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See detailAid for health in times of political unrest in Mali: Does donors' way of intervening allow protecting people's health?
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Samaké, Salif; Berthé Issa Bara, Issa et al

in Health Policy & Planning (2013)

Mali has long been a leader in francophone Africa in developing systems aimed at improving aid effectiveness, especially in the health sector. But following the invasion of the Northern regions of the ... [more ▼]

Mali has long been a leader in francophone Africa in developing systems aimed at improving aid effectiveness, especially in the health sector. But following the invasion of the Northern regions of the country by terrorist groups and a coup in March 2012, donors suspended official development assistance, except for 20 support to NGOs and humanitarian assistance. They resumed aid after transfer of power to a civil government, but this was not done in a harmonized framework. This article describes and analyses how donors in the health sector reacted to the political unrest in Mali. It shows that despite its long sector-wide approach experience and international agreements to respect aid effectiveness principles, donors have not been able to intervene in view of safeguarding the investments of co-operation in the past decade, and of protecting the health systemss functioning. They reacted to the political unrest on a bilateral basis, stopped working with their ministerial partners, interrupted support to the health system which was still expected to serve populations needs and took months before organizing alternative and only partial solutions to resume aid to the health sector. The Malian example leads to a worrying conclusion: while protecting the health system's achievements and functioning for the population should be a priority, and while harmonizing donors' interventions seems the most appropriate way for that purpose, donors' management practices do not allow for reacting adequately in times of unrest. The article concludes by a number of recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailCécile Laborde ou le républicanisme critique
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2013), 82

L'article présente le travail de Cécile Laborde relisant la querelle française du "hijab" à partir du républicanisme critique de Philippe Pettit. Le travail de Cécile Laborde, savant mais toujours lisible ... [more ▼]

L'article présente le travail de Cécile Laborde relisant la querelle française du "hijab" à partir du républicanisme critique de Philippe Pettit. Le travail de Cécile Laborde, savant mais toujours lisible, représente sans doute l'examen philosophique le plus poussé des travers du républicanisme à la française, utilisant judicieusement pour ce faire, les outils de la "Political Theory" anglo-saxonne. Elle examine les trois questions cruciales de la liberté religieuse, de l'égalité entre hommes et femmes et de la cohésion sociale d'une société. La thèse qui y est défendue est que le républicanisme à la française est lourdement paternaliste par sa prétention à définir, à la place des femmes ce qui constitue leur autonomie, et surtout par son déni de toute validité à la parole des femmes voilées. Cécile Laborde considère que les intuitions républicaines peuvent être dégagées de ce perfectionnisme répressif et qu'elles sont susceptibles alors de fournir une théorie normative parfaitement valide de l'autonomie. [less ▲]

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See detailHypovitaminose D du patient brûlé : une équation à plusieurs inconnues.
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULg; LEDOUX, Didier ULg; DAMAS, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(11), 574-578

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See detail(Tentative) Conclusions of the Conference
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Paile, Sylvain; Gell, Harald (Eds.) 5 years of the European Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers Inspired by Erasmus, Lessons Learnt from the International Military Academies Forum 2013 (2013, November)

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See detailL’évolution de la cartographie thématique sur micro-ordinateur
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Wellar, Barry (Ed.) AutoCarto Six Retrospective (2013)

In 1983, personal computers emerge, and the few mapping softwares are reserved to "big" computers. The communication made ​​at AutoCarto Six sustains the hypothesis that micro-computing environment can ... [more ▼]

In 1983, personal computers emerge, and the few mapping softwares are reserved to "big" computers. The communication made ​​at AutoCarto Six sustains the hypothesis that micro-computing environment can support thematic mapping. The last decades have clearly confirmed this hypothesis. But first, it's more the portable and open software structure which proved its originality rather than the reliance on a particular hardware - now obsolete - and secondly, the role of thematic mapping today resorts to another kind of software - such as GIS - devoted to the processing of geographic information. [less ▲]

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See detailProlégomènes à une philosophie de la médiation
Bachelet, Jean-François ULg

in Castelain, Bernard (Ed.) De l'autre côté du conflit: la médiation (2013)

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See detailADAMTS-3 deficiency is embryonic lethal in mouse and zebrafish.
Janssen, Lauriane ULg; Dubail, Johanne; Dupont, Laura ULg et al

Conference (2013, November)

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See detailA walk into random forests: adaptation and application to Genome-Wide Association Studies
Botta, Vincent ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Understanding underlying mechanisms of common diseases is one of the major goals of current research in medicine. As most of these disorders are linked to genetic factors, identification of the associated ... [more ▼]

