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See detailSize fractionation as a tool for separating charcoal of different fuel source and recalcitrance in the wildfire ash layer
Mastrolonardo, Giovanni ULg

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 595

Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing ... [more ▼]

Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing wildfires history in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that particle size is a sufficiently robust indicator for separating forest wildfire combustion products into fractions with distinct properties. For this purpose, we examined two different forest environments affected by contrasting wildfires in terms of severity: an eucalypt forest in Australia, which experienced an extremely severe wildfire, and a Mediterranean pine forest in Italy, which burned to moderate severity. We fractionated the ash/charcoal layers collected on the ground into four size fractions (>2, 2–1, 1–0.5, <0.5 mm) and analysed them for mineral ash content, elemental composition, chemical structure (by IR spectroscopy), fuel source and charcoal reflectance (by reflected-light microscopy), and chemical/thermal recalcitrance (by chemical and thermal oxidation). At both sites, the finest fraction (<0.5 mm) had, by far, the greatest mass. The C concentration and C/N ratio decreased with decreasing size fraction, while pH and the mineral ash content followed the opposite trend. The coarser fractions showed higher contribution of amorphous carbon and stronger recalcitrance. We also observed that certain fuel types were preferentially represented by particular size fractions. We conclude that the differences between ash/charcoal size fractions were most likely primarily imposed by fuel source and secondarily by burning conditions. Size fractionation can therefore serve as a valuable tool to characterise the forest wildfire combustion products, as each fraction displays a narrower range of properties than the whole sample. We propose the mineral ash content of the fractions as criterion for selecting the appropriate number of fractions to analyse. [less ▲]

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See detailAn innovative non-animal chitosan hydrogel is able to restore the rheology of osteoarthritis synovial fluid ex vivo
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Rocasalbas, Guillem; Chausson, Mickaël et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2017, April)

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See detailUncertainty quantification of Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise using the fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet (f.ETISh) model
Bulthuis, Kevin ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Pattyn, Frank et al

Conference (2017, April)

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ... [more ▼]

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ice sheet (e.g. sub-ice- shelf melting) and future climate forcing are poorly constrained. Here, we propose to improve the predictions of Antarctic ice-sheet behaviour using new uncertainty quantification methods. As opposed to ensemble modelling (Bindschadler et al., 2013) which provides a rather limited view on input and output dispersion, new stochastic methods (Le Maître and Knio, 2010) can provide deeper insight into the impact of uncertainties on complex system behaviour. Such stochastic methods usually begin with deducing a probabilistic description of input parameter uncertainties from the available data. Then, the impact of these input parameter uncertainties on output quantities is assessed by estimating the probability distribution of the outputs by means of uncertainty propagation methods such as Monte Carlo methods or stochastic expansion methods. The use of such uncertainty propagation methods in glaciology may be computationally costly because of the high computational complexity of ice-sheet models. This challenge emphasises the importance of developing reliable and computationally efficient ice-sheet models such as the f.ETISh ice-sheet model (Pattyn, 2015), a new fast thermomechanical coupled ice sheet/ice shelf model capable of handling complex and critical processes such as the marine ice-sheet instability mechanism. Here, we apply these methods to investigate the role of uncertainties in sub-ice-shelf melting, calving rates and climate projections in assessing Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise for the next centuries using the f.ETISh model. We detail the methods and show results that provide nominal values and uncertainty bounds for future sea- level rise as a reflