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See detailEarly Earth, Life and Astrobiology
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April)

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See detailSuccessional Dynamics of Cyanobacterial Communities Following the Retreat of Two Glaciers in Petunia Bay (Svalbard)
Stelmach Pessi, Igor ULg; Pushkareva, Ekaterina; Lara, Yannick ULg et al

Conference (2017, April)

Most glaciers in Svalbard (High Arctic) have been retreating and thinning since the end of the Little Ice Age in the late 19th century. As a glacier retreats, it exposes new terrestrial habitats for the ... [more ▼]

Most glaciers in Svalbard (High Arctic) have been retreating and thinning since the end of the Little Ice Age in the late 19th century. As a glacier retreats, it exposes new terrestrial habitats for the colonization by pioneering (micro)organisms. Here we report on the successional trajectories of cyanobacterial communities along a 100-year deglaciation gradient in the Ebba- and Hørbyebreen glacier forefields (Petunia Bay, central Svalbard). Cyanobacterial biomass and community composition were evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Pseudanabaenales was the most abundant order in both forefields, followed by Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, Synechococcales, Nostocales and Gloeobacterales. Succession was characterized by a decrease in phylotype richness and a marked turnover in community structure, resulting in a separation between initial (10–20 years since deglaciation), intermediate (30–50 years), and advanced (80–100 years) communities. Community turnover was explained by a combination of temporal and environmental factors, which accounted together for 46.9% of the variation in community structure. Interestingly, phylotypes associated with initial communities were related to potentially novel taxa (i.e. <97.5% similar to sequences currently available on GenBank) and sequences predominantly restricted to polar biotopes, suggesting that the initial colonization is performed by cyanobacteria from glacial and periglacial habitats. Advanced communities, on the other hand, included genotypes with a wider geographic distribution, which are likely able to establish only after the microenvironment has been modified by pioneering taxa. [less ▲]

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See detailThe matter of personal identity
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2017, April)

This talk discuss the concept of facticity in "Being and Nothingness" Questionning this notion through the issue of personnal identity, I study the concepts' meaning of matter and materiality, in Sartre's ... [more ▼]

This talk discuss the concept of facticity in "Being and Nothingness" Questionning this notion through the issue of personnal identity, I study the concepts' meaning of matter and materiality, in Sartre's philosophy. By doing so, I also try to identify in which sense the facticity of consciousness inflects the constitution of its selfhood. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the evolution of the osteoarthritis pathology and the mechanical properties of cartilage in a spontaneous osteoarthritis model in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs.
Legrand, Catherine ULg; Centonze, Prescilia ULg; Comblain, Fanny ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017, April), 25

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan con- tent, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes ... [more ▼]

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan con- tent, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes. In parallel to these histological analyzes, we studied the mechanical properties of cartilage at different stages of disease progression in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. We also correlated the severity of histo- logical lesions with the mechanical properties of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgian Internment Policy as an Example of Hybrid Governance
Pans, Maurice; Darcis, Coralie ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Bestuurswetenschappen en Publiekrecht (2017, April), 4(4),

Het domein van de zorg voor geïnterneerde personen kent internationaal een omslag. Naast de “criminalisering” van personen met een psychiatrische stoornis die criminele feiten begaan, ontwikkelen er zich ... [more ▼]

