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See detaille Comité R dans sa relation avec le Parlement et certains acteurs de l'exécutif : Cohérence ou incohérence?
Stans, David ULg

Book published by Maklu (2016)

Les services de renseignement qui agissent dans un cadre par nature secret peuvent induire une certaine méfiance chez le citoyen. Dans cette période troublée que nous traversons, le grand public se doit ... [more ▼]

Les services de renseignement qui agissent dans un cadre par nature secret peuvent induire une certaine méfiance chez le citoyen. Dans cette période troublée que nous traversons, le grand public se doit d’être informé sur le fonctionnement des services de renseignement belges et le contrôle de ces derniers. Pierre angulaire du système de contrôle, cet ouvrage cherche à apporter une analyse objective du travail réalisé par Comité R dans sa relation avec les acteurs politiques avant la sixième réforme de l’Etat. Ce livre cherche ainsi, sans prétention, à contribuer au développement de la culture du renseignement en Belgique ou, dans une certaine mesure, à lever le voile sur certains préjugés. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the flexibility of Belgian residential buildings equipped with Heat Pumps and Thermal Energy Storages
Georges, Emeline ULg; Garsoux, Pierre; Masy, Gabrielle et al

in Proceedings of CLIMA2016 Conference (2016, May)

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See detailDrug use among adolescents: Multifaceted problem and methodological perspectives
Mathys, Cécile ULg

in Special issue, EARA newsletter (2016)

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See detailGiser: Gestion intégrée sol-érosion-ruissellement - Rapport d'activités 2015-2016
Bielders, Charles; Degré, Aurore ULg; Demarcin, Pierre ULg et al

Report (2016)

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See detailDESIGN AND MODELIZATION OF ACONVEX GRATING FOR AN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER OF THE CHANDRAYAAN 2 INSTRUMENT FOR THE MOON PROBE IN THE INFRARED
Sabushimike, Bernard ULg; Horugavye, Georges ULg; Piron, Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology (2016), 5(2), 69-74

For hyperspectral imaging, diffraction gratings based spectrometers exhibit high spectral resolution and optical performance. Among those spectrometers, the Offner type (which consists of an entrance slit ... [more ▼]

For hyperspectral imaging, diffraction gratings based spectrometers exhibit high spectral resolution and optical performance. Among those spectrometers, the Offner type (which consists of an entrance slit, two concave mirrors and convex grating) offers a lot of advantages. In this paper, we propose the design and modelization of a convex grating which covers a spectral band ranging from 0.7 μm to 5 μm with a minimum diffraction efficiency of 20% at 800 nm, 50% at 3000 nm and 25% at 5000 nm. For a so wide band, a grating with a single blaze cannot satisfy these requirements. We will therefore propose an approach of multi-blaze grating which is subdivided into different sections each with its own blaze angle. Meanwhile, we perform the diffraction efficiency prediction using the scalar and rigorous theories to prove the compliance of this design with the technical specifications. The rigorous theory will also allow us to study the polarization sensitivity of this grating and the calculation of the diffraction efficiency of a grating with a profile degraded by manufacturing errors to assess the impact on the diffraction efficiency and the sensitivity to polarization [less ▲]

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See detailCharles de Gaulle et les Belges francophones, 1940-1950 : la construction d’un mythe
Lanneau, Catherine ULg; Balace, Francis ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailTable ronde : Lecture/jeux vidéo, quelles expériences ?
Barnabé, Fanny ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Le jeu vidéo et le texte sont de vieux compagnons de route. Des premiers jeux vidéo textuels à Skyrim, leur relation est pourtant compliquée. La Compagnie Rebonds d’histoires vous propose au cours de ... [more ▼]

Le jeu vidéo et le texte sont de vieux compagnons de route. Des premiers jeux vidéo textuels à Skyrim, leur relation est pourtant compliquée. La Compagnie Rebonds d’histoires vous propose au cours de cette table ronde de changer de point de vue : plutôt que de considérer les œuvres, intéressons-nous à l’expérience vécue par le lecteur et le joueur. Qu’en est-il des notions d’interactivité , de liberté, d’activité ? Quels liens entre lecteur/joueur, oeuvre et auteur ? Avec la participation de Léo HENRY (ed la Volte, Gallimard, Dystopia…) et de Fanny BARNABÉ (chercheuse en sociologie de la littérature). [less ▲]

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See detailOn Vulnerability and Vulnerabilities of Incident Reporting
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

This PhD thesis – composed of a series of five papers tied together by an introduction and conclusions – explores the functioning of an Incident Reporting System used in a high-risk organization. It aims ... [more ▼]

