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See detailStudy of a solar concentrator for space based on a diffractive/refractive optical combination
Michel, Céline ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Thibert, Tanguy ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 16)

The present work proposes a theoretical optical study of a new planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto three spatially separated photovoltaic cells (three ... [more ▼]

The present work proposes a theoretical optical study of a new planar solar concentrator for space applications. The concentrator focuses light onto three spatially separated photovoltaic cells (three single-junctions, dedicated to two different light spectra), allowing for independent control of the output power of each cell. The design, based on a blazed diffraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens, combines advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing. Theoretical model and optimization of the optical design are presented, including the variation of the grating period along the lens. Numerical results are detailed, highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at more than 10× for each cell, with an optical efficiency of ~71% and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors < ±0.85°. A thermal study completes the work, as well as a first theoretical comparison with a planar Fresnel based solar concentrator focusing on a GaAs cell. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving our vision on human cadaveric decomposition chemistry
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stadler, S; Perrault, K et al

Conference (2014, April 15)

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See detailA multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clones
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101C

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe International Criminal Court as the Principal Authority for Defining the Boundaries of its own Human Rights Obligations
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, April 14)

This paper addresses the applicability of human rights standards to the activity of the International Criminal Court. It argues that, in practice, the Court itself is the key authority when it comes to ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the applicability of human rights standards to the activity of the International Criminal Court. It argues that, in practice, the Court itself is the key authority when it comes to determining the content of its own human rights obligations. This paradox is due to the fact that the only two legal constructions on which the ICC can convincingly and practically be said to be bound by human rights law – i.e. those that are respectively based on general sources of international law and on the Court’s founding treaty – leave much discretion to the interpreter as to the content of the resulting duties. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of an undershoot in chlorophyll fluorescence signal after a saturating pulse in PAM measurements
Fratamico, Anthony ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, April 14)

In 1989, Larcher and Neuner have reported the observation of a sudden reversible drop in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (PAM) immediately after a saturating pulse, and called it “low ... [more ▼]

In 1989, Larcher and Neuner have reported the observation of a sudden reversible drop in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (PAM) immediately after a saturating pulse, and called it “low-wave”. 25 years later, whereas some papers reported this phenomenon as a trivial detail, scarcely two works have investigated the origin of this particular signal, in which a link with a low CO2 availability seems clear. Our work on Haematococcus pluvialis, a freshwater green microalga, provides a new point of view on this fluorescence undershoot, caused by a rapidly established non-photochemical quenching. We have demonstrated that in the light-adapted state, a low-wave after a saturating flash can be considered as a consequence of an induction process engaged in response to the brief light increase under low CO2 conditions. The non-photochemical quenching during low-waves was found to be dependent on electron transport to oxygen during the preceding flash. Moreover, in conditions in which low-waves were observed in the light-adapted state, the fluorescence induction kinetics in the first minute of lighting after dark-adaptation presented also a reversible strong drop. Nevertheless, at the stationary state, oxygen production and photochemical yield of photosystem II were not affected. Providing a better understanding of the processes underlying low-waves, our work also draws attention on the effect of CO2 concentration on the onset of photosynthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailDeception and the value of truth: a case study from the fifteenth century
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 13)

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See detail"Gefühltes Komma - richtiges Komma?"
Münzberg, Franziska ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 11)

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See detailPhylogenetic study of Aedes albopictus and Aedes koreicus (Diptera, Culicidae) origin, two invasive mosquito species in Belgium
Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 10)

The main ways of the introduction of invasive mosquito species in Europe were greatly facilitated by the importation of used tires and plants from the South of China (Dracaena sanderiana, called "Lucky ... [more ▼]