Het domein van de zorg voor geïnterneerde personen kent internationaal een omslag. Naast de “criminalisering” van personen met een psychiatrische stoornis die criminele feiten begaan, ontwikkelen er zich nieuwe visies en zorgperspectieven op de kwaliteit van leven en de re-integratie in de maatschappij van zowel personen met psychische kwetsbaarheid als geïnterneerde personen.1 Tot zeer recent werden geïnterneerde personen bijna exclusief benaderd als personen die misdaden of misdrijven hebben gepleegd waar ze door hun psychische stoornis niet voor verantwoordelijk konden worden gesteld. De onderliggende logica van de aanpak was sterk geënt op een model waarbij opsluiting en isolatie van de maatschappij centraal stonden omwille van misdaad. Geïnterneerde personen werden om die reden opgesloten in een gevangenissysteem volgens een justitiële benadering. Het behandelings- en zorgperspectief raakte hierbij ondergesneeuwd. De “criminalisering” van personen met psychische stoornissen heeft in België historisch geleid tot inadequate aanpak en begeleiding van deze groep patiënten. Meerdere veroordelingen van de Belgische Staat door het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (EHRM), overvolle gevangenissen, het gebrek aan somatische en psychiatrische gezondheidszorg binnen gevangenissen en psychiatrische annexen en aanbevelingen van het Europees Comité voor de Preventie van Foltering en Onmenselijke of Vernederende Behandeling of Bestraffing (CPT) zijn directe aanleidingen voor het Masterplan Internering (juni 2016)2 en de wet van 5 mei 2014 betreffende de internering van personen3. In deze bijdrage staan we stil bij het Masterplan Internering van 2016 en de nieuwe Interneringswet van 5 mei 2014. We proberen te duiden op welke manier in beide bronnen randvoorwaarden worden gecreëerd voor een hybride bestuursvorm in de sector. We staan kort stil bij beleidsmatige en juridische ontwikkelingen die vooraf gingen. [less ▲]

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See detailSilica or Coal ? Design and Implementation of Dust Prevention in the Collieries in Western Economies, ca. 1930-1980
Geerkens, Eric ULg

in Rosental, Paul-André (Ed.) Silicosis. A World History (2017)

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See detailLe Good Lives Model : un modèle alternatif au modèle de prévention de la récidive
Corneille, Serge ULg; Henrard, Noémie ULg

in Dieu, Erwan (Ed.) Les innovations criminologiques (2017)

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See detailL’ABSP: 20 ans de science politique en Belgique francophone
Reuchamps, Min; Van Haute, Emilie; Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg et al

Book published by Academia-L’Harmattan (2017)

Depuis 1996, l'Association belge francophone de science politique fédère les chercheur·e·s en science politique dans les différents champs qui l'animent en Belgique francophone et au-delà. Cet ouvrage ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1996, l'Association belge francophone de science politique fédère les chercheur·e·s en science politique dans les différents champs qui l'animent en Belgique francophone et au-delà. Cet ouvrage, 20e volume de la collection « Science politique », marque le 20e anniversaire de l'ABSP. Ces deux décennies ont vu de véritables métamorphoses au niveau politique et de la science politique. Ce livre collectif, mobilisant de nombreuses personnalités de l'enseignement, de la recherche et du service à la société, offre un regard rétrospectif et prospectif sur l'état de la science politique en Belgique francophone. [less ▲]

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See detailDecrease in climatic conditions favouring floods in the south-east of Belgium over 1959-2010 using the regional climate model MAR
Wyard, Coraline ULg; Scholzen, Chloé ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in International Journal of Climatology (2017), 37(5), 27822796

The Ourthe River, in the south-east of Belgium, has a catchment area of 3,500 km2 and is one of the main tributaries of the Meuse River. In the Ourthe, most of the flood events occur during winter and ... [more ▼]

The Ourthe River, in the south-east of Belgium, has a catchment area of 3,500 km2 and is one of the main tributaries of the Meuse River. In the Ourthe, most of the flood events occur during winter and about 50% of them are due to heavy rainfall events combined to an abrupt melting of the snowpack covering the Ardennes massif during winter. This study aims to determine whether trends in extreme hydroclimatic events generating floods can be detected over the last century in Belgium, where a global warming signal can be observed. Hydroclimatic conditions favourable to floods were reconstructed over 1959- 2010 using the regional climate model MAR (“Modèle Atmosphérique Régional”) forced by the ERA-Interim/ERA-40, the ERA-20C and the NCEP/NCAR-v1 reanalyses. Extreme run-off events, which could potentially generate floods, were detected using run-off caused by precipitation events and snowpack melting from the MAR model. In the validation process, the MAR-driven temperature, precipitation and snow depth were successfully compared to daily weather data over the period 2008-2014 for 20 stations in Belgium. MAR also showed its ability to detect up to 90% of the hydroclimatic conditions which effectively generated observed floods in the Ourthe River over the period 1974- 2010. Conditions favourable to floods in the Ourthe River catchment present a negative trend over the period 1959-2010 as a result of a decrease in snow accumulation and a shortening of the snow season. This trend is expected to accelerate in a warmer climate. However, regarding the impact of the extreme precipitation events evolution on conditions favouring floods, the signal is less clear since the trends depend on the reanalysis used to force the MAR model. [less ▲]