This PhD thesis – composed of a series of five papers tied together by an introduction and conclusions – explores the functioning of an Incident Reporting System used in a high-risk organization. It aims at understanding how safety is actually constructed by and through this reporting system and what it actually does to the meaning of safety when it prescribes a set of sociotechnical practices. From a conceptual point of view, this PhD thesis departs from classical risk or vulnerability analyses which tend to measure factors in order to produce what are supposed to be “objective” results and “manageable” recommendations for decision makers. By relying on a constructivist understanding of vulnerability, this research explores and characterizes situations and events the consequences of which are ambiguous and the probabilities of which are uncertain. It thus broadens the scope of classical risk or vulnerability analyses and complements it with a qualitative and discourse-based attention to organizational, cultural and ethical questions. [less ▲]

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See detailQuel projet pour l'accueil de toutes les familles ?
Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Notre intervention interroge les enjeux d'accessibilité primaire et secondaire des lieux d'accueil de la petite enfance où sont potentiellement assurées trois fonctions qui peuvent entrer en tension : les ... [more ▼]

Notre intervention interroge les enjeux d'accessibilité primaire et secondaire des lieux d'accueil de la petite enfance où sont potentiellement assurées trois fonctions qui peuvent entrer en tension : les fonctions économique, sociale et éducative. Elle souligne l'importance de dispositifs de Recherche Action Formation qui soutiennent la réflexion et l'évaluation régulatrice des professionnel-le-s, mais aussi des parents sur les actions à mettre en oeuvre au bénéfice de tous dans une dynamique locale concertée avec l'ensemble des acteurs. [less ▲]

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See detail"Passer de voix en voix". Traduire le rythme selon Meschonnic
Viehöver, Vera ULg

Scientific conference (2016, April 29)

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See detailPhysical activity: an unknown concept
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, April 29)

Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to ... [more ▼]

Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of stable isotope ratios to delineate coastal benthic food web structure in Adélie Land (East Antarctica)
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dubois, Philippe; Eleaume, Marc et al

Poster (2016, April 29)

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice ... [more ▼]

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice cover decrease, in some parts of East Antarctica sea ice cover tends to increase, possibly in relation with changes in atmospheric circulation. Changes in sea ice cover are likely to influence benthic food web structure through modifications of benthic-pelagic coupling, disruption of benthic production and/or modifications of benthic community structure (i.e. resource availability for benthic consumers). Here, we studied shallow (0-20 m) benthic food web structure on the coasts of Petrels Island (Adélie Land, East Antarctica) during an event of unusually high spatial and temporal (two successive austral summers without seasonal break-up) sea ice cover. Using stable isotope ratios of C, N and S, we examined importance of several organic matter sources (benthic macroalgae, benthic biofilm, sympagic algae, suspended particulate organic matter and penguin guano) for nutrition of over 20 taxa of benthic invertebrates (sponges, sea anemones, nemerteans, sessile and mobile polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, sipunculids, pycnogonids, amphipods, sea stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers) spanning most present functional guilds. Our results provide insights about how Antarctic benthic consumers, which have evolved in an extremely stable environment, might adapt their feeding habits in response to sudden changes in environmental conditions and trophic resource availability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CCAMBIO project to characterize the biodiversity and distribution of microorganisms in microbial mats of Antarctic lakes
Durieu, Benoit ULg; Lara, Yannick ULg; Obbels, Dagmar et al

Poster (2016, April 29)

The BelSPO project CCAMBIO aims to study the biogeographical distribution of microorganisms in lacustrine microbial mats using a combination of techniques including microscopical observations (light and ... [more ▼]

