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See detailCombining Features for Cover Song Identification
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Foster, Peter et al

in 16th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2015, October)

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average features, training a random forest for each feature. Subsequently, we evaluate standard combination rules for merging these single classifiers into a composite classifier based on global features. We further obtain two higher level classifiers based on chroma features: one based on comparing histograms of quantized chroma features, and a second one based on computing cross-correlations between sequences of chroma features, to account for temporal information. For combining the latter chroma-based classifiers with the composite classifier based on global features, we use standard rank aggregation methods adapted from the information retrieval literature. We evaluate performance with the Second Hand Song dataset, where we quantify performance using multiple statistics. We observe that each combination rule outperforms single methods in terms of the total number of identified queries. Experiments with rank aggregation methods show an increase of up to 23.5 % of the number of identified queries, compared to single classifiers. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance indicator for structures under natural fire
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Engineering Structures (2015), 100

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire ... [more ▼]

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire engineering. Indeed the actual requirement of non-occurrence of structural failure at peak temperature does not guarantee against a delayed failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire, which puts at risk the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and characterize the materials and structures behavior under decreasing temperatures. Sensitivity to delayed failure of a structural component depends on its typology and constituting materials. In particular, two structural components with the same Fire Resistance rating (R) under standardized fire may exhibit very distinct behavior under natural fire, one of them being more prone to delayed failure than the other. With the aim of quantifying this effect, a new indicator is proposed that characterizes the performance of structures under natural fire conditions. The paper presents the methodology to derive this new indicator as well as results for different typologies of structural components. Parametric analyses highlight the prime influence of constitutive material and thermal inertia of the element on the post-peak behavior. Used in conjunction with the Fire Resistance rating, it is shown how the new indicator carries additional and significant information for classifying structural systems in terms of their fire performance and propensity to delayed failure. [less ▲]

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See detailTime ordering shuffling for improving background subtraction
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Latour, Philippe ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS) (2015, October)

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of ... [more ▼]

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of segmentation maps expressed in terms of foreground objects and scene background. To our knowledge, this natural ordering of frames has never been questioned or challenged. In this paper, we propose to challenge, in a prospective view, the natural ordering of video frames in the context of background subtraction, and examine alternative time orderings. The idea consists to change the order before background subtraction is applied, by means of shuffling strategies, and to re-order the segmentation maps afterwards. For this purpose, we propose several shuffling strategies and show that, for some background subtraction methods, results are preserved or even improved. The practical advantage of time shuffling is that it can been applied to any existing background subtraction seamlessly. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modeling of the cardiac mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework. Study of its consequences on arrhythmogenesis.
Collet, Arnaud ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

This doctoral study characterizes, for simple geometries, the cardiac autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechanical deformations of the myocardium via the mechano-electric feedback within a ... [more ▼]

This doctoral study characterizes, for simple geometries, the cardiac autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechanical deformations of the myocardium via the mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework. The underlying fundamental mechanisms are highlighted and discussed in detail. In a healthy heart, the mechano-electric feedback acts as a regulator able to damp mechanical perturbations undergone by the heart, by appropriately modulating electrical activity shortly after these perturbations. In this way, a new healthy electromechanical situation is recovered. However, under certain conditions, this feedback can be a generator of dramatic cardiac arrhythmias by inducing local electrical depolarizations resulting from abnormal cardiac muscle tissue deformations. These local perturbations can then propagate in the whole heart and, thus, lead to global cardiac dysfunctions. The one- and two-dimensional models developed in this work to study the arrhythmogenic consequences of the mechano-electric feedback within a thermo-electro-mechanical framework account for three couplings: the excitation-contraction coupling, the mechano-electric feedback, and the thermo-electric coupling. The excitation-contraction coupling allows the mechanical contraction of cardiac muscle cells resulting from the electrical excitation of these cells, triggered by a propagating action potential initially generated by the sino-atrial node in a healthy heart. The mechano-electric feedback takes into account the influence of mechanical deformations on the electrical activity, both at the cell and the macroscopic level. The thermo-electric coupling then modulates certain electrical properties due to a temperature change. The excitation-contraction coupling is modeled in a phenomenological way by combining the Aliev-Panfilov model and the Rogers-McCulloch model. The propagation of the electrical excitation through cardiac muscle tissue is modeled by using the monodomain approach. The mechano-electric feedback is taken into account by considering two different contributions, namely the physiological contribution (physiological feedback) and the geometric contribution (geometric feedback). The physiological feedback consists in the onset of stretch-activated currents due to the deformations of the cardiac muscle tissue via specific mechanosensitive channels. Regarding the geometric feedback, it simply reflects that the propagation of the depolarization waves is altered by the deformations of the geometry. The thermo-electric coupling is modeled via a dependence with respect to the temperature which is exponential for the gating kinetics of ion channels, exponential for the kinetics of the active tension development in cardiomyocytes, and linear for the ionic conductances. This study shows that the mechano-electric feedback can be arrhythmogenic under specific conditions. In particular, this work clearly reveals that the size of the domain and the importance of stretch-activated currents are key factors in the behavior of the autonomous electrical activity induced by the mechano-electric feedback. This doctoral study also shows that temperature variations such as those undergone by the heart during therapeutic hypothermia or hyperthermia play a central role in the cardiac electromechanical behavior. Moreover, this work emphasizes the influence of the initial conditions on the electromechanical behavior of cardiac tissue. In the one-dimensional framework, an important result of this work is that the disappearance of the autonomous electrical activity induced by the deformations of the cardiac muscle can be associated with different types of bifurcation phenomena, depending on the values of the parameters. These bifurcations, which correspond in fact to different ways for the AEA to vanish, are emphasized and discussed in detail. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du néerlandais en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles: objectifs, méthodes, résultats
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2015, September 30)

