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See detailDysphasie : Réflexions autour de la définition et des critères diagnostiques
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Les entretiens de Bichat : les entretiens d'orthophonie 2014 : Les "dys", état de l'art et orientations cliniques (2014, September 27)

Specific language impairment refers to a non-homogeneous group: linguistic and non-linguistic abilities differ from one child to another. Increasing knowledge in this field has led to clarify both the ... [more ▼]

Specific language impairment refers to a non-homogeneous group: linguistic and non-linguistic abilities differ from one child to another. Increasing knowledge in this field has led to clarify both the definition and the diagnostic criteria in order to facilitate its diagnosis. However, the clinical complexity of this trouble questions the relevance of these diagnostic criteria. The present article intends to think about the clinical diagnostic of specific language impairment in order to allow informed decision making during its assessment and therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailFORMATION: Atelier clinique en prise en charge neuropsychologique
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2014)

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See detail9th Congress of the International Society of NeuroImmunoModulation (ISNIM)
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Scientific conference (2014, September 25)

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See detailDevant le forum de la perception interne. Sur les objets d’ordre supérieur III
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

Conference (2014, September 25)

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See detailBehavioral ecology and commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Bali, Indonesia: impact of anthropic factors
Brotcorne, Fany ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges ... [more ▼]

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges for wildlife populations, another option relies on the sharing of space, i.e., tolerating wildlife living alongside human populations in non-protected interface zones. During the last century, massive human encroachment into wildlife natural habitat has led to an increasing number of worldwide interface zones and a consecutive intensification of the human-wildlife conflict which is likely to escalate further as human populations rapidly expand. However, conflict does not account for all the scenarios since diverse forms of interaction between humans and wildlife exist. The human-nonhuman primate commensalism is one of these possible interspecies associations. Commensal (or synanthropic) primates are free-ranging populations ecologically associated with humans in anthropogenic habitats and taking advantage of human food, waste or crops to supplement their diet. In Bali, Indonesia, humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) already have a long history of coexistence. The forest-agricultural matrix landscape of the island and the numerous religious Hindu temples provide habitat patches for macaques sometimes living in very close proximity to humans. The opportunistic style of this species enables it to exploit numerous habitat types. However little is known about the ways anthropic factors impact its behavioral ecology. Our intention was to conduct a comparative study which would investigate whether anthropic factors were potential drivers of the behavioral ecology and population dynamics of Balinese macaques. During a two-year period in the field (between 2009 and 2013), using a protocol including three populations of Balinese macaques made of ten social groups, we documented variations in the activity, dietary, ranging and demographic patterns between populations. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences (i.e. human food provisioning degree and habitat anthropization level) on those variations, and we questioned the biological significance of the responses in terms of costs and benefits. While daily following each social group of macaques, we collected spatial, behavioral and botanical data, and we further conducted bi-annual demographic census in order to estimate the status and demographic trends of the study groups. Finally, our interest was to link our results with applied concerns regarding the management of these populations interacting with humans, while taking into account the implications of these interactions from the human point of view. We found a remarkable eco-behavioral diversity between our studied populations. Human food was a central component of their ecology, macaques preferentially exploiting this resource when available while retaining their abilities to forage on natural resources. The inclination for human food was optimal for macaques as it maximized their energy intake while minimizing the time expended for food acquisition. Therefore, they adjusted their activity budget according to the proportions of human food consumed. The free time available from relaxed foraging constraints was invested into resting and social activities. Macaques were flexible in their movements, making them successful in exploiting natural forest areas as well as highly anthropogenic habitats. However, increased social tension was a cost that stemmed from high-density situations induced by excessive anthropization of their habitat. We showed that, although predation risk partially influenced the selection of sleeping trees, proximity to human settlements appeared to be the most influential factor in the essential process of sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques living at the edge of the forest and anthropogenic zones. Demographic data provide essential information to assess the status of a population and the long-term impacts of human pressures. Overall, our three studied populations displayed good reproductive performances and positive growth rates, probably due to the human food consumed. Indeed, we showed that the human food abundance in tourist sites may have diminished the density-dependence mechanism on macaques’ birth rates, to eventually inflate the size of populations. When combined with a high level of habitat anthropization, these effects have led to high local densities and even overcrowded situations with associated costs regarding within and between-group social tension and epidemic risks. In this framework, we documented the demographic and social impacts of a Streptococcus outbreak which occurred in the Ubud population in 2012. The pre- and post-epidemic study showed that macaques modified their social dynamics following a significant mortality in certain groups. This study emphasized the role of pathogens in regulating primate populations living in zones of interface with humans. Our research also contributed to identify solutions regarding management of these populations increasingly interacting with humans in Bali. We notably provided preliminary evidence that vasectomy, as sterilization technique to control for overpopulation, had no negative side-effects on social and sexual behaviors of male macaques. Finally, we assessed the effect of a ten-year management regime at the Ubud Monkey Forest, using an ethnoprimatological approach. We showed that the aggressiveness of macaques towards visitors had been effectively reduced and the high tolerance of local people towards macaques was determined by economic and cultural benefits deriving from the macaque presence. However, we also identified men and adult or subadult male macaques as the most exposed groups to a potential risk of cross-species pathogen transmission given the frequency of close physical contact interactions at this site. [less ▲]

