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See detailWhat can a diagnosis do? The case of the "genetization" of autism
Thoreau, François ULg; Duysens, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016, November 25)

The loose condition of "autism" is undergoing through a broad process of (re)definition under the aegis of genomic medicine, which promises to find (epi)genetic causes to autism, or at least to some forms ... [more ▼]

The loose condition of "autism" is undergoing through a broad process of (re)definition under the aegis of genomic medicine, which promises to find (epi)genetic causes to autism, or at least to some forms of the Autism Spectrum Disorder. What is at stake is a scientific controversy about the very definition of the condition, i.e. the diagnosis itself. Whether it is considered primarily as a psychopathology or as a genetic disorder has consequences. It has implications regarding who would have the authority to diagnose the condition but also about the ways of taking care of persons with autism. In this paper, we depart from the paradox that some patients' organizations claim for a "geneticization" of the condition, so as to get rid of any sort of "psy-" related dimensions. It seems paradoxical because if the causes of autism are to be found in the genes, and hereby partly determined, it would seem to imply that the margins for effective therapy are narrowing down. We want to test the hypothesis that the more objective, "naturalized" a diagnosis is, the more it opens up possibilities for broadening the therapeutic reach outside the autist bodies, questioning the "milieu" of the disorder — the environment through which it is produced and the wealth of linkages and relationships through which living with autism could be eased. In other words, stressing that the diagnosis is a site to explore these contested dimensions of autism, its "geneticization" could lead to more active uptakes in patients care, whereas blurry diagnosis could not afford a similar reach. Following a pragmatic stance of an "art of consequences" (I. Stengers), we investigate the tensions raised by a genetic diagnosis which tends to "objectify" or "naturalize" the causes of the condition with respect to the lived experiences of persones with autism and their relatives, following some of the contested dimensions of a "politics of diagnosis" in their effects on affected autistic bodies and minds. To unfold those issues, our ongoing inquiry considers the interactions between various persons and institutions involved in the debate in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en débat du marxisme et enjeux rhétoriques dans les textes de présentation des revues intellectuelles de l’immédiat après-guerre
Franck, Thomas ULg

Conference (2016, November 25)

À la suite d’une analyse de la mise en débat du marxisme au sein des revues intellectuelles de l’immédiat après-guerre et d’une étude de la trajectoire idéologique d’un intellectuel particulier, Gérard ... [more ▼]

À la suite d’une analyse de la mise en débat du marxisme au sein des revues intellectuelles de l’immédiat après-guerre et d’une étude de la trajectoire idéologique d’un intellectuel particulier, Gérard Genette, au sein de l’espace des revues militantes, cette communication analyse le cas particulier de la revue Socialisme ou barbarie dans une double perspective d’analyse du discours et de philosophie politique. Notre hypothèse serait la suivante : les revues favoriseraient, par leur matérialité discursive et éditoriale, l’émergence de débats idéologiques plus ou moins polémiques et oppositionnels autour du marxisme. En replaçant la création de ces revues dans leur contexte socio-discursif, nous entendons interroger la manière dont les textes de présentation singularisent, tout en les reproduisant, un interdiscours et une socialité bien précis. Si l’étude des articles parus dans Les Temps Modernes et Critique de mai à décembre 1946 a pu mettre en relation une obsession discursive quant aux marxismes orthodoxes et hétérodoxes et à la montée historique du P.C.F., le contexte de création de Socialisme ou barbarie (1949) nous obligera à tenir compte d’événements politiques et culturels divers (Guerre froide, constitution des deux Allemagnes, création de la revue La Table ronde, parution d’articles consacrés aux évolutions politiques et idéologiques dans Les Temps Modernes, Critique et Esprit, Traité de Londres, création de la République Populaire de Chine, centenaire du Manifeste du parti communiste, etc.). Notre communication se concentrera plus particulièrement sur le texte de présentation de la revue dans ce qu’il dit d’une historicité discursive et idéologique précise. Les textes de positionnement et de repositionnement des revues permettent en effet de dégager un ensemble d’enjeux et de tensions à l’oeuvre au sein de la communauté intellectuelle. Leur caractère plus ou moins affirmatif, parfois à la limite du pamphlétaire, entraîne une série de traits rhétoriques significatifs (attaques ad hominem, questions rhétoriques, allo-attributions, registre polémique, vocabulaire de l’attaque-défense, ironie, etc.), traduisant des positions idéologiques, qu’il sera nécessaire d’analyser dans le premier texte de la revue de Castoriadis et Lefort. L’attention portée aux thématiques marxistes se justifie par la véritable croissance des discours à ce propos dans l’immédiat après-guerre et par le besoin réel qu’éprouvent les intellectuels français de se positionner par rapport au P.C.F. et aux autres mouvances marxistes. Un rapport particulier se crée dès lors entre le savoir et une certaine temporalité que le genre de la revue met en oeuvre au travers de son éclatement et de sa périodicité. En effet, par la transmission d’un état des travaux non abouti et par l’urgence de sa situation sociale, il permet de saisir sur le vif un savoir en cours d’élaboration, constituant ainsi une forme de « mémoire immédiate » faisant état d’une histoire des idées collectives. Le rythme des publications, les stratégies de positionnement idéologique, la circulation des concepts et la nécessité de répondre aux besoins des lecteurs rendent ces savoirs intrinsèquement dynamiques et critiques, dans une constante interaction entre le monde social et les idées qui le façonnent. Comme le note Yves Peyré, dans Les Revues littéraires au XXe siècle, on trouve, d’une part, un « acte militant à la racine même de la revue » et, d’autre part, la réponse à un besoin de mettre en scène, par une polyphonie de voix, un dialogue agissant sur la réalité sociale et se construisant par le profit de débats, de dissonances et de dissensions internes et externes. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change: Opportunity or …?
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Scientific conference (2016, November 25)