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See detailLa terminologie de la traduction en grec et en latin
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 25)

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See detailStability and Aging of Phase Change Materials : An Ab Initio Perspective
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, September 17)

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in ... [more ▼]

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in future generations of devices. Nevertheless, some aspects of phase change materials are limiting their performances and delaying their wider technological application. First, aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance PCMs since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. One difficulty encountered in the simulation of these amorphous systems is that the direct generation of an amorphous structure by quenching a liquid using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Molecular Dynamics leads to one sample with a small number of atoms, and, hence of small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, corresponding to different bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys, selected to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal. On the other hand its electronic properties drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous, as compared to the crystal [1]. A second problem faced by PCMs is the fact that data recording is limited at high temperature due to the increased propensity to recrystallize. One approach to counter this is to stabilize the PCM using impurity atoms such as C or N. Using DFT and the analysis of the mechanical properties (constraints theory), we demonstrate how these impurity atoms modify the rigidity of the network, which is experimentally correlated with the activation energy for crystallization [2]. Finally, the crystal phase itself has been shown to have variable conductivities depending on the thermal history and annealing conditions. If this could be used profitably for multi-level recording, it also indicates that the crystal is undergoes some temporal evolution. Using DFT, we clarify the stability behavior of GST crystal and show that the metal-insulator transition is driven by the migration of intrinsic vacancies and an Anderson localization transition [3]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nat. Comm. (2015) [2] G. Ghezzi, J.Y. Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Applied Physics Letters, 99 (2011) 151906 [3] W. Zhang, A. Thiess, P. Zalden, R. Zeller, P. H. Dederichs, J-Y. Raty, M.Wuttig, S. Blügel et R. Mazzarello, Nature Materials 11 (2012) 952 [less ▲]

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See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

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See detailAls Staat stabilisiert, als Nation gescheitert? Belgien in der Nachkriegszeit (1945-ca. 1950)
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 09)

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See detailIconic virtues of diagrams. Peirce and ampliative reasoning
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Conference (2015, September 08)

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a ... [more ▼]

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a priori. Bernard Bolzano, followed in this by the logicist movement (from Gottlob Frege to Rudolf Carnap), answered that the generality and necessity of mathematical propositions and proofs can only be grounded on conceptual analysis. Even though, just like Frege, he is one of the fathers of formal logic, Charles Sanders Peirce provides some semiotic reasons to think that Kant was right: diagrams do convey general meanings and provide some knowledge which is necessary yet non-trivial. Unlike logical analysis, visual presentation of concepts in schemas or diagrams helps to explore concepts by stressing some of their “side” features in such a way that new knowledge is gained: « diagrams evolve what was involved » (CP4/86). This is why, according to Kant’s notion of intuitive construction, mathematical inferences are not merely deductive but are inventive and ampliative. My talk aims at identifying some iconic virtues of diagrams which, according to Peirce, explain their epistemic productivity. A first one lies in the “formal” nature of icons, which allows them to express syntactic relations between descriptive (symbols) and demonstrative (indices) components of structured information. On this respect, even algebraic and ideographic expressions are icons exhibiting a general form – a “rheme” – in which places for indices are filled with variables “x” and “y” meaning “any individual”. For this reason, even though they are singular, diagrams are “abstractions” in the sense that they represent relations rather than their terms. Only with this in prospect can a second, and more studied, feature of diagrams matter, namely their two-dimensionality, which helps to exhibit complex relations that cannot be seen on linear linguistic expressions. Finally, a third feature of diagrams lies in their imaginary rather than referential character. Icons connote without denoting, and therefore they can be informational without this information being limited to singular individuals. Furthermore, this non referential character of icons is what makes them open to virtual exploratory manipulations that allow to consider and investigate possibilities which in turn inform us on not obvious properties of the presently visible configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015), 294