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See detailKranzhugeln et seconde révolution urbaine en Haute Mésopotamie au IIIe millénaire av. J.-C.
Mas, Juliette ULg

Scientific conference (2017, April)

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See detailSize fractionation as a tool for separating charcoal of different fuel source and recalcitrance in the wildfire ash layer
Mastrolonardo, Giovanni ULg

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 595

Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing ... [more ▼]

Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing wildfires history in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that particle size is a sufficiently robust indicator for separating forest wildfire combustion products into fractions with distinct properties. For this purpose, we examined two different forest environments affected by contrasting wildfires in terms of severity: an eucalypt forest in Australia, which experienced an extremely severe wildfire, and a Mediterranean pine forest in Italy, which burned to moderate severity. We fractionated the ash/charcoal layers collected on the ground into four size fractions (>2, 2–1, 1–0.5, <0.5 mm) and analysed them for mineral ash content, elemental composition, chemical structure (by IR spectroscopy), fuel source and charcoal reflectance (by reflected-light microscopy), and chemical/thermal recalcitrance (by chemical and thermal oxidation). At both sites, the finest fraction (<0.5 mm) had, by far, the greatest mass. The C concentration and C/N ratio decreased with decreasing size fraction, while pH and the mineral ash content followed the opposite trend. The coarser fractions showed higher contribution of amorphous carbon and stronger recalcitrance. We also observed that certain fuel types were preferentially represented by particular size fractions. We conclude that the differences between ash/charcoal size fractions were most likely primarily imposed by fuel source and secondarily by burning conditions. Size fractionation can therefore serve as a valuable tool to characterise the forest wildfire combustion products, as each fraction displays a narrower range of properties than the whole sample. We propose the mineral ash content of the fractions as criterion for selecting the appropriate number of fractions to analyse. [less ▲]

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See detailAn innovative non-animal chitosan hydrogel is able to restore the rheology of osteoarthritis synovial fluid ex vivo
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Rocasalbas, Guillem; Chausson, Mickaël et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017, April)

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See detailUncertainty quantification of Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise using the fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet (f.ETISh) model
Bulthuis, Kevin ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Pattyn, Frank et al

Conference (2017, April)

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ... [more ▼]

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ice sheet (e.g. sub-ice- shelf melting) and future climate forcing are poorly constrained. Here, we propose to improve the predictions of Antarctic ice-sheet behaviour using new uncertainty quantification methods. As opposed to ensemble modelling (Bindschadler et al., 2013) which provides a rather limited view on input and output dispersion, new stochastic methods (Le Maître and Knio, 2010) can provide deeper insight into the impact of uncertainties on complex system behaviour. Such stochastic methods usually begin with deducing a probabilistic description of input parameter uncertainties from the available data. Then, the impact of these input parameter uncertainties on output quantities is assessed by estimating the probability distribution of the outputs by means of uncertainty propagation methods such as Monte Carlo methods or stochastic expansion methods. The use of such uncertainty propagation methods in glaciology may be computationally costly because of the high computational complexity of ice-sheet models. This challenge emphasises the importance of developing reliable and computationally efficient ice-sheet models such as the f.ETISh ice-sheet model (Pattyn, 2015), a new fast thermomechanical coupled ice sheet/ice shelf model capable of handling complex and critical processes such as the marine ice-sheet instability mechanism. Here, we apply these methods to investigate the role of uncertainties in sub-ice-shelf melting, calving rates and climate projections in assessing Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise for the next centuries using the f.ETISh model. We detail the methods and show results that provide nominal values and uncertainty bounds for future sea- level rise as a reflection of the impact of the input parameter uncertainties under consideration, as well as a ranking of the input parameter uncertainties in the order of the significance of their contribution to uncertainty in future sea-level rise. In addition, we discuss how limitations posed by the available information (poorly constrained data) pose challenges that motivate our current research. [less ▲]

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See detailL’ÉCHOGRAPHIE EN SITUATION DE SOIN : STÉTHOSCOPE DU FUTUR POUR LE MÉDECIN GÉNÉRALISTE ?
Henrard, Gilles ULg; Froidcoeur, Xavier ULg; Schoffeniels, Colombe et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017)

