources it will uncover, on the other hand. Although Gaia provides state-of-the-art astrometric and photometric observations, its capability in characterizing these celestial objects remains however restricted by the relatively low spectral resolution of the blue and red spectrophotometers upon which it is based as well as by the limited signal-to-noise ratio that is associated with faint objects, including quasars. In addition, the overwhelming amount of data that Gaia has to process translates into a stringent need for algorithms having both low numerical complexities as well as low memory usages. These restrictions and shortcomings along with the requirement for reliable APs were at the heart of this research that led to the development of two specifically designed methods that are the weighted principal components analysis and the weighted phase correlation method. The former of these methods allowed us to extract the most significant patterns out of quasars with a view of using these in the production of a spectral library of quasars as observed by Gaia. These were subsequently used in a fast and automated procedure designed to guess the redshift of the quasars within the Gaia mission through the latter mentioned method. Other APs that are the slope of the quasar continua, the total equivalent width of their emission lines and whether these encompass broad absorption lines or not, being then concurrently derived based on the results of these methods. Finally, the identification of GL candidates relies on the recognition of the structures and symmetries that are observed within lensed images through supervised learning methods. The specific method we choose to use, based on extremely randomized trees, was shown to yield a low contamination rate on simulated configurations composed of three images as well as a very high probability of detection in cases of four image configurations. Real observations out of the first Gaia data release were processed and resulted in the identification of candidates having three potentially lensed images which are currently waiting for confirmation using ground-based facilities. [less ▲]

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