Understanding underlying mechanisms of common diseases is one of the major goals of current research in medicine. As most of these disorders are linked to genetic factors, identification of the associated variants forms an excellent strategy towards the elucidation of molecular and cellular dysfunctions, and in fine could lead to better personalised diagnostics and treatments. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) aim to discover variants spread over the genome that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or an unfortunate phenotype such as a disease. The basic idea behind these studies is to statistically analyse the genetic differences between groups of healthy (controls) and diseased (cases) individuals. Advances in genetic marker technology indeed allow for dense genotyping of hundreds of thousands of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per individual. This allows to characterise representative samples composed of several hundreds to several thousands of cases and controls, each one characterised by up to a million of genetic markers sampling the genomic variations among these individuals. The standard approach to genome wide association studies is based on univariate hypothesis tests. In this approach each genetic marker is analysed in isolation from the others, in order to assess its potential association with the studied phenotype, in practice by the computation of so-called p-values based on some statistical assumptions about the data-generation mechanism. Because of the very high ratio between the large number of SNPs genotyped and the limited number of individuals, multiple-testing corrections need to be applied when carrying out these analyses, leading to reduced statistical power. While this standard approach has been at the basis of many novel loci unravelled in the last years for several complex diseases, it has several intrinsic limitations. A first limitation is that this approach does not directly account for correlations among the explanatory variables. A second intrinsic limitation of GWAS is that they can't account for genetic interactions, i.e. causal effects that are only observed when specific combinations of mutations and/or non-mutations are present at the same time. The third limitation of univariate approaches is that they do not directly allow to assess the genetic risk, since many of the identified markers (with similarly small p-values) actually account for the same underlying causal factor: exploiting their information to predict the genetic risk is hence far from straightforward. Within bioinformatics, machine learning has actually become one of the major potential sources of progress. As a matter of fact, biology has become nowadays one of the main drivers of research in machine learning, and is by itself already a very competitive research field. Among the subfields of machine learning, supervised learning and its extensions such as semi-supervised learning, stand out as the most mature and at the same time most rapidly evolving area of research. Within this context, the purpose of this thesis was to study the application of random forest types of methods to genome wide association studies, with the twofold goal of (i) inferring predictive models able to asses disease risk and (ii) to identify causal mutations explaining the phenotype. The choice of this family of methods was originally motivated by the fact that these methods are a priori well suited for that kind of analysis due to some of their interesting properties. They are indeed able to deal efficiently with very large amounts of data without relying on strong assumptions about the underlying mechanisms linking genetic and environmental factors to phenotypes, and they can also provide interpretable information, in the form of scorings and/or rankings of SNPs so as to help in the identification of causal genetic loci. In the first part of this manuscript, we analyse the state-of-the art in the application field of genome wide association studies and in supervised machine learning, and subsequently describe in details the three tree-based ensemble methods that we have implemented and applied in our research; in Part II, we report our empirical investigations, in three successive steps, namely i.) a preliminary study on simulated datasets yielding controlled conditions with known ground-truth and allowing for a first sanity check of the T-Trees methods, in ideal conditions; ii.) a detailed study on a given real-life dataset concerning Crohn's disease, where we try to understand the main features of the three different algorithms in terms of predictive accuracy and capability of identification of relevant genetic information, and their sensitivity with respect to various kinds of quality control procedures and algorithmic parameters; iii.) a systematic replication study, where we confirm, on 7 different datasets from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the main outcomes of our study on the Crohn's disease, while using default parameter settings. 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See detailApplication of an innovative design space optimization strategy to thedevelopment of LC methods for the simultaneous screening of antibiotics to combat poor quality medicines
Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2013), 85

The poor quality of medicines is a crucial problem of public health. Therefore, it is important to haveanalytical tools to attend decisions of the legal authorities while combating this offense. In this ... [more ▼]

The poor quality of medicines is a crucial problem of public health. Therefore, it is important to haveanalytical tools to attend decisions of the legal authorities while combating this offense. In this context,the main objective of this study was to develop generic methods able to trace, screen and determineseveral antibiotics and common associated molecules by mean of liquid chromatographic techniques.For that purpose, an innovative Design Space optimization strategy was applied, targeting 16 antibioticsand 3 beta-lactamase inhibitors. The robustness of the developed method allowed using its use in anenvironment where operational factors such as temperature are not easy to control and eased its trans-fer to Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography. To demonstrate its ability to quantify the targetedmolecules, the developed and transferred method was fully validated for two active ingredients com-monly used in association, sulbactam and ceftriaxone, using the accuracy profile as decision tool. Basedon this successful step, the method was then used for the quantitative determination of these two activeingredients in three pharmaceutical brands marketed in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two out ofthe three pharmaceutical products did not comply with the specifications [less ▲]