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See detailLa politique des grandes puissances à l'égard des conflits au Moyen-Orient.
Bayramzadeh, Kamal ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

La politique des grandes puissances à l’égard des conflits au Moyen-Orient : Le Moyen-Orient occupe une place cruciale dans la politique internationale. Durant la guerre froide, la compétition entre les ... [more ▼]

La politique des grandes puissances à l’égard des conflits au Moyen-Orient : Le Moyen-Orient occupe une place cruciale dans la politique internationale. Durant la guerre froide, la compétition entre les deux grandes puissances avait entraîné un équilibre de forces parmi les États phares de la région. Mais depuis la fin du bipolarisme, une nouvelle forme de rapports de force est apparue entre l’Iran, l’Irak, l’Arabie Saoudite et la Turquie. Le renversement des talibans en 2001 et l’invasion de l’Irak en 2003 par les États-Unis ont contribué à la redéfinition des rapports de force. L’une des conséquences de ces événements a été la montée en puissance de l’Iran et de la Turquie. L’arrivée au pouvoir de l’AKP en 2002 a contribué, pendant quelques années, à l’amélioration des rapports bilatéraux dans le cadre de la nouvelle politique étrangère. Mais le déclenchement du conflit en 2011 en Syrie a fait apparaître des divergences importantes. La poursuite du conflit en Syrie et en Irak a entraîné des impacts sécuritaires sur les relations turco-iraniennes à l’aune de l’émergence des nouvelles menaces dans un Moyen-Orient caractérisé par la crise de l’État-nation, les poussées migratoires, la montée en puissance kurde, le retour du tribalisme, et la menace posée par les organisations terroristes transnationales. Dans ce nouveau contexte, le Moyen-Orient est confronté, d’une part, à une lutte hégémonique entre les puissances régionales et, d’autre part, à la montée en force des acteurs non-étatiques. En ce qui concerne les puissances mondiales, la continuité des conflits en Syrie et en Irak a aggravé les tensions entre les États-Unis et la Russie, qui ont des divergences d’intérêts sur l’avenir du régime syrien. Par conséquent les divergences entre les grandes puissances ont donné une dimension mondiale au conflit syrien. [less ▲]

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See detailDémocratie et populisme
Verjans, Pierre ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Stigmatisation de l'autre et non-écoute des peurs, des espoirs et des frustrations dans les différentes communauté expliquent en partie les campagnes populistes notamment sur les réseaux sociaux.

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See detailLa transaction pénale élargie face au contrôle de la Cour constitutionnelle
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), (2016/39), 1847-1852

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction ... [more ▼]

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction criminelle. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évangile digital. Théories et technologies chez H.M. Enzensberger
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2016, November 24)

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See detailDevelopment of a new design method to define the rotation capacity of steel hollow sections
Saloumi, Elsy ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The present PhD thesis is dedicated to the characterisation of hollow section shapes’ rotational capacity. More precisely, the effort was made towards suggesting new ways to resort to plastic analysis, by ... [more ▼]

