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See detailConsultation citoyenne européenne sur la consommation durable du 25 octobre 2014. Rapport sur la consultation citoyenne organisée le 25 octobre 2014 à l'échelle de la Wallonie
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Macq, Hadrien; Parotte, Céline ULg et al

Report (2015)

Le 25 octobre 2014, une vaste consultation citoyenne s’est déroulée simultanément dans 11 pays européens sur le thème de la consommation durable. Au total, ce sont un peu plus d’un millier de participants ... [more ▼]

Le 25 octobre 2014, une vaste consultation citoyenne s’est déroulée simultanément dans 11 pays européens sur le thème de la consommation durable. Au total, ce sont un peu plus d’un millier de participants qui ont pris part à la discussion à travers l’Europe. En Belgique, l’évènement se déroulait à l’échelle de la Wallonie et le panel citoyen a réuni 105 participants, sélectionnés selon des critères liés au genre, à l’âge, à la répartition géographique, au niveau d’études et à la catégorie socio-professionnelle. Les résultats de cette enquête participative montrent que tous, aussi bien citoyens-consommateurs, producteurs que décideurs politiques ont un rôle à jouer dans la consommation durable. Plus précisément, les participants ont exprimé la volonté que les élus encouragent la consommation durable et rendent son accès plus aisé aux citoyens. En conclusion, les 105 citoyens participant à cette journée se sont largement exprimés concernant leurs habitudes mais aussi leurs demandes vis-à-vis des pouvoirs publics concernant la consommation durable, un sujet auquel une écrasante majorité s’est déclarée très sensible. Outre les demandes citoyennes mises en exergue ci-dessus (éduquer et inciter à l’action quotidienne en faveur de la consommation durable, la rendre moins coûteuse, améliorer et renforcer l’offre de transports en commun), les participants ont également émis le souhait d’être davantage consultés dans la prise des décisions politiques, par le biais de mécanismes participatifs élargis au sein desquels ils peuvent jouer un rôle actif en soutien aux processus politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailDislocation et reconstruction d’un espace européen de la recherche scientifique, 1914-1920
Pirot, Pascal ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 06)

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See detailSynthèse et applications catalytiques d'adduits zwitterioniques de carbènes N-hétérocycliques
Hans, Morgan ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

In 1991, Arduengo isolated and fully characterized the first N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC), thereby confirming the existence of these stable divalent carbon species postulated almost thirty years earlier ... [more ▼]

