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See detailMitigating the Nuclear ‘Dual-Use Dilemma’: Suggestions for the Enhancement of the Culture of Responsibility
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Conference (2015, November 19)

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in ... [more ▼]

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in nuclear field for addressing the ‘dual-use’ feature of nuclear technologies, and based on precautionary, proactionary or cost/benefit approaches, it suggests the adoption of a framework based on the notion of ‘responsible stewardship’. This model entails: (a) a constant analysis of nuclear technology, both on the side of risks and of benefits, through the involvement and cooperation of all the stakeholders in the field (the involvement of both ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ actors, i.e. governments and scientific community); (b) the adoption of policies through ‘hard law’ and ‘soft law’ sources, which should be periodically revised, and based on the proportionality principle and the reasonableness one (with a balance among rights and freedom, from a constitutional viewpoint); (c) an ongoing communication, dialogue and interaction between actors in the nuclear area. A specific attention is devoted to the balance between the freedom to research and the security needs. Then, the concrete ways for applying such model are explained, in particular with regards to the issue of control of materials, education of people, and control of information. Finally, the historical steps in the governance of nuclear technologies and the positions of different religions addressing the issue have been explored, in order to provide some examples of the suggested approach. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gouvernance environnementale au Sri Lanka. Discours, mise en oeuvre et appropriation locale des politiques de conservation de la nature dans le district d'Hambantota.
Rosillon, Caroline ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2015)

L’approche développée dans cette thèse se situe dans le champ de l’anthropologie politique. Elle ambitionne de conjuguer une approche foucaldienne et les outils de la socioanthropologie du développement ... [more ▼]

L’approche développée dans cette thèse se situe dans le champ de l’anthropologie politique. Elle ambitionne de conjuguer une approche foucaldienne et les outils de la socioanthropologie du développement au sein d’une étude des politiques de développement et de conservation de la nature menées dans le district d’Hambantota, au sud du Sri Lanka. La première partie de la thèse se penche, dans une perspective historique et nationale, sur le cadre politique, discursif et idéologique dans lequel prennent place les programmes étatiques de développement. Il y est principalement question de l’émergence et de l’affirmation du nationalisme cinghalais bouddhiste qui s’est constitué au cours de l’histoire de la formation de l’État postcolonial. Le contenu de ce nationalisme repose sur une glorification du passé précolonial du pays et place la communauté paysanne au cœur de la nation. C’est dans ce cadre national que sont élaborés des programmes de développement à destination des populations rurales dont le contenu repose sur l’idée que la modernisation et le développement passent par la réactivation et la valorisation des traditions et du passé. Dans ce nationalisme cinghalais bouddhiste, la nature, dépositaire des traces de l’histoire nationale « légitime », occupe une place de premier plan et les aires protégées constituent des lieux d’expression, de matérialisation et de popularisation de l’idéologie nationaliste. La thèse met en avant la prégnance de cette idéologie dans la société sri lankaise, son caractère hégémonique et le rôle des espaces et de la nature comme supports de cette idéologie. La deuxième partie consiste en une approche ethnographique de deux études de cas illustrant les politiques de conservation mises en œuvre dans le district d’Hambantota. Il s’agit de deux programmes distincts dans leur nature, leur origine, leurs conséquences et la manière dont ils sont appropriés par les acteurs locaux. Le premier cas est un programme de conservation des tortues de mer conduit par une ONG locale dans un village de pêcheurs (Kandura). Le second cas est celui d’une aire protégée de l’État : le parc national de Bundala. La thèse essentielle développée dans cette partie est que les politiques de conservation ou de développement sont toujours influencées par un ensemble de contingences locales qui résultent d’une histoire et de dynamiques contemporaines et qui conditionnent les résultats des politiques implantées. Dans les deux exemples, il existe des formes de détournements, de dérives et de décalages décrits dans cette thèse à travers les processus d’« appropriation » dont font l’objet les deux programmes dans les localités dans lesquelles ils sont implantés. Ces interventions extérieures mettent en jeu un ensemble de rapports de force liés aux arènes locales dans lesquelles elles sont implantées qui sont elles-mêmes structurées en fonction de multiples réseaux de pouvoir et règles d’organisation. L’analyse comparative de ces deux études de cas révèle d’importants contrastes. Elle met en lumière des marges d’appropriation distinctes entre les deux programmes. Dans l’un, l’omniprésence de l’État ainsi que la verticalité du dispositif laisse peu de place aux formes de réappropriation collective ou individuelle tandis que la nature du projet, dans le second cas, permet aux individus des formes d’appropriation multiples et étendues. Ces contrastes sont liés à des types de pouvoir et de sociabilité distincts et témoignent de l’existence de multiples « faces » de la citoyenneté et de multiples registres de subjectivation dans lesquels les individus se construisent quotidiennement en fonction des situations dans lesquelles ils sont projetés. Cette thèse permet en définitive de saisir les processus locaux et tangibles de la gouvernance environnementale et offre une contribution singulière à l’étude des politiques néolibérales de la conservation de la nature. [less ▲]