The BelSPO project CCAMBIO aims to study the biogeographical distribution of microorganisms in lacustrine microbial mats using a combination of techniques including microscopical observations (light and electronic microscopy), strain isolation, and molecular diversity assessment using Next Generation Sequencing. The samples were collected in different Antarctic and sub-Antarctic biogeographical regions. A detailed microscopic study of the Antarctic diatom diversity allowed to revise a number of taxa and discover new ones. A multivariate analysis of diatoms showed that these regions hosted different diatom flora. Endemic diatom taxa were also observed, and a multigene molecular phylogeny of Pinnularia borealis showed a high genetic diversity. Pilot studies were conducted for the microeukaryotes and cyanobacteria to select NGS protocols and bioinformatic pipelines. Preliminary multivariate analysis of over 100 samples revealed that distinct biogeographic zones could be recognized in both the prokaryote and eukaryote data, which is in agreement with the classical subdivision of the Antarctic Realm into Maritime Antarctica, Continental Antarctica and the Sub-Antarctic Islands generally observed in plants and animals. Moreover, Sub-Antarctic assemblages harboured more complex foodwebs, with quite diverse metazoan groups. Lakes on the continent, however, were characterised by fewer metazoan groups and a greater importance of microbial herbivores and secondary consumers, including a relative high diversity of ciliates and tardigrades. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial variables that approximated large-scale regional contrasts in historical (e.g. deglaciation history, geological origin) and climatic factors (e.g. mean annual air temperature) significantly explained the largest portion of the observed variation in community structure for eukaryotes, while in the prokaryote data environmental gradients related to conductivity were more important. In a first analysis of microbial mats from five Antarctic lakes and an aquatic biofilm from the Sub-Antarctic, the majority of the cyanobacterial OTUs retrieved were related to filamentous taxa such as Leptolyngbya and Phormidium, which are common genera in Antarctic lacustrine microbial mats. However, other phylotypes related to different taxa such as Geitlerinema, Pseudanabaena, Synechococcus, Chamaesiphon, Calothrix and Coleodesmium were also found. Results revealed a higher diversity than what had been reported using traditional methods based on microscopic observations and cultivation and also highlighted remarkable differences between the cyanobacterial communities of the studied lakes. In the next months, the molecular diversity data will be deposited into the “Microbial Antarctic Resource System (MARS)” presently developed into the webportal ‘biodiversity.aq’. The better knowledge of the diversity and distribution of microorganisms will contribute to a better assessment of their resilience and local/regional responses to global change. [less ▲]

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See detailElucidating diversity of thin filamentous mat-forming Antarctic cyanobacteria
Lara, Yannick ULg; Durieu, Benoit ULg; Deblander, Victor ULg et al

Poster (2016, April 29)

Freshwater ecosystems range from glacial cryoecosystems, ice shelf meltwater ponds to perennially ice-covered lakes where conspicuous benthic microbial mat communities constitute most of the biomass. In ... [more ▼]

Freshwater ecosystems range from glacial cryoecosystems, ice shelf meltwater ponds to perennially ice-covered lakes where conspicuous benthic microbial mat communities constitute most of the biomass. In these mats, cyanobacteria form matrices that shelter other organisms, and carry out the primary production. Narrow filamentous cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Phormidium are especially abundant in Antarctic microbial mats and are essential for the formation of matrix. However, the lack of morphological criteria and the small cell size of cyanobacteria belonging to these two genera make their identification problematic. Indeed, they are known as polyphyletic taxa according to botanical and bacteriological criteria. The characterization of strains is the first step for an assessment of the real diversity and for understanding their role in the environment. We designed a polyphasic approach that combines molecular analyses, environmental physiology experiments and microscopic observations. Briefly, we amplified and sequenced three loci (16S rRNA, ITS, and rpoC1) for 31 strains of Leptolyngbya and Phormidium. We performed whole genome sequencing for five strains. Cultures at different stage were observed by light and epifluorescence microscopy. Finally, selected strains were grown in nitrogen-limited. The Leptolyngbya and Phormidium strains were distributed into four lineages. Phylogenetic trees supported the distribution of P. priestleyi strains into at least two potentially new lineages, and L. antarctica strains were separated into one endemic and one cosmopolitan lineage. This was supported by the microscopic observations of 1-year old cultures. Genome analyses revealed the presence of sequences related to the production of secondary metabolites in strains from two of the studied lineages. Secondary metabolites are often known for their antimicrobial activities. Such properties would partly explain how cyanobacterial mats survive to predation and degradation by other bacteria. This work provides the first building block to the understanding of survival strategies developed by mat-forming cyanobacteria and how they succeeded as the most abundant phototrophs on the Antarctic continent. This work was realized in the frame of the BelSPo project CCAMBIO. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling in Air Transportation: Cargo Loading and Itinerary Choice
Lurkin, Virginie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We examine two problems as part of this dissertation. The first is a cargo loading problem. The aim is to load a set of containers and pallets into a cargo aircraft that serves multiple airports. Our work ... [more ▼]