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See detailIntensification durable de l’agriculture au Bénin, mythe ou réalité ? Une analyse à partir des systèmes de coton biologique et Cotton made in Africa.
Assogba, Sonagnon Claude-Gervais ULg; Tossou, Cocou Rigobert; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013, November)

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and ... [more ▼]

In agriculture, the concept of sustainable development emergence and its omnipresence in political discourses suggests that farming systems move toward systems considered as more environment-friendly and human health-friendly. In Benin, cotton is one of the most sectors concerned by this transformation. Indeed, in spite of the importance of cotton in the economy of Benin, its sustainable production is nowadays threatened by conventional production approach. Various alternatives of production are developed and considered as more environment-friendly than the conventional production approach. This article analyses the sustainability of the organic and cotton made in Africa (CmiA) farming alternatives from the sustainable agricultural intensification theoretical perspective. Structured and non-structured interviews with individuals and focus groups were used to collect data from 90 organic cotton farmers of the municipality of Kandi, and 100 CmiA farmers of the municipality of Pehunco, one of the largest areas of cotton production in the North of Benin. Data were analyzed with methods of normative and relativist comparison, descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was used to verify the normality conditions and in some cases, logarithmic transformation was done to test the variance homogeneity. The comparison of means was done with the test of Least Significant Difference. It appears from the results that in the current condition of implementation, the alternatives system to conventional cotton production approach are not intensively sustainable. Soils fertility and pests’ management face enormous constraints and do not allow improvement of yields, economic performances, and environment protection. So, the sustainability of the alternative systems of cotton production is not guaranteed and can hardly become a reality if additional relevant conditions are not created. [less ▲]

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See detailQuartiere non è un quartiere : Racconto con foto quasi immaginarie
Curreri, Luciano ULg

Book published by Amos (2013)

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See detailRaul Rossetti : Dos de verre
D'Arconso, Sabrina ULg; Curreri, Luciano ULg; Virone, Carmelo

Book published by Les Editions du Cerisier (2013)

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See detailConfigurations institutionnelles de la protection de l’enfance: regards croisés de l’Afrique, de l’Europe et de l’Amérique du Nord
Wouango, Joséphine ULg; Turcotte, Daniel

in Revue Internationale Enfances Familles Générations (2013)

Cet article porte sur l’analyse de trois configurations institutionnelles de la protection de l’enfance : celle en place au Burkina Faso, en Belgique et au Québec. Pour chaque configuration, le texte ... [more ▼]

Cet article porte sur l’analyse de trois configurations institutionnelles de la protection de l’enfance : celle en place au Burkina Faso, en Belgique et au Québec. Pour chaque configuration, le texte explore les transformations qui ont marqué le passage de la prise en charge exclusive de l’enfant par la famille vers la présence accrue de l’État et la manière dont la Convention internationale des droits de l’enfant de 1989 a influencé ce passage. Il montre, au travers d’une lecture historique, que l’implication de l’État dans la protection des enfants a connu des formes et des modalités variables selon le temps et l’espace. L’approche actuelle en matière de protection de l’enfance au Nord et au Sud, approche largement inspirée de la perspective des droits, représente un défi tant pour les intervenants que pour les familles, car son application dépend à fois des ressources disponibles pour aider les enfants et les familles en difficulté, de la capacité d’action des institutions publiques et de l’efficacité des interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailAntitrust Damages in EU Law and Policy : Jurisdiction Issues and Applicable Law: Brussels I, Rome I and II
Francq, Stéphanie; Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2013, November)

This presentation (co-authored with Prof. Stéphanie Francq - UCLouvain) gives an overview of the main issues arising in relation to the private enforcement of competition law within the EU, from a private ... [more ▼]

This presentation (co-authored with Prof. Stéphanie Francq - UCLouvain) gives an overview of the main issues arising in relation to the private enforcement of competition law within the EU, from a private international law perspective. The focus is on the determination of the jurisdiction and of the applicable law [less ▲]

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See detailBalancing the freedom of academia and security interests: can it be done?
Michel, Quentin ULg

in World ECR (2013), 27(November/december), 19

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