Ultrasound is presently emerging not only as a specialist-delegated diagnostic procedure, but also as a tool used by clinicians for guiding decision. If this paradigm shift has taken roots in places like ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound is presently emerging not only as a specialist-delegated diagnostic procedure, but also as a tool used by clinicians for guiding decision. If this paradigm shift has taken roots in places like emergency departments, initiatives are also set up here and there in general practice. The aim of this article is , through a literature review, to identify possible indications of ultrasound performed by the general practitioner and to initiate a discussion about the obstacles and opportunities associated with its introduction in Belgian General Practice settings. [less ▲]

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See detailDéploiement de dispositifs numériques au sein de nouvelles formes d’organisation : de l’émergence à la stabilisation
Jemine, Grégory ULg

in Sociologies Pratiques (2017), 34(1), 49-59

De plus en plus d’organisations du secteur des services s’équipent aujourd’hui de dispositifs numériques variés qui modifient les contextes et les contenus du travail. Ces outils sont présentés comme des ... [more ▼]

De plus en plus d’organisations du secteur des services s’équipent aujourd’hui de dispositifs numériques variés qui modifient les contextes et les contenus du travail. Ces outils sont présentés comme des ingrédients indispensables des modes managériales actuelles qui permettraient à divers dispositifs organisationnels promouvant la flexibilité et la mobilité de s’incarner. La présente contribution propose une étude des ressorts de l’émergence et de la stabilisation de ces dispositifs numériques qui émergent dans le cours de transformations organisationnelles. Nous montrons comment, dans une compagnie d’assurances, les dispositifs numériques sont mobilisés pour répondre à une volonté de « modernisation » de l’organisation et d’optimisation de l’espace de travail. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy due to a novel SLCO2A1 mutation masquerading as acromegaly
Mangupli, Ruth; Daly, Adrian ULg; Cuauro, Elvia et al

in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Case Reports (2017)

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See detailA Royal Head
Laboury, Dimitri ULg; Connor, Simon

in Ben-Tor, Amnon; Zuckerman, Sharon; Bechar, Shlomit (Eds.) et al Hazor VII. The 1990-2012 excavations. The Bronze Age (2017)

Publication / entry in an archaeological report of a greywacke royal head excavated in Tell Hazor, in stratum XIII, in the debris of the final destruction of the site (mid-thirteenth century BCE)

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See detailVitamin D supplementation in the prevention and management of major chronic diseases not related to mineral homeostasis in adults: research for evidence and a scientific statement from the European society for clinical and economic aspects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (ESCEO)
Cianferotti, Luisella; Bertoldo, Francesco; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike et al

in Endocrine (2017), 56(2), 245-61

Introduction Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided ... [more ▼]

Introduction Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided indirect and some direct evidence for possible extraskeletal vitamin D-related effects. Purpose and Methods Members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis have reviewed the main evidence for possible proven benefits of vitamin D supplementation in adults at risk of or with overt chronic extra-skeletal diseases, providing recommendations and guidelines for future studies in this field. Results and conclusions Robust mechanistic evidence is available from in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies, usually employing cholecalciferol, calcidiol or calcitriol in pharmacologic rather than physiologic doses. Although many cross-sectional and prospective association studies in humans have shown that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (i.e., <50 nmol/L) are consistently associated with chronic diseases, further strengthened by a dose-response relationship, several meta-analyses of clinical trials have shown contradictory results. Overall, large randomized controlled trials with sufficient doses of vitamin D are missing, and available small to moderate-size trials often included people with baseline levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50 nmol/L, did not simultaneously assess multiple outcomes, and did not report overall safety (e.g., falls). Thus, no recommendations can be made to date for the use of vitamin D supplementation in general, parental compounds, or non-hypercalcemic vitamin D analogs in the prevention and treatment of extra-skeletal chronic diseases. Moreover, attainment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels well above the threshold desired for bone health cannot be recommended based on current evidence, since safety has yet to be confirmed. Finally, the promising findings from mechanistic studies, large cohort studies, and small clinical trials obtained for autoimmune diseases (including type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus), cardiovascular disorders, and overall reduction in mortality require further confirmation. [less ▲]

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