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro-structure using a random Voronoi tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Then, we apply a computational homogenization procedure on statistical volume elements to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the meso-scale. A random field of the meso-scale elasticity tensor can then be generated based on the information obtained from the SVE simulations. Finally, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated to the coarser scale. As an illustration we study the resonance frequencies of MEMS micro-beams made of poly-silicon materials, and we show that the stochastic multiscale approach predicts results in agreement with a Monte Carlo analysis applied directly on the fine finite-element model, i.e. with an explicit discretization of the grains. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional occurence of greenhouses gases in groundwater: Initial results in shallow Belgian aquifers.
Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Gesels, Julie ULg; Tseng, Jean Hsiao-Chun et al

Poster (2015, September)

Currently, the lack of robust, context-distributed subsurface greenhouses gases (GHG) concentrations data is a key bottleneck to reduce the uncertainty range of GHG groundwater input to continental ... [more ▼]

Currently, the lack of robust, context-distributed subsurface greenhouses gases (GHG) concentrations data is a key bottleneck to reduce the uncertainty range of GHG groundwater input to continental surface water bodies such as rivers or lakes estimates. Carbon dioxyde (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxyde (N2O) are likely to be indirectly transferred to the atmosphere through groundwater discharge into continental surface water bodies. We aim to extend regional-scale estimates of indirect GHG emissions by screening, in numerous hydrogeological (such as alluvial, sandstone, chalk and limestone aquifers) and land use contexts (such as industrial and agricultural), the occurence of these gases. Here, we report and discuss CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations from an initial survey conducted over selected sites (n= 40) within shallow (0-100 m depth) aquifers in Wallonia (Belgium) for the first time. The preliminary results obtained in this study show that the range of GHG concentrations varies between 5160 and 47544 ppm, 0 and 1064 nmol.L-1, as well as 1 and 5637 nmol.L-1 for the partial pressure of CO2, CH4 and N2O respectively. This new and unique regional dataset provides a first step in developping a refined understanding of favorable contexts for GHG occurence in groundwater which may be used to reduce the uncertainties related to indirect emissions of GHG through groundwater-surface water transfers. [less ▲]

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See detailInsolvabilité européenne et procédures secondaires
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Brulard, Yves (Ed.) Règlement 2015/848 relatif aux procédures d'insolvabilité - premier commentaire (2015)

Ce texte tente d'éclairer la portée des dispositions du Règlement N° 2015/848 du 20 mai 2015 relatives aux procédures secondaires : après un bilan sommaire de l'application des dispositions du Règlement ... [more ▼]

Ce texte tente d'éclairer la portée des dispositions du Règlement N° 2015/848 du 20 mai 2015 relatives aux procédures secondaires : après un bilan sommaire de l'application des dispositions du Règlement 1346/2000 relatives aux procédures secondaires, qui s'appuie principalement sur la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice, le texte commente les principales innovations du Règlement révisé. Une attention particulière est accordée à la technique de l'engagement par laquelle le syndic de la procédure principale peut éviter l'ouverture d'une procédure secondaire. [less ▲]

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See detailSimple median-based method for stationary background generation using background subtraction algorithms
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Braham, Marc ULg et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for ... [more ▼]

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for less than half of the time. In this paper, we propose a new method leveraging the segmentation performed by a background subtraction algorithm, which reduces the set of color candidates, for each pixel, before the median is applied. Our method is simple and fully generic as any background subtraction algorithm can be used. While recent background subtraction algorithms are excellent in detecting moving objects, our experiments show that the frame difference algorithm is a technique that compare advantageously to more advanced ones. Finally, we present the background images obtained on the SBI dataset, which appear to be almost perfect. The source code of our method can be downloaded at http://www.ulg.ac.be/telecom/research/sbg . [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty in biology: a computational modeling approach
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Gomez-Cabrero, David

Book published by Springer (2015)

Computational modeling of biomedical processes is gaining more and more weight in the current research into the etiology of biomedical problems and potential treatment strategies. Computational modeling ... [more ▼]