The present PhD thesis is dedicated to the characterisation of hollow section shapes’ rotational capacity. More precisely, the effort was made towards suggesting new ways to resort to plastic analysis, by defining a new and accurate proposition to characterise the rotation capacity Rcap of sections, which could be associated with the rotation demand of a structure Rdem. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to establish a direct dependence of the rotation capacity Rcap with a newly defined cross-section slenderness CS. Hence, current design standards disregard the rotation demand of the structure and allow plastic analysis based on a plate slenderness limit. To achieve this purpose, an experimental campaign was performed consisting in 23 bending tests on square and rectangular hollow sections tested in bending, in addition to 8 stub columns. Then, a numerical model based on the finite element software FINELg was calibrated to well represent these experimental tests, as well as cold-formed bending tests from literature. Based on these results, a good agreement between experimental and numerical results was shown and the numerical software was therefore validated. Accordingly, since the numerical software was proved to well represent the bending behaviour of hollow beams, around 8000 finite element simulations were performed while varying sections dimensions, material properties and loading configuration. These results reported that actual standards limitations were inappropriate, and stricter values were proposed. Moreover, based on the numerical computations, a continuous curve capable of describing the rotation capacity of sections as a function of the cross-section slenderness was proposed. The production route, loading application and yield strength were identified as key parameters having a major impact on the rotation capacity of sections. Consequently, different curves were proposed for each parameter; based on these curves, the rotation capacity of the section could be compared to the rotation demand of a structure in order to obtain a practical, safe, and reliable design calculation. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainties in determination of fire resistance by experimental testing and by calculation
Dumont, Fabien ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Conference (2016, November 24)

In Europe, certification of the fire resistance of building construction elements can be assessed by experimental testing or by calculation. To date, both communities (testing and calculation) express the ... [more ▼]

In Europe, certification of the fire resistance of building construction elements can be assessed by experimental testing or by calculation. To date, both communities (testing and calculation) express the fire resistance results in a deterministic way, i.e. each fire resistance result consists in a single number as if there was no uncertainty. However, when asking different partners within a community to assess the fire resistance of a given element of building construction subjected to a given fire scenario (a so-called “round robin” exercise), the reported results exhibit a very significant variability. Recent efforts have been undertaken to evaluate the extent of the scatter for fire resistance results, i.e. a process of "uncertainty evaluation". This process recognizes the fact that, for a given element of building construction and a given fire scenario, only a probability distribution (as opposite to a deterministic value) can be attributed to the fire resistance result. This approach opens the door to probabilistic reporting as an alternative to deterministic one. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction : pour une troisième voie entre hack et yack ?
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference (2016, November 24)

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See detailEvaluation du cursus  Sciences industrielles et de l’ingénieur industriel
Courard, Luc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailStatistical study of Saturn's auroral electron properties with Cassini/UVIS FUV spectral images
Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

in Icarus (2016)

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean ... [more ▼]

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean energy 〈E〉 of the precipitating electrons. The first is based on the absorption of the auroral emission by hydrocarbons and the second uses the ratio between the brightness of the Lyman-α line and the H2 total UV emission (Lyα/H2), which is directly related to 〈E〉 via a radiative transfer formalism. In addition, two atmospheric models obtained recently from UVIS polar occultations have been employed for the first time. It is found that the atmospheric model related to North observations near 70° latitude provides the results most consistent with constraints previously published. On a global point of view, the two methods provide comparable results, with 〈E〉 mostly in the 7–17 keV range with the hydrocarbon method and 〈E〉 in the 1–11 keV range with the Lyα/H2 method. Since hydrocarbons have been detected on ∼20% of the auroral spectra, the Lyα/H2 technique is more effective to describe the primary auroral electrons, as it is applicable to all spectra and allows an access to the lowest range of energies (≤5 keV), unreachable by the hydrocarbon method. The distribution of 〈E〉 is found fully compatible with independent HST/ACS constraints (emission peak in the 840–1450 km range) and FUSE findings (emission peaking at pressure level ≤0.2 µbar). In addition, 〈E〉 exhibits enhancements in the 3 LT–10 LT sector, consistent with SKR intensity measurements. An energy flux–electron energy diagram built from all the data points strongly suggests that acceleration by field-aligned potentials as described by Knight's theory is a main mechanism responsible for electron precipitation creating the aurora. Assuming a fixed electron temperature of 0.1 keV, a best-fit equatorial electron source population density of 3 × 103 m−3 is derived, which matches very well to the plasma properties observed with Cassini MAG and CAPS/ELS instruments. However, several auroral regions are characterized by relatively high 〈E〉 and low energy flux, suggesting that additional processes such as plasma injections or magnetic reconnections must be accounted for to explain the emission in these regions. The Lyα/H2 ratio technique can be used to build maps of 〈E〉 from single spectral images. As expected, preliminary results show that the spatial distribution of 〈E〉 is not uniform, as seen on Jupiter. Our study reveals that a fraction of the aurora is due to very low energy electrons (<1 keV). Even in this case, comparisons between observed and modeled spectra show that 100 eV is a suitable value to represent the average energy of the secondary electrons. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-fire assessment of concrete structures. Safe for continued use?
Molkens, Tom; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Van Coile, Ruben