The main ways of the introduction of invasive mosquito species in Europe were greatly facilitated by the importation of used tires and plants from the South of China (Dracaena sanderiana, called "Lucky bamboo"), which are a very good breeding sites of these mosquitoes (www.eidatlantique.eu). For Belgium, several species of exotic mosquitoes have already been listed such as Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus, Aedes albopictus and A. koreicus. We have captured one male of A. albopictus in Belgium in July 2013 (Boukraa et al, 2013), and teams from other entomologist have been able to find several individuals in the months that have followed our discovery (personal communication). However, his presence was reported first in 2000 (Schaffner et al. 2004) but until 2012, no individuals have been found (Versteirt et al., 2013). We also could find larvae of A. koreicus in abundance. These discovery suggest that these two invasive species are being established in Belgium. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected by CO2-baited traps Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (MMLP) and immature stages by the dipping method from 8 sites of Belgium. Each individual was then determined morphologically. For A. albopictus and A. koreicus, reconfirmation by molecular method was performed with COI and ND5 mitochondrial primers and sequences were then aligned with those of mosquitoes available in databases by using BioEdit and Multialn softwares. The two gene sequences were concatenated to improve the reliability of the phylogenetic analysis and were carried out by using the Seaview software based on maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Trees were then constructed with the general time reversible (GTR) model, and branch supports were estimated by bootstrapping with 1000 replicates. Result: The aim of this work will focus on the study of the probable origin of these two species of Aedes, which are for the moment safe yet, but that might become dangerous in the event of massive outbreak. The knowledge of the probably origin of the two invasive mosquitoes allow take more protection against their way to enter in the country. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire les courses au quotidien. L’approvisionnement alimentaire d’un groupe de migrantes marocaines en Italie en temps de crise
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 10)

La crise généralisée qui, depuis quelques années, a affaibli les économies de nombre d’états, a eu des conséquences sur la typologie des migrations internationales : les trajectoires, les projets, les ... [more ▼]

La crise généralisée qui, depuis quelques années, a affaibli les économies de nombre d’états, a eu des conséquences sur la typologie des migrations internationales : les trajectoires, les projets, les destinations, les départs se sont modifiées en fonction de nouveaux facteurs auxquels les individus et les groupes étaient confrontés (Castles e Vezzoli 2009 ; Arango e González Quiñones 2009 ; Cornelius et al. 2010). A côté de ces macro-dynamiques globales, la crise a également engendré des changements dans la vie quotidienne des migrants lorsqu’ils étaient déjà partis et qu’ils s’étaient déjà installés ailleurs. Dans ce cadre, ma communication vise à analyser les pratiques d’approvisionnement alimentaire d’un groupe de migrantes marocaines en Italie mettant en place des stratégies (Certeau 1980 ; Sassen 2002 ; Rebughini and Sassatelli, 2008; Sassatelli 2009) pour faire face aux conséquences concrètes de la crise économique (notamment la diminution de leur pouvoir d’achat en conséquence de leur précarité professionnelle). Au travers de plusieurs déplacements dans la ville où elles habitaient et de la mobilisation des réseaux familiaux alimentant des circuits informels d’échange de biens, ces femmes satisfaisaient leurs différentes exigences – parmi lesquelles le désir de performer des préparations propres à leur mémoire incorporée – tout en répondant aux contraintes économiques déterminées par la crise. Ma tentative sera de démontrer qu’en dépit des difficultés rencontrées, ces femmes arrivaient à exercer une agency dans le nouvel espace vécu et à se positionner de façon active au travers de leurs choix et conduites quotidiennes. Mon analyse se basera sur les exemples collectés lors de ma recherche doctorale concernant les pratiques culinaires de femmes marocaines en contexte migratoire, et elle sera également supportée par des éléments visuels exprimant la matérialité des dynamiques objets d’étude. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude du mécanisme d’activation du zymogène proDer p 6 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus et du rôle de son propeptide dans l’inhibition, le repliement et l’immunogénicité de l’allergène
Herman, Julie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