Computational modeling of biomedical processes is gaining more and more weight in the current research into the etiology of biomedical problems and potential treatment strategies. Computational modeling allows to reduce, refine and replace animal experimentation as well as to translate findings obtained in these experiments to the human background. However these biomedical problems are inherently complex with a myriad of influencing factors, which strongly complicates the model building and validation process. This book wants to address four main issues related to the building and validation of computational models of biomedical processes: 1. Modeling establishment under uncertainty 2. Model selection and parameter fitting 3. Sensitivity analysis and model adaptation 4. Model predictions under uncertainty In each of the abovementioned areas, the book discusses a number of key-techniques by means of a general theoretical description followed by one or more practical examples. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers active in the field of computational modeling of biomedical processes who seek to acquaint themselves with the different ways in which to study the parameter space of their model as well as its overall behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method for measurement of groundwater fluxes in a fractured aquifer
Jamin, Pierre ULg; Goderniaux, Pascal; Bour, Olivier et al

Conference (2015, September)

The measurement of groundwater fluxes is the basis of all hydrogeological studies. Groundwater flux calculation with Darcy’s law from piezometric gradient measurements and estimation of hydraulic ... [more ▼]

The measurement of groundwater fluxes is the basis of all hydrogeological studies. Groundwater flux calculation with Darcy’s law from piezometric gradient measurements and estimation of hydraulic conductivity with pumping/slug tests may lead to cumulated errors on spatial variability, in particular in heterogeneous contexts such as fractured aquifers. Alternative methods, such as point dilution tracer tests to obtain a direct measurement of local groundwater fluxes, are promising. In this study classical Point Dilution Method (PDM) and Finite Volume Point Dilution Method (FVPDM) are compared on the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur, France. The manipulation includes the first use of the FVPDM in a fractured aquifer using a double packer. This configuration limits the vertical extent of the tested zone to target a precise fracture zone of the aquifer. The result of this experiment wasa continuous monitoring of groundwater flux that lasted more than 4 days. Measurements of groundwater flow rate in the fracture (Qt) by PDM only provide good estimates if the mixing volume (Vw) (volume of water in which the tracer is mixed) is known precisely. Conversely, FVPDM allows for an independent estimation of Vw and Qt, leading to better precision in case of complex experimental setup such as this one. The precision of PDM does not depend upon the duration of the experiment while FVPDM may require long experimental duration to guarantee a precise result. Classical PDM should be used to rapidly estimate the groundwater flux using a simple experimental setup. However, FVPDM is a more precise method with great potential for development but it may require a longer experiment duration to achieve high precision if the groundwater flux investigated islow and/or the mixing volume is large. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of the Vadose Zone Experimental Setup as an innovative in situ characterization method for the vadose zone: a case study at an industrial contaminated site in Belgium
Fernandez de Vera, Natalia ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is ... [more ▼]

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is affected by the lack of spatial and temporal coverage provided by the current in situ characterization technologies. A new system has been developed in order to overcome such limitations. The vadose zone experimental setup is a new development combining cross-hole geophysics and the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS). In cross-hole geophysics, an injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes is triggered. From measured potential differences, spatial patterns related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations are inferred. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content at different depths of the vadose zone, as well as water sampling. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The system was installed at a former industrial site in Belgium, where soil and groundwater are contaminated with BTEX, PAH, and heavy metals. Two VMS were installed in two slanted boreholes on site, together with four vertical boreholes containing electrodes for geophysical measurements. The site was initially monitored under natural recharge conditions. Water content sensors located along the VMS registered fast wetting and draining reactions to rainfall events followed by the activation of water transport through fractures. Results from soil water samples show continuous evolution of water chemistry with depth, due to disequilibrium between infiltrated water and the hydrochemical conditions in the unsaturated zone. Subsequently, a saline tracer was injected in the surface. The transport of the tracer in the subsurface was monitored via cross-hole and surface geophysics. Results from imaging reflect the evolution of a plume through vertical and lateral transport and dilution. [less ▲]

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See detailNudge and the Law: A European Perspective
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg; Alemanno, Alberto

Book published by Hart Publishing (2015)

Behavioural sciences provide a better understanding of human decision-making. Increasingly, governments around the world are keen to rely on these insights for reshaping public interventions in a wide ... [more ▼]

Behavioural sciences provide a better understanding of human decision-making. Increasingly, governments around the world are keen to rely on these insights for reshaping public interventions in a wide range of policy areas such as energy, health, financial services and data protection. When policy-making meets behavioural sciences, effective, low- cost and choice preserving regulations can emerge in the form of default rules, smart disclosure and simplification requirements. While behaviourally-informed regulation has a huge potential, it also attracts legitimacy and practicability concerns. Nudge and the Law explores the legal implications of the emergent phenomenon of behavioural regulation by focusing on the challenges and opportunities it may offer to EU policy-making and beyond [less ▲]

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