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See detailJohn Price, « Territory, rank and mental health: The history of an idea »
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation : Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detailDépasser le paradoxe évolutionniste de la schizophrénie : psychopathologie éthologique et adaptation perpétuelle
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation : Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detailJonathan K. Burns, « An evolutionary neurophilosophy of schizophrenia »
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation : Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detailLeon Sloman, « Role of attachment and social rank systems in three levels of adaptation: Clinical implications »
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation : Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detailPieter R. Adriaens, « Des observations à vous faire dresser les cheveux sur la tête : L’horripilation et la folie selon Darwin et Crichton Browne »
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

in Englebert, Jérôme; Follet, Valérie (Eds.) Adaptation : Essai collectif à partir des paradigmes éthologiques et évolutionnistes (2016)

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See detail13. L’Organisation des Nations Unies, ses organes et ses institutions spécialisées
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Cornet, Jacques (Ed.) Pratiques des Sciences sociales (2016)

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See detail14. Les Institutions économiques internationales
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Cornet, Jacques (Ed.) Pratiques des Sciences sociales (2016)

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See detailShip collision on offshore wind turbines
Bela, Andreea ULg; Pire, Timothée ULg; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

in PIANC Yearbook 2015 (2016)

In a context of development of renewable energies, large offshore wind farms are being built close to traffic lanes and collision risk analysis on supporting structures is becoming a major concern. The ... [more ▼]

In a context of development of renewable energies, large offshore wind farms are being built close to traffic lanes and collision risk analysis on supporting structures is becoming a major concern. The aim of this paper is to present an overview on the ship – Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) collision events. The behaviour of the OWTs structure with monopile and jacket foundations is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Furthermore, an analytical approach is presented for assessing the crashworthiness of the jacket foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailBlowing a liquid curtain
Lhuissier, Henri; Brunet, Philippe; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Journal of Fluid Mechanics (2016), 795

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See detailProcrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking
Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine ULg; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42

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See detailLa pénétration turque dans les Balkans occidentaux. Quels défis pour le projet d'élargissement de l'UE ?
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Santander, Sebastian (Ed.) Concurrences régionales dans un monde multipolaire émergent (2016)

Dans l’évolution de la situation politique, sécuritaire ou économique des Balkans occidentaux (Albanie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Croatie, Kosovo, Macédoine, Monténégro, Serbie) des acteurs extérieurs, comme la ... [more ▼]

Dans l’évolution de la situation politique, sécuritaire ou économique des Balkans occidentaux (Albanie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Croatie, Kosovo, Macédoine, Monténégro, Serbie) des acteurs extérieurs, comme la Turquie, ont joué un rôle important ces vingt-cinq dernières années. Les États de cette région ont vécu, durant une période relativement longue sous la domination de l'Empire ottoman dont le successeur direct a été la Turquie moderne, à l'exception de la Croatie qui a été sous influence de l'Empire austro-hongrois. Suite à la fin de la guerre froide, à la chute du communisme en Albanie et aux guerres des années 1990 en ex-Yougoslavie, la Turquie a renouvelé son intérêt pour la région. Toutefois, c’est à partir de 2002, avec l’arrivée au pouvoir du Parti de la justice et du développement (AKP), que l’État turc – inspiré par la doctrine de « profondeur stratégique » du Premier ministre actuel Ahmet Davutoğlu – est devenu un important acteur régional. D’ailleurs, depuis la fondation de la République turque en 1923, ses relations avec les Balkans occidentaux n’ont jamais été aussi intenses. En effet, la crise financière et économique que connaît l’Union européenne (UE) depuis 2008 a affecté sévèrement les économies des Balkans occidentaux, particulièrement dans les domaines des investissements directs étrangers (IDE), des financements privés et des transferts de fonds de la diaspora. Par conséquent, l’influence de la Turquie mais également de la Russie, de la Chine, et de certains pays arabes du Moyen-Orient a augmenté dans la région. Cependant, en dépit de la crise européenne et de ses répercussions sur les pays balkaniques, l’adhésion à l’UE reste une priorité tant pour ces derniers que pour la Turquie. Dans cette contribution, nous nous pencherons sur la question centrale des défis que représente la pénétration turque dans les Balkans occidentaux pour le déploiement de l’UE dans cette région. Cette question se déclinera en plusieurs sous-questions : quels sont les intérêts de la Turquie dans les Balkans occidentaux ? La présence assertive turque dans cette région présente-t-elle des défis pour le régionalisme européen ? Les stratégies de la Turquie et de l’UE vis-à-vis des Balkans occidentaux sont-elles compétitrices ou complémentaires ? Pour ce faire, la première partie, divisée en trois sections, sera consacrée notamment à la première étape de la pénétration turque dans la région, à savoir celle des années 1990. Enfin, dans la deuxième, elle-même scindée en trois sections, l’analyse portera sur la période post-2000 traitant le processus d’élargissement de l’UE vers la région et la projection assertive de la Turquie. [less ▲]