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See detailObjets réels et objets idéaux. Sur les objets d’ordre supérieur II
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

Conference (2014, September 23)

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See detailModélisation et étude expérimentale du comportement de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii) lors de l'extrapolation du procédé à des bioréacteurs de volume industriel
Lejeune, Annick ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

L’extrapolation de la production d’un microorganisme est un problème complexe qui prend en compte de nombreux paramètres. En effet, les paramètres opératoires induisent des conditions environnementales ... [more ▼]

L’extrapolation de la production d’un microorganisme est un problème complexe qui prend en compte de nombreux paramètres. En effet, les paramètres opératoires induisent des conditions environnementales qui peuvent être dommageables pour les cellules se développant dans le réacteur. Il est donc important de prendre en compte le côté génie chimique pour comprendre quelles sont les conditions hydrodynamiques présentes dans le réacteur et ensuite s’attacher à étudier la réponse des cellules vis-à-vis de ces conditions. Ce travail se place dans le cas particulier de la production de biomasse de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii). Dans ce cas, le point critique est l’ajout de la solution concentrée de substrat dans le réacteur. L’utilisation de réacteurs scale-down a permis d’étudier différents cas de conditions hydrodynamiques défavorables, ainsi que leurs impacts sur différents paramètres. Dans un premier temps, l’étude des paramètres ségrégés (concentration en biomasse, en co-produits…) a montré, notamment, une diminution du rendement et une augmentation de la concentration en éthanol. Ensuite, l’étude s’est placée au niveau cellulaire avec l’utilisation de souches exprimant une protéine recombinante fluorescente et de marqueurs cellulaires fluorescents, couplée à la cytométrie en flux. Ces techniques ont permis de mettre en évidence la présence de différentes sous-populations cellulaires, ainsi que l’apparition du phénomène de résistance cellulaire aux stress lors de la production en réacteurs scale-down. L’importance du choix de la méthode de traitement des données cytométriques a également été débattue. Ce travail a abordé différents domaines pour tenter de mieux comprendre la réponse cellulaire aux fluctuations des conditions environnementales ressenties par Saccharomyces cerevisiae (boulardii) lors de productions en réacteurs mimant les conditions hydrodynamiques des réacteurs de grands volumes. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une vision plus positive de la maladie d'Alzheimer: Enjeux cliniques et éthique
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailBilan de carbone d'une prairie pâturée en Région wallonne: effets du climat et de la gestion du pâturage
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

As grassland carbon (C) sequestration can play an important role in mitigating total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of livestock production systems (carbon dioxide – CO2, nitrous oxide – N2O, methane – ... [more ▼]