L’allergie aux acariens touche 20 à 30% de la population occidentale. L’allergène Der p 6 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus est une protéase à sérine active de la famille de la chymotrypsine ... [more ▼]

L’allergie aux acariens touche 20 à 30% de la population occidentale. L’allergène Der p 6 de l’acarien Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus est une protéase à sérine active de la famille de la chymotrypsine. Son activité protéase pourrait être impliquée dans l’augmentation de la réponse allergique chez les patients atopiques. Der p 6 est synthétisée chez l’acarien sous la forme d’une pré-pro-protéine constituée d’un peptide signal (17 résidus) et d’un zymogène présentant un propeptide de 34 résidus en amont du domaine protéase de 231 résidus. Après avoir produit en Pichia pastoris et purifié le zymogène proDer p 6, son mécanisme d’activation a été élucidé dans la première partie de ce travail. Il s’agit d’un mécanisme tout à fait particulier, propre à l’acarien lors duquel la protéase à cystéine active Der p 1 mature proDer p 6. Un mécanisme similaire avait pu être montré pour le trypsinogène proDer p 3. Pour la première fois, la forme recombinante de Der p 6 a pu être produite. Celle-ci présente la même activité que la protéase naturelle présente dans les extraits d’acariens. Dans la seconde partie de ce travail, Der p 6 ainsi que Der p 1 ont pu être mis en évidence au niveau du tube digestif de l’acarien D. pteronyssinus, ce qui confirme que ces protéases sont impliquées dans la digestion de l’acarien. La protéase Der p 1 est présente au niveau de l’intestin moyen, tandis que Der p 6 est présente dans le gros intestin. Dans cette dernière partie de l’intestin, les protéases sont co-localisées, ce qui indique que le procédé de maturation observé in vitro pourrait se dérouler in vivo. Dans la troisième partie de ce travail, nous avons montré que le propeptide de proDer p 6 est un inhibiteur spécifique de la protéase Der p 6. Le propeptide est donc impliqué dans le contrôle spatio-temporel de l’activation de la protéase. Lors de ce processus, les quatre résidus en amont du site de clivage (résidus P4 à P1) sont nécessaires et suffisants pour la reconnaissance et le clivage du propeptide par Der p 1. Comme cela a été montré pour Der p 3, aucun rôle du propeptide dans le repliement de la protéase Der p 6 n’a pu être mis en évidence. Dans la dernière partie, une étude préliminaire de l’allergénicité de Der p 6 a été réalisée. Der p 6 serait un allergène mineur avec une prévalence d’environ 30 %. Les études par ELISA et activation des basophiles, réalisées avec les formes naturelles, recombinantes ou inactives de Der p 6 indiquent que ces différentes formes pourraient être utilisées en diagnostic. Des prédictions bioinformatiques ont également été réalisées afin de déterminer les épitopes B de Der p 6. [less ▲]

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See detailSame-sex parenting is legal in Belgium but some heterosexuals support it and others don't: why?
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, Robert-Jay

Poster (2014, April 10)

Gays and Lesbians represent between 7 and 10% of the Belgian population, this means 1 million of citizens. Notwithstanding the large number of civil rights granted to homosexuals and the anti ... [more ▼]

Gays and Lesbians represent between 7 and 10% of the Belgian population, this means 1 million of citizens. Notwithstanding the large number of civil rights granted to homosexuals and the anti-discrimination laws, the issue of social acceptance of same-sex couples and families remains. However, the attitude of the population (support vs. rejection and discrimination) and the marginalization of a minority influence not only their quality of life but also their couple and parenting skills and the development of their children (Armesto, 2002; Goldberg, 2010). Results show that attitudes towards same-sex parenting can be explained by four categories of arguments: arguments regarding children well-beeing, religious and political arguments, contact and experiential arguments and traditional arguments. [less ▲]

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See detailCapire gli attegiamenti nei confronti degli omogenitori in Belgio
Scali, Thérèse ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 10)