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See detailTree light capture and spatial variability of understory light increase with species mixing and tree size heterogeneity
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Ameztegui, Aitor; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (2016)

Mixed and multi-layered forest ecosystems are sometimes more productive than monospecific and single-layered ones. It has been suggested that trees of different species and sizes occupy complementary ... [more ▼]

Mixed and multi-layered forest ecosystems are sometimes more productive than monospecific and single-layered ones. It has been suggested that trees of different species and sizes occupy complementary positions in space which would act as a mechanism to increase canopy light interception and wood production. However, greater canopy light interception reduces the average amount and variability of transmitted radiation offering fewer opportunities for all species to regenerate and to maintain forest heterogeneity in the long-run. We investigated whether increasing overstory heterogeneity indeed results in greater canopy light interception and lower variability in transmittance. We modeled the three-dimensional structure of forest stands with 3 typical forest structures, 10 mixtures of four tree species, and 3 different basal areas. We used the forest light interception model SAMSARALIGHT and performed three-way analyses of covariance to analyze the effects of the three varied components of forest heterogeneity. We found no evidence that increasing heterogeneity increases canopy light interception. In contrast, homogeneous stands intercept more light than heterogeneous stands. Variability in transmittance increased in some cases with compositional heterogeneity and, to a lesser extent, with tree size inequalities. The advantage of heterogeneous forests is in opportunities for natural regeneration rather than in opportunities to enhance canopy light interception. [less ▲]

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See detailSafety, efficacy and clinical generalization of the STAR protocol: a retrospective analysis
Stewart, K. W.; Pretty, C. G.; Tomlinson, H. et al

in Annals of Intensive Care (2016), 6(1),

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and ... [more ▼]

Background: The changes in metabolic pathways and metabolites due to critical illness result in a highly complex and dynamic metabolic state, making safe, effective management of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia difficult. In addition, clinical practices can vary significantly, thus making GC protocols difficult to generalize across units.The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the safety, performance and workload of the stochastic targeted (STAR) glycemic control (GC) protocol to demonstrate that patient-specific, safe, effective GC is possible with the STAR protocol and that it is also generalizable across/over different units and clinical practices. Methods: Retrospective analysis of STAR GC in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU), New Zealand (267 patients), and the Gyula Hospital, Hungary (47 patients), is analyzed (2011–2015). STAR Christchurch (BG target 4.4–8.0 mmol/L) is also compared to the Specialized Relative Insulin and Nutrition Tables (SPRINT) protocol (BG target 4.4–6.1 mmol/L) implemented in the Christchurch Hospital ICU, New Zealand (292 patients, 2005–2007). Cohort mortality, effectiveness and safety of glycemic control and nutrition delivered are compared using nonparametric statistics. Results: Both STAR implementations and SPRINT resulted in over 86 % of time per episode in the blood glucose (BG) band of 4.4–8.0 mmol/L. Patients treated using STAR in Christchurch ICU spent 36.7 % less time on protocol and were fed significantly more than those treated with SPRINT (73 vs. 86 % of caloric target). The results from STAR in both Christchurch and Gyula were very similar, with the BG distributions being almost identical. STAR provided safe GC with very few patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia (BG < 2.2 mmol/L, <5 patients, 1.5 %). Conclusions: STAR outperformed its predecessor, SPRINT, by providing higher nutrition and equally safe, effective control for all the days of patient stay, while lowering the number of measurements and interventions required. The STAR protocol has the ability to deliver high performance and high safety across patient types, time, clinical practice culture (Christchurch and Gyula) and clinical resources. © 2016, Stewart et al. [less ▲]