As grassland carbon (C) sequestration can play an important role in mitigating total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of livestock production systems (carbon dioxide – CO2, nitrous oxide – N2O, methane – CH4), this PhD investigates the C balance of an intensively managed grazed grassland in the temperate climate of southern Belgium. It analyses more particularly impact of climatic conditions and management practices on the C balance. The research site is a permanent grassland, covering 4.22 ha, intensively used for more than 50 years for Belgian Blue cattle grazing with the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Management practices but also climatic conditions are representative of livestock production systems developed in southern Belgium. Over a three years study period, soil C stock variations are determined indirectly by measuring the balance of C fluxes at the system boundaries. This approach not only takes into account CO2 and CH4 exchanged with the atmosphere but also organic C imports (manures, complementary feedings), exports (harvests, animal products) and C lost through leaching. CO2 fluxes are measured by eddy covariance while other C fluxes are estimated from data provided directly by the farmer, from punctual measurements and from aboveground herbage mass measurements. Considering only assimilation and respiration, the ecosystem behaves, on average, as a weak CO2 source, although the interannual variability is large. Interannual variability seems not to be significantly correlated with the main environmental drivers but rather influenced by fertilization management. Taking other C fluxes into account, the site appears as being at equilibrium. Management (organic fertilization), as well as climatic conditions that dictated them (complementary feeds), are the principal factors influencing the C balance. Finally, results show that management practices were the key control of the C flux variability at this grassland. Grazing impact on CO2 fluxes appears not explicitly at the seasonal and annual scale. It is therefore quantified by developing innovative eddy covariance data analyses and experiments. For that, indirect and direct grazing impacts are separated. Indirect impact results from biomass consumption, excretion deposits and soil compaction by cattle modifying CO2 exchanges. To quantify it, the variation during periods with fixed stocking rate of gross primary productivity at light saturation (GPPmax) and normalised dark respiration (Rd,10) is analysed. On average, GPPmax decreases during grazing periods and increases during non-grazing periods. This could respectively be explained by aboveground biomass reduction and re-growth. In addition, GPPmax variations are negatively correlated to grazing intensity (defined as the product of the stocking rate and the grazing duration). On the contrary, no significant evolution of Rd,10 is found during both grazing and non-grazing periods, probably due to a combination of opposing effects of grazing on the total ecosystem respiration components. Direct impact results from livestock CO2 emissions through respiration that adds to the total ecosystem respiration. It is emphasized through specific designed livestock confinement experiments. Net CO2 exchange is compared on successive days with similar climatic conditions, livestock being confined (≈ 26 livestock units ha-1), or not, in the main wind direction area of the eddy covariance set-up. Results obtained are corroborated by independent estimates based on the C ingested by cattle during confinement. Finally, the C balance analysis of this particular grazed grassland in southern Belgium reveals that, taking into account the climatic conditions observed and the management practices developed over the three study years, the site is C neutral. This means that GHG emissions linked to fertilization (N2O) and grazing (CH4) are not partly mitigated by soil C sequestration. However, we conclude that, management practices being the main factor controlling the C balance, strategies to enhance soil C sequestration exist. If those kinds of management practices are studied, a global approach, taking into consideration both the C fluxes and other GHG fluxes, would be required to see if they do not induce supplementary N2O and CH4 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailComplexions et relations. Sur les objets d’ordre supérieur I
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

Conference (2014, September 22)

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See detailThermo-responsive gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) core–corona nanoparticles as a drug delivery system
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Hurtgen, Marie et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(18), 5289-5299

Core–corona gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanoparticles (gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs) were fabricated via an in situ method, where a gold salt was reduced within the macromolecular aqueous ... [more ▼]

Core–corona gold/poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanoparticles (gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs) were fabricated via an in situ method, where a gold salt was reduced within the macromolecular aqueous solution. Arrangement of macromolecular chains on the surface of gold cores was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The responsiveness to temperature and the preserved colloidal stability of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and turbidity measurements. The drug loading capacity (DLC of ca. 1.3–2.8 wt%) of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs as a drug delivery system (DDS) was tested with Nadolol®, a hydrophilic drug, and the release behaviours were studied at several temperatures. PVOH-b-PNVCL copolymers with an LCST of a few degrees above the biological temperature (37 °C), for example, PVOH180-b-PNVCL110 (LCST of 41 °C), are preferential, due to the slower release at 37 °C, but a faster release at temperatures that are a few degrees higher. The cytocompatibility of the gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs against mouse fibroblastic L929 cells was evaluated via the MTS assay. Cellular uptake within MEL-5 human melanoma cells was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and TEM techniques and it showed that gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs preferably accumulated within the cellular cytoplasm, with an incubation concentration and period-dependent uptake process. All these results corroborated a general utility of these thermo-responsive gold@PVOH-b-PNVCL NPs for drug delivery and controlled drug release. [less ▲]

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See detailBlock, random and palm-tree amphiphilic fluorinated copolymers: controlled synthesis, surface activity and use as dispersion polymerization stabilizers
Alaimo, David ULg; Beigbeder, Alexandre; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(18), 5273-5282

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg)
See detailDes activités pour les patients souffrant de la maladie d'Alzheimer? Oui! Mais pas n'importe lesquelles!
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time spent awake and circadian phase
Ly, Julien ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 17)

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking ... [more ▼]

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking period. But what’s happen at the cortical cerebral level? We used a novel technique coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) to assess the influence of time spent awake and circadian phasis on human cortical excitability. Twenty-two healthy young men underwent 8 TMS/EEG sessions during a 28 hour sleep deprivation protocole. We found that cortical excitability depends on both time spent awake and circadian phasis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes effets de la retraite sur la mémoire
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, September 16)

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