Conference (2016, November 24)

After a fire in a building, questions arise regarding the post-fire fire capacity of the structure. Assessment of post-fire capacity of structural elements should consider the residual safety level which ... [more ▼]

After a fire in a building, questions arise regarding the post-fire fire capacity of the structure. Assessment of post-fire capacity of structural elements should consider the residual safety level which, in the absence of codification, requires performing a full probabilistic analysis. Therefore, an easy-to-use method is presented which allows to make a probabilistic calculation, using only analytical formulas and a pre-calculated graph. The method is applied to a real case study, consisting of a fire that took place in an apartment building in Belgium, indicating sufficient load bearing capacity for further use. [less ▲]

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See detailQu’en est-il des représentations du vieillissement dans notre société ? Quelles conséquences sur la santé de nos aînés ?
Missotten, Pierre ULg; Clesse, Audrey ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Depuis des décennies, la vieillesse est abordée en termes médicaux ou de coûts sociétaux. N’est-il pas temps de tordre le cou aux idées reçues ? Même si la société évolue, nos perceptions du ... [more ▼]

Depuis des décennies, la vieillesse est abordée en termes médicaux ou de coûts sociétaux. N’est-il pas temps de tordre le cou aux idées reçues ? Même si la société évolue, nos perceptions du vieillissement sont encore trop souvent associées à la tristesse, la solitude, la maladie, l’exclusion ou l’angoisse. Autant de stéréotypes qui renforcent une image dégradée de la vieillesse et qui nécessite un changement de regard. Plusieurs études démontrent que nos seniors déclarent bien vivre, se sentent en bonne santé physique et psychologique, se jugent entourés et estiment que la vie leur procure du plaisir... Vieillir c'est accumuler des connaissances et développer de l'expertise, c'est vivre en se centrant davantage sur les informations positives au détriment des négatives. Cette conférence aura donc pour objectif d'amener à une vision plus réaliste (et donc moins pessimiste!) du vieillissement. Et l'enjeu est de taille: que nous soyons jeunes ou moins jeunes, notre vision du vieillissement a un impact important sur la santé physique et mentale des aînés! Si cette thématique vous interpelle ... [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a new design method for steel hollow section members resistance
Hayeck, Marielle ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This dissertation presents research done in the field of enhancing the performance and the carrying capacity of tubular members, through the development of an original design approach based on the ... [more ▼]

This dissertation presents research done in the field of enhancing the performance and the carrying capacity of tubular members, through the development of an original design approach based on the “Overall Interaction Concept” (O.I.C.). The proposed approach makes use of the interaction between the two ideal behaviours of structural members (resistance and instability) and includes the influence of initial imperfections (out-of straightness, residual stresses, non-homogenous material), to calculate the resistance of a structure through a single parameter: “relative slenderness”. A test program was carried out as a part of a European project named ‘HOLLOPOC’ to determine the experimental behaviour of beam-columns loaded by bi-axial bending with axial force. Twelve buckling tests, consisting of hot-rolled and cold-formed rectangular and circular hollow section members were conducted. These tests were accompanied by preliminary measurements of cross-section geometry, material properties, geometrical imperfections, residual stresses as well as stub column tests. Besides, a finite element model was calibrated on the basis of these tests. For both the present test series and another one from the literature, it was shown that the FE models were capable of replicating accurately the response and resistance of the experiments. Accordingly, the validated FE models have been further used in extensive numerical studies, and a database comprising more than seventy thousand results was built consecutively. Based on these computations, design proposals were made, by considering identified governing parameters, within the context of the Overall Interaction Concept, using an extension of the Ayrton-Perry approach. Finally, a safely evaluation was completed to check the proposed formulae against the results of current Eurocode 3 rules. [less ▲]

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See detailNaissance et prime jeunesse de l’Université de Liège, 1816-1835
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailSustainability and management control. Exploring and theorizing control patterns in large European firms
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Zvezdov, Dimitar; Schaltegger, Stefan

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016), Online version

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See detail“Toute l'âme résumée” de Mallarmé : un art poétique déjoué
Durand, Pascal ULg

Scientific conference (2016, November 23)

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See detailDes concepts en classe d'histoire : pourquoi et comment ?
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

Scientific conference (2016, November 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)