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See detailAlong-stream transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter in a large tropical river
Lambert, Thibault ULg; Teodoru, C. R.; Nyoni, F. C. et al

in Biogeosciences (2016), 13(9), 2727--2741

Large rivers transport considerable amounts of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the ocean. However, downstream gradients and temporal variability in DOM fluxes and characteristics are poorly ... [more ▼]

Large rivers transport considerable amounts of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the ocean. However, downstream gradients and temporal variability in DOM fluxes and characteristics are poorly studied at the scale of large river basins, especially in tropical areas. Here, we report longitudinal patterns in DOM content and composition based on absorbance and fluorescence measurements along the Zambezi River and its main tributary, the Kafue River, during two hydrological seasons. During high-flow periods, a greater proportion of aromatic and humic DOM was mobilized along rivers due to the hydrological connectivity with wetlands, while low-flow periods were characterized by lower DOM content of less aromaticity resulting from loss of connectivity with wetlands, more efficient degradation of terrestrial DOM and enhanced autochthonous productivity. Changes in water residence time due to contrasting water discharge were found to modulate the fate of DOM along the river continuum. Thus, high water discharge promotes the transport of terrestrial DOM downstream relative to its degradation, while low water discharge enhances the degradation of DOM during its transport. The longitudinal evolution of DOM was also strongly impacted by a hydrological buffering effect in large reservoirs in which the seasonal variability of DOM fluxes and composition was strongly reduced. [less ▲]

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See detailSound Production by a Recoiling System in the Pempheridae and Terapontidae
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Fine, Michael; Mok, Hin-Kiu

in Journal of Morphology (2016)

Sound-producing mechanisms in fishes are extraordinarily diversified. We report here original mechanisms of three species from two families: the pempherid Pempheris oualensis, and the terapontids Terapon ... [more ▼]

Sound-producing mechanisms in fishes are extraordinarily diversified. We report here original mechanisms of three species from two families: the pempherid Pempheris oualensis, and the terapontids Terapon jarbua and Pelates quadrilineatus. All sonic mechanisms are built on the same structures. The rostral part of the swimbladder is connected to a pair of large sonic muscles from the head whereas the posterior part is fused with bony widenings of vertebral bodies. Two bladder regions are separated by a stretchable fenestra that allows forward extension of the anterior bladder during muscle contraction. A recoiling apparatus runs between the inner face of the anterior swimbladder and a vertebral body expansion. The elastic nature of the recoiling apparatus supports its role in helping the swimbladder to recover its initial position during sonic muscle relaxation. This system should aid fast contraction (between 100 and 250Hz) of sonic muscles. There are many differences between species in terms of the swimbladder and its attachments to the vertebral column, muscle origins, and morphology of the recoiling apparatus. The recoiling apparatus found in the phylogenetically-related families (Glaucosomatidae, Pempheridae, Terapontidae) could indicate a new character within the Percomorpharia. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic ecology of the seagrass-inhabiting footballer demoiselle Chrysiptera annulata (Peters, 1855); comparison with three other reef-associated damselfishes
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2016), 146(1), 21-32

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming ... [more ▼]

Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming behavior, from almost non territorial to monoculture farmers. In addition, few species inhabit seagrass meadows but, presently, none can be considered as seagrass-eating specialists. The footballer demoiselle, Chrysiptera annulata, is found in the seagrass meadows on the reef flat of the Great Reef of Toliara (Madagascar, Mozambique Channel). Regarding this unusual habitat for pomacentrid, this study aimed to answer 3 questions: 1) What is the diet of C. annulata? 2) Do the resources supporting this diet include seagrass? 3) Does its trophic niche overlap those of other sympatric damselfishes (Pomacentrus trilineatus, Chrysiptera unimaculata and Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus) living in close association with macrophytes or eating algae? Stomach content examination and stable isotope analysis showed that the footballer demoiselle is not a seagrass consumer but is an omnivorous/herbivorous species heavily relying on algal resources and small invertebrates. SIAR, a stable isotope mixing model, indicated it assimilated large amount of turf algae and various benthic or planktonic invertebrates in lower proportions. SIBER metrics pointed out that isotopic niche of the footballer demoiselle partly overlaps the one of its congeneric C. unimaculata, but not those of P. trilineatus and P. lacrymatus. Trophic strategies of C. annulata differed both from farming species such as P. lacrymatus or from less territorial herbivores such as P. trilineatus. Its seagrass meadow habitat on the Great Reef of Toliara allow the conquest of an unusual habitat for damselfishes and could limit competition with C. unimaculata, a species displaying the same territorial behavior and the same isotopic niche but living on the reef itself. [less ▲]

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See detailVers un modèle d’apprentissage réflexif. Recueil de traces d’apprentissage formulées dans les log books des stagiaires en médecine
Vierset, Viviane ULg

in Approches Inductives : Travail Intellectuel et Construction des Connaissances (2016)

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See detailResting-state test-retest reliability over different preprocessing steps
Varikuti, Deepthi; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2016)

Introduction: Resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. While most of the current ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. While most of the current applications are based on data-driven analyses, the use of functionally specific, a priori defined networks provided by neuroimaging meta-analyses represent an important alternative to these, as they allow the standardized assessment of connectivity patterns. Neuronal activity as measured by functional MRI is influenced by various nuisance signals including system noise, thermal noise, and noise induced by physiological processes of the participant. The presence of these confounds in turn have an impact on the estimation of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to deal with this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we investigated the test-retest reliability of FC analyses in meta-analytically defined networks after removing confounding noise regressors. Methods: RS-fMRI data of 42 healthy subjects with an average age of 42 ± 20 years were obtained in two sessions with an average time interval of 175 ± 75 days. A seed-based FC analysis was conducted after spatial preprocessing, approach specific confound-regression, and band-pass filtering [0.01-0.08 Hz]. We focused on the effects of various commonly used confound removals in the resting state studies such as PCA de-noising, global mean signal regression, and removal of tissue-class specific mean signals (in particular, white matter (WM) + cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and WM + CSF + grey matter (GM)) [2,3,4,5,7]. Additionally, we examined GM specific time-series extraction from seed regions. In order to compute the seed based FC, a priori defined networks were analyzed (extended socio-affective default mode [1] and working-memory [6]). Both networks show robust within network resting state connectivity as well as anti-correlation between each other. The reliability of FC was measured using two different measures Spearman correlations and the absolute differences of functional connectivity scores. The different approaches defined by the combination of different masking / confound removal approaches were compared using a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA. Results: The summary ranking across both indices of reliability (Spearman correlations and absolute differences) reflects the major patterns noted in the individual analyses (Fig.1). GM masking, in particular using the group-mean segmentation, improves reliability. PCA denoising in turn reduces it. Within-network connections are most reliably estimated when not using any global or tissue-class specific signal regression, with removing the global WM and CSF signals representing the next-best approach. In contrast, between-network connections are most reliably measured by linear and second order removal of global signals of all three-tissue classes. Conclusion: Our results show that GM masking of the seed regions based on the group-average GM probabilities is advisable when investigating meta-analytically defined networks. In turn, PCA de-noising reduces the reliability of connectivity estimates. Finally, with respect to global signal regression, we observe that refraining from this approach enhances reliability, but comes at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity, indicated by missing anti-correlations between what has been previously described as antagonistic networks. Here, removal of global WM and CSF signals seems to provide a good compromise, as this approach yielded reliable and meaningful estimates of within and between-network connections (Fig.2). We noted that reliability is proportional to the retained variance, presumably including structured noise. Consequently, we would argue that compromises are needed between maximizing reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources. [less ▲]

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