In 1991, Arduengo isolated and fully characterized the first N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC), thereby confirming the existence of these stable divalent carbon species postulated almost thirty years earlier by Wanzlick. Since then, the enthusiasm for these highly nucleophilic and strongly basic compounds has steadily increased in the scientific community. Their reactivity with respect to organic compounds is very rich and is relatively well documented since the middle of the 1960’s. Their strong electron-donicity and their moderate pi-acidity make them almost universal ligands. NHC complexes have indeed been prepared with practically all the metals from the periodic table. Their high nucleophilicity also allowed to successfully employ them as organocatalysts. The state of the art in these three fields as well as the properties of NHCs and their electronic and steric characterizations are discussed in the introduction of this manuscript. The second chapter is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of imidazol(in)ium dithiocarboxylates (NHC•CS2 adducts), carboxylates (NHC•CO2 adducts) and thiocarboxylates (NHC•COS adducts) and to their applications in organic synthesis and in coordination chemistry. First, because NHC•CO2 adducts do not require any reagents to generate free carbenes in solution, we proposed them as precursors of NHC to promote various Michael additions. Preliminary catalytic assays of a set of five representatives of this zwitterion family in a carba-Michael addition previously reported in the literature highlighted the net superiority of 1,3 dicyclohexylimidazolium carboxylate (ICy•CO2). Subsequently, we showed the efficiency of our catalytic system to promote sulfa-, and phospha-Michael additions. Eventually, the same precatalyst showed efficiency to initiate various sulfa-Michael/aldol organocascades. Second, we looked at the synthesis of a representative set of five imidazol(in)ium thiocarboxylates. Their characterization indicated a probable loss of the thiocarboxylate group. Hence, we tested their efficiency as carbene’s precursors in two benchmark reactions usually catalyzed by NHCs. 1,3-Dicyclohexylimidazolium thiocarboxylate (ICy•COS) turned out to be most effective to promote transesterification/acetylation, while 1,3 bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolinium thiocarboxylate (SIMes•COS) afforded a quantitative yield in the benzoin condensation. Moreover, reaction of NHC•COS betaines with a half-equivalent of ruthenium dimer [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 led to [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC•COS)] complexes in which the zwitterions were bonded to ruthenium by the sulfur atom only. This is a remarkable result because NHC•CO2 zwitterions behaved like efficient NHC precursors leading to metal-NHC complexes, while imidazol(in)ium dithiocarboxylates showed no signs of dissociation. They behaved as kappa2-S,S’ chelating ligands and led to metal-(S2C•NHC) complexes. Finally, catalytic tests of these new complexes bearing NHC•COS adducts in the Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene, in the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate and in the synthesis of enol esters resulted in low yields. However, they provided evidence for the rearrangement of the starting complexes in Ru-NHC species under the experimental conditions adopted. The third chapter is devoted to the synthesis of azolium enolates and their characterization, as well as their involvement in the Staudinger reaction and to their coordination chemistry to ruthenium. Our interest initially focused on the general mechanism of the NHC-catalyzed Staudinger reaction. Literature reports two plausible mechanisms for the [2 + 2] cycloaddition between ketenes and electron-poor imines. The first one, called "Imine-first" involves an azolium amide, while the second one, called "Ketene-first" goes through an azolium enolate. Synthesis and full characterization of these two types of zwitterionic adducts combined with their catalytic assay in the reaction between diphenylketene and N-tosylbenzaldimine allowed us to acquire a strong experimental evidence in favor of the "Ketene-first" observed path. We were then interested by probing the diastereoselectivity observed during NHC catalyzed [2 + 2] cycloadditions between unsymmetrical ketenes and various N sulfonylbenzaldimines. In order to investigate the parameters that influenced the stereoselectivity during these reactions, we prepared and fully characterized two new betaines (S)IMes•EtPhC=C=O and we performed catalytic assays in the reaction between ethylphenylketene and different N-sulfonylbenzaldimines, during which we varied various experimental parameters. We showed that steric hindrance of the catalyst is critical, poorly hindered NHCs favoring cis diastereoisomers, while trans-beta-lactams were essentially produced when more congested catalysts were used. The reaction solvent is also a critical parameter, N,N-dimethylformamide allowing to obtain the best diastereoisomeric ratio, 16:84, in favor of the trans isomer. Finally, the reaction temperature and the nature of the substituent on the N-sulfonylated imine are less important. The last part of this chapter concerned the coordination of NHC•ketene adducts to ruthenium. Our starting hypothesis was that these betaines could provide simultaneously an NHC ligand and an alkylidene precursor (a ketene) to the metal. By this way and from adequate metallic precursors, we envisioned to synthetize second-generation Grubbs type complexes, benchmark catalysts for olefin metathesis, in one step and without the need to handle diazo compounds. Although the first exploratory experiments did not lead to the expected results, they provided crucial information to help achieve these syntheses in future investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailProteome variations in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone: a gel-free proteomic approach
Lafontaine, Anne ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Forget-Leray, Joelle et al

Poster (2015, May 06)

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See detailIconic turn et critique du paradigme langagier
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Je voudrais envisager ici le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non-verbal du visuel, tel qu’il est envisagé par un théoricien de l’image allemand actuel (G. Boehm). On pourrait en ... [more ▼]