La situazione sociale per i genitori gay e lesbiche in Belgio. I predittori degli atteggiamenti positivi e negativi verso l’omogenitorialità. Le famiglie Rainbow in Belgio: cosa permette la legge? Miti e ... [more ▼]

La situazione sociale per i genitori gay e lesbiche in Belgio. I predittori degli atteggiamenti positivi e negativi verso l’omogenitorialità. Le famiglie Rainbow in Belgio: cosa permette la legge? Miti e stereotipi sulle famiglie omogenitoriali. Perché alcuni Belgi non sostengono gli omogenitori? Il ruolo del « benessere » del bambino. Cosa si può fare? [less ▲]

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See detailDonner la littérature dialectale à lire: l'exemple d'un poème en liégeois
Baiwir, Esther ULg; Biquet, Stéphanie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailLe Parti Socialiste en 2014: un programme électoral en rupture avec les précédents ?
Piet, Grégory ULg; Dandoy, Régis

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 08)

Background: Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, patients seem to demonstrate particular difficulties during complex and ... [more ▼]

Background: Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, patients seem to demonstrate particular difficulties during complex and multitasking activities, such as cooking a meal (Semkovska et al., 2004). Multitasking refers to activities where the person has to: carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; define the tasks’ targets; and where the person is faced with unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks (Burgess, 2000). However, at present, patients’ multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting – the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT) Methods: Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the CMPT. During the CMPT, participants found themselves in a virtual room that they had to prepare for a meeting while respecting a list of instructions (the placement of the guests, the needed objects, the desired drinks, etc.). Patients were also evaluated with an extensive cognitive battery (assessing executive functions, attention, processing speed and memory), measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity of the CMPT, 14 others patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results: Results demonstrated that performance on the CMPT significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for the total time to complete task, planning efficiency, and the respect of the instructions. Moreover, these variables were significantly correlated with executive functioning (i.e. cognitive flexibility and planning), suggesting the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking activities. Performance on the CMPT also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Finally, performances on the computerized version and the real version of the meeting preparation task were highly correlated, suggesting good ecological validity. Discussion: In this study, we created a novel task involving the multitasking nature of real world activities. The results demonstrated that this approach provides a good indication of the real world functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, results suggest a particular implication of executive functioning in multitasking activities. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailElectromagnetic hypersensitivity and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)
Demaret, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2014, April 07)

Introduction Scientific publications on electromagnetic hypersensitivity began in the early 80' and were first related to video display terminals in the professional environment. Electromagnetic ... [more ▼]

Introduction Scientific publications on electromagnetic hypersensitivity began in the early 80' and were first related to video display terminals in the professional environment. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity is now more heterogeneous and complaints about electromagnetic fields (EMF) are often associated to mobile phone or wifi. Provocation studies did not find that persons claiming to have electromagnetic hypersensitivity were more able to detect EMF than others or that they displayed any special physiological changes when exposed to EMF. Since 1996, WHO defined this syndrome as Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance to ElectroMagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF), characterised by symptoms attributed to EMF. The diagnostic is made by the person itself. The symptoms are heterogeneous and are frequently encountered in the general population. Despite the lack of a proven causal relationship with EMF, these symptoms, and the anxiety related, can lead to important suffering. Some persons with IEI-EMF are even unable to work. IEI-EMF is classified among the functional somatic syndromes as other syndromes with no physiological basis (as multiple chemical sensitivity). Directive and IEI-EMF Studies showed that persons who feel more stressed in their professional environment and are less satisfied with their work are more prone to IEI-EMF. There are some elements in the directive that could frighten these persons: the directive does not consider long term effects; the limit values can be exceeded temporarily and a worker must be informed that he can have transient symptoms. Discussion Persons with IEI-EMF are afraid of adverse health effects and often think that these effects are not taken into account by official agency. For them, everything that can aggravate their fears will be difficult to handle. [less ▲]

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