We examine two problems as part of this dissertation. The first is a cargo loading problem. The aim is to load a set of containers and pallets into a cargo aircraft that serves multiple airports. Our work is the first to model cargo transport as a series of trips consisting of several legs at the end of which pickup and delivery operations might occur. This problem is crucial for airlines because in an attempt to reduce their costs, most airlines prefer to load as many containers as possible, even if all the loaded containers do not have the same final destination. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to quickly find near optimal or excellent feasible loading plans, and that our approach leads to substantial savings with respect to typical manual approaches currently used in practice. The second problem we examine involves the estimation of itinerary choice models that include price variables and correct for price endogeneity using a control function that uses several types of instrumental variables. The motivation for developing these models is to demonstrate the importance of accounting for price endogeneity and to estimate different price sensitivities as a function of advance purchase periods. This is important as the airline industry can use our results to incorporate different customer segments as revealed through high-yield and low-yield booking curves when evaluating the profitability of airline schedules. Results based on Continental U.S. markets for May 2013 departures showed that models that fail to account for price endogeneity overestimate customers' value of time and result in biased price estimates and incorrect pricing recommendations. The advanced models estimated (nested logit and ordered generalized extreme value (OGEV) models) are shown to outperform the baseline multinomial logit model with regard to statistical tests and behavioral interpretations. Additionally, results show that price sensitivities vary as a function of advance purchase periods, with those purchasing high-yield products being less price sensitive than those purchasing low-yield products (across any advance purchase periods) and those purchasing closer to departure being less price sensitive. Results also indicate that inter-alternative competition is strong for itineraries that share similar departure times. Finally, as part of the itinerary choice model developed in this dissertation, we estimate highly refined departure time of day preferences. Results are intuitive and show that departure time of day preferences vary across many dimensions including the length of haul, direction of travel, number of time zones crossed, departure day of week, and itinerary type (i.e., outbound, inbound, and one-way itineraries). To the best of our knowledge, these curves represent the most refined publicly-available estimates of airline passengers' time of day preferences. [less ▲]

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See detailYearbook 2015 Ateliers d'Architecture III: Logement collectif durable et conception régénérative
Attia, Shady ULg

Book published by SBD Lab, Liege University - 1 (2016)

C’est en Wallonie que la naissance de la seconde révolution industrielle a débuté. La Wallonie est une terre d’innovation. Dans ce contexte, c’est le lieu de création comme le béton de chanvre, les ... [more ▼]

C’est en Wallonie que la naissance de la seconde révolution industrielle a débuté. La Wallonie est une terre d’innovation. Dans ce contexte, c’est le lieu de création comme le béton de chanvre, les briques d’argiles, les panneaux photovoltaïques en acier, les panneaux de paille préfabriqués etc.,… Dans le contexte de lutte contre le changement climatique, du développement durable et d’économie circulaire, les ingénieurs architectes s’allient afin de réinventer une architecture responsable économiquement et écologiquement. Les activités de l’atelier 2014 se concevaient comme une synergie entre les apports théoriques inter disciplinaires, l’expérimentation complète de durabilité régénérative, la construction circulaire et leur intégration dans un projet architecturale. Grâce à un engagement remarquable des étudiants de l’atelier de SBD Lab (Sustainable Buildings Design Lab) et à l’apport enrichissants d’intervenants de multiples disciplines, les résultats obtenus durant cette année 2014 ont complété les prévisions faites pour un site à Liège. D’un point de vue architectural, la multiplicité et l’originalité de solutions proposées par les étudiants nourrissent les réflexions en cours à l’échelle de la ville de Liège et les questions relatives aux conditions de densification et renouveau urbain. D’un point de vue didactique, cette démarche exigeante a favorisé l’émergence chez chaque étudiant d’un savoir structuré tant au niveau conceptuel que pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of turbulent Schmidt number and turbulence model to simulations of jets in crossflow
Valero Huerta, Daniel ULg; Bung, Daniel B

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2016), 82

Environmental discharges have been traditionally designed by means of cost-intensive and timeconsuming experimental studies. Some extensively validated models based on an integral approach have been often ... [more ▼]

Environmental discharges have been traditionally designed by means of cost-intensive and timeconsuming experimental studies. Some extensively validated models based on an integral approach have been often employed for water quality problems, as recommended by USEPA (i.e.: CORMIX). In this study, FLOW-3D is employed for a full 3D RANS modelling of two turbulent jet-to-crossflow cases, including free surface jet impingement. Results are compared to both physical modelling and CORMIX to better assess model performance. Turbulence measurements have been collected for a better understanding of turbulent diffusion's parameter sensitivity. Although both studied models are generally able to reproduce jet trajectory, jet separation downstream of the impingement has been reproduced only by RANS modelling. Additionally, concentrations are better reproduced by FLOW-3D when the proper turbulent Schmidt number is used. This study provides a recommendation on the selection of the turbulence model and the turbulent Schmidt number for future outfall structures design studies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)