Je voudrais envisager ici le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non-verbal du visuel, tel qu’il est envisagé par un théoricien de l’image allemand actuel (G. Boehm). On pourrait en effet dégager – selon la proposition de Boehm – un principe formel (au moins) qui structure l’émergence de significations dans le domaine du visuel. Boehm ne parle de grammaire à proprement parler que pour s’en écarter (il rejette l’usage de la grammaire prédicative pour la compréhension des images). [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological processes leading to activation or avoidance: Protective and vulnerability factors to depression
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Kinderman (2005, 2013) elaborated a psychological model of mental ill-health according to which biological, social and circumstantial factors lead to mental disorders through their conjoint effects on ... [more ▼]

Kinderman (2005, 2013) elaborated a psychological model of mental ill-health according to which biological, social and circumstantial factors lead to mental disorders through their conjoint effects on psychological processes (PP). Our research adopted the same framework. It focused on PP which characterize depression. More precisely, since inactivity (also conceptualized as behavioural avoidance) is one of the main feature of depression, the present research focused on PP which influence the behavioural avoidance (vulnerability factor to depression) and the behavioural activation (protective factor for depression). Three main aims were pursued: To investigate the influence of the biased PP on the behavioural avoidance. To find the PP which have a positive influence on the behavioural activation. To present an integration of our results with Kinderman’s model. Four hundred seventy-seven community adults (358 women, 119 men; x ̅ age = 34.25, SD = 11.85) completed an online survey assessing PP (negative repetitive thoughts, emotion regulation strategies, environmental rewards, self-image, inhibition/approach), avoidance, activation and depression. Since several questionnaires were used to assess each PP, factorial scores were computed for each one. Overall, confirmatory factor analyses highlighted that avoidance is positively linked to ruminations, negative emotion regulation strategies and poor environmental rewards and that activation is positively linked to positive self-image and high environmental satisfaction. Results will also be discussed according to the sex. According to their influence on both avoidance and activation, the environmental reward and the emotion regulation strategies appear to be important variables to work on during the treatment of depression. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tabous à l’école : quelle place pour le juge en classe ?
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des tabous qui suscitent des conflits. Une réflexion politologique est proposée par rapport au phénomène de judiciarisation. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an extension of the catalogue of particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries
De Becker, Michaël ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified ... [more ▼]

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified mainly through the detection of synchrotron radiation in the radio domain, and in a few cases thanks to the detection of non-thermal radiation in the high energy domain. The catalogue of PACWBs contains about 40 objects, covering a wide parameter space in terms of stellar wind and orbital parameters. So far, there is no evidence for a strict criterion to justify the occurrence of a particle acceleration process only in a small fraction of the colliding-wind binaries population, admitting the possibility that it might be a frequent property among massive stars. In this contribution, I address the issue of the frequency of particle accelerators among massive binaries, and I discuss observation strategies aiming at identifying new members of the catalogue. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à la caractérisation des cellules du ganglion spiralé et des cellules de Boettcher de l’épithélium cochléaire durant le développement chez les rongeurs
Cloes, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

As per a recent WHO report (2015), 360 million people worldwide suffer from invalidating deafness. In hearing physiology a central role is played by the sensory cells of the organ of Corti. The sensory ... [more ▼]

As per a recent WHO report (2015), 360 million people worldwide suffer from invalidating deafness. In hearing physiology a central role is played by the sensory cells of the organ of Corti. The sensory cells are responsible for the transduction of the acoustic stimuli into nerve impulses. Located nearby the sensory cells, Boettcher’s cells (BC) are barely known. The first part of our study aims at examining their morphology and ultrastructure during the postnatal development of the rat cochlear epithelium. Our morphological studies indicate that BC begin their differentiation around the 8th postnatal day (P8) and become mature around P20, once they are fully covered by Hensen’s and Claudius’ cells. Moreover, with the help of the transmission electron microscope, we noted the presence of apical tight junctions as long as BC are in contact with endolymph between P8 and P16. Our ultrastructural and immunohistological studies also show gap junctions between BC and the adjacent cells before the end of the covering process of BC. We also noted intermediate junctions between BC during the whole length of their maturation process. Finally we noticed cytoplasmic secretory granules and an accumulated material in the intercellular spaces between P8 and P25. Our data suggest that BC fulfill several functions in the cochlear epithelium: endolymphatic K+ recycling via the stria vascularis and the biosynthesis of the basilar membrane’s extracellular matrix. As the first and exclusive relay for the transmission of the auditory information to the central nervous system, the spiral ganglion (SG) is another key element of hearing physiology. The SG is mainly made up of neurons and glial cells. In an attempt to clarify the embryonic origin of the cells of the SG, we studied a strain of double transgenic mice Wnt1-Cre;Rosa26YFP, which are characterized by the permanent labelling of the neural crest cells by the YFP. We observed a constant labelling in the SG and in the stria vascularis, further supporting that the SG glial cells and the intermediate cells of the stria vascularis originate from the neural crests. However we also detected an additional and changeable positivity amongst the cells of the cochlear epithelium and osseous labyrinth, disqualifying the strain as a suitable tool of investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher male than female recombination rate in cattle is controlled by genetic variants effective in both sexes
Kadri, Naveen Kumar ULg; Harland, Chad ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 05)