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See detailRumeurs et réseaux. Pistes de réflexion sur un projet de recherches et son élaboration
Leyh, Valérie ULiege

Scientific conference (2015, November 17)

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See detailLes musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?
Desseilles, François ULiege

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]

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See detailLe paradigme visuel de l'historiographie. Le cas Arlette Farge
Servais, Amandine ULiege

Scientific conference (2015, November 16)

Au départ de l'étude d'un cas concret, "l'atelier" de l'historienne Arlette Farge, j'ai montré comment le voir habite et détermine certaines modalités du savoir historien, modalités que je réunis dans une ... [more ▼]

Au départ de l'étude d'un cas concret, "l'atelier" de l'historienne Arlette Farge, j'ai montré comment le voir habite et détermine certaines modalités du savoir historien, modalités que je réunis dans une catégorie historiographique inédite, le "Paradigme visuel". [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria-based Biostimulants on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
Nguyen, Minh ULiege; Ongena, Marc ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege et al

Poster (2015, November 16)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use ... [more ▼]

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use efficiency in crops. The aim of this study is to screen commercially PGPR-containing products to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affecting the subsequent grain yields. The screened products collection includes (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 complemented with two strains of phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) B. subtilis, and (5) B. amyloliquefaciens b. These biostimulants were screened under greenhouse and field conditions in 2014 by using spring and winter wheat varieties respectively. There was a significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1. Under field conditions, the interaction between PGPR inoculation and N fertilizer application was assessed. The grain yield was negatively impacted by low N fertilizer applications. Under such conditions, the inoculation of the wheat rhizosphere with Bacillus subtilis increased the grain yield by 15% relative to the water control. However, in the field trial, the variability between plot replicates was high and lead to non-significant results. Based on those results, modified screening strategies for PGPR selection were set up for the 2015 trials to reduce field variability and possibly achieve higher yield increases. [less ▲]

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See detailElp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine
LADANG, Aurélie ULiege; Rapino, Francesca ULiege; Heukamp, Lukas et al

in Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Q-Codes. From Dunedin 2007 to Hyderabad 2015
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege

Conference (2015, November 14)

Aim Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General Practice ... [more ▼]

Aim Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General Practice/Family Medicine (3CGP/FM), an association of ICPC and of a new tool called Q-Codes means identifying the main concepts the writer is willing to share in his/her contribution. This is called ‘text classification’ or ‘topic list building’ in computer sciences and ‘qualitative data analysis’ in cognitive sciences. The GP is dealing with issues concerning the patient and with issues concerning the management of the job. Symptoms, diagnosis and process are up to what we will call clinical activities. General management as well as ethical or quality related issues are up to what we will call non-clinical or managerial activities. Clinical activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the International Classification of Primary Care second edition, electronic, version 5 (ICPC-2 e ver5). Managerial activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the Q-Codes, version 2.1, 2015 which we are explaining now in detail. Method The European cross-lingual portal of health terminologies for indexing and searching Web resources (www.hetop.eu) is using the OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, relying for instance to Bioportal and connected to the world of the Internet of data. We have developed the terminological content of 183 items called Q-codes using a graphic Interface, filling the knowledge base with relevant information about the concept studied, linking them to professional terminologies like MeSH, or to lay ones like Babelnet and DBpedia, if any, and relying them to top bibliographic free full text citations of the domain. Results 183 Q-Codes have been designed and 177 extensive terminological records are available online, for now for beta testers. The whole process is described on http://docpatient.net/3CGP. The ongoing version of the Q-codes is available here in 6 languages http://docpatient.net/3CGP/Q-Codes_ver_2_2.pdf The poster present a general overview of the terminological development. [less ▲]

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See detailFourniture de pages web expliquant la médecine du travail aux médecins généralistes
Mairiaux, Philippe ULiege; Mortelmans, Katrien

Conference (2015, November 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (3 ULiège)
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See detailDo you sing in tune?
Larrouy, Pauline ULiege

Speech/Talk (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULiège)
See detailL’Europe et l’idée d’Europe (1945-1957)
Lanneau, Catherine ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULiège)
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See detailOptimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switching
Atxitia, U.; Ostler, Thomas ULiege; Chantrell, R. W. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2015), 107(19), 192402

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in ... [more ▼]

Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated elec- trons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures. [less ▲]

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