We herein study genetic recombination in three dairy cattle populations from France, New-Zealand and the Netherlands. We apply a new phasing algorithm extracting familial information suited for large half ... [more ▼]

We herein study genetic recombination in three dairy cattle populations from France, New-Zealand and the Netherlands. We apply a new phasing algorithm extracting familial information suited for large half-sib families to reconstruct haplotypes and detect cross-overs (CO). The software is robust to genotyping and map errors. We identify more than 2,000,000 CO events in sperm cells transmitted by 3008 sires to 94,603 offspring, and more than 500,000 CO events in oocytes transmitted by 11,497 cows to 25,390 offspring. When measured in identical family structures, the average number of CO in males (24.0) was found to be larger than in females (21.8). In males, recombination rates were higher closer to telomeres whereas in females, recombination rates dropped at both centromeres and telomeres (probably as a result of lower informativity). The heritability of the global recombination rate (GRR) was close to 0.20 in males and to 0.08 in females. Genetic correlation ranged from 0.38 to 0.69 depending on the population, indicating that shared variants are influencing GRR in both genders. Haplotype-based genome-wide association studies revealed four genome-wide significant QTL, including two previously identified ones (involving REC8 and RNF212). For all QTLs, there was a positive correlation between haplotype effects across sexes, ranging from 0.35 to 0.68. We selected two reference panels of respectively 122 and 215 bulls sequenced at cover > 15x to impute variants in the New-Zealand and French populations. All variants identified by next-generating sequencing in 5 Mb windows encompassing the QTL peaks were imputed with Beagle in order to perform a sequence-based association study. For three QTLs, we identified missense mutations in genes known to be involved in meiosis among the most significantly associated variants. These variants were perfectly associated with the haplotypes underlying the QTL effects. The variant identified in RNF212 had already been reported, whereas missense mutations in MLH3 (N408S) and HFM1 (S1189L) are new findings. Surprisingly, variants previously identified in REC8 did not capture the QTL effect whereas variants in RNF212B, PPP1R3E, BCL2L2, HOMEZ and PABPN1 had much stronger association with the phenotype. The three missense mutations were significant in both genders with two of them accounting for approximately 10% of the genetic variance in males (the allelic substitution effect being approximately equal to one additional CO per genome). Our results are very different from reports of recombination in other species. For instance, in human, recombination rate is higher in females, distinct variants affect recombination rate in males and females and the genetic correlation is close to 0 whereas in cattle, we observed a higher recombination rate in males controlled by shared variants effective in both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbeddedness as a facilitator of sustainable entrepreneurship
Dufays, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

This conceptual paper builds on stakeholder theory and the embeddedness argument to shift from the "what" to the "how" question on sustainable entrepreneurship. It shows that sustainable entrepreneurship ... [more ▼]

This conceptual paper builds on stakeholder theory and the embeddedness argument to shift from the "what" to the "how" question on sustainable entrepreneurship. It shows that sustainable entrepreneurship is a highly embedded process and that this high embeddedness facilitates the sustainability character of entrepreneurship. [less ▲]

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See detailDensité et complexité du lien fraternel: le contexte de la parentification
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailLa Shoah au cinéma. Entre histoire, mémoire et politique.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

De "Nuit et brouillard" (1955) à "La rafle" (2010) en passant par "Holocaust" (1979) ou "La liste de Schindler" (1993), la Shoah est depuis les années cinquante au centre d’innombrables films de fiction ... [more ▼]

De "Nuit et brouillard" (1955) à "La rafle" (2010) en passant par "Holocaust" (1979) ou "La liste de Schindler" (1993), la Shoah est depuis les années cinquante au centre d’innombrables films de fiction et documentaires. Considérée tour à tour comme un événement à montrer pour préserver la mémoire du trauma ou, à l’inverse, comme un moment d’histoire irreprésentable par excès d’horreur ou défaut d’images, la destruction systématique des juifs d’Europe par les nazis pose inévitablement des questions de cinéma, de mémoire, et d’histoire politique. En revenant sur plusieurs films, célèbres ou moins connus, la conférence « La Shoah au cinéma. Entre histoire, mémoire et politique » propose un aperçu abondamment illustré des modes de représentation et des enjeux mémoriels et politiques d’une dizaine de films de ces soixante dernières années, pour mieux comprendre pourquoi et comment la représentation cinématographique de la Shoah a profondément déterminé notre vision du passé européen, notre usage idéologique de la mémoire, nos réactions face aux montées extrémistes d’aujourd’hui, et notre lecture de tensions géopolitiques contemporaines plus larges. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of GEOS-Chem for the interpretation of long-term FTIR measurements at the Jungfraujoch and other NDACC sites
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 04)

We present recent and ongoing investigations using 3D CTM GEOS-Chem model simulations for the interpretation of long-term FTIR measurements performed at selected NDACC sites.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe crucial role of soil when modelling the impact of climate change on crop production
Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Shcherbak, Iurii et al

in Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bosch, David; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafa (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1st ASABE Climate Change Symposium - Adaptation and Mitigation (2015, May 03)

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See detailCarbon dioxide, a cheap bio-sourced building block for cyclic carbonates and non-isocyanate polyurethanes
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

Poster (2015, May 03)

Due to concerns about global warming combined with the decrease of fossil resources, new carbon feedstocks that are abundant, renewable, non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly must be ... [more ▼]

Due to concerns about global warming combined with the decrease of fossil resources, new carbon feedstocks that are abundant, renewable, non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly must be explored to produce chemicals. Besides the valorization of bio-based raw materials, the chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into added-value products has gained interest in both academia and industry. To date, the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides with the formation of cyclic carbonates is one of the most promising ways to valorize CO2 at an industrial scale. Indeed, cyclic carbonates find applications as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries, as aprotic polar solvents or as useful intermediates for polycarbonates. Cyclic carbonates also react with primary amines to produce 2-hydroxyethylurethane. This reaction can be extrapolated to the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPU) by polyaddition of bifunctional cyclic carbonates with diamines.5 This study aims (i) at developing a new highly efficient organocatalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates under mild experimental conditions and (ii) their valorization as monomers to produce non-isocyanate polyurethanes. First, we have identified a bicomponent organocatalyst, composed of a judicious combination of an organocatalyst and an activator, for the very fast synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides under very mild reaction conditions. Kinetics of reactions were followed by online Raman spectroscopy measurements under pressure. NMR titrations were realized to evidence the mechanism of activation of this novel organocatalytic system that will be discussed in detail in this talk. The second objective relies on the development of new efficient organocatalysts for the synthesis of high molar masses NIPUs in short reaction times. Organic compounds interacting with the cyclic carbonate by hydrogen bonding were identified and their catalytic activity was demonstrated for model compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomic analysis of the green microalga Chlamydomonasreinhardtii cultivated under day/night conditions
Willamme, Rémi ULg; Alsafra, Zouheir; Arumugam, Rameshkumar et al

in Journal of Biotechnology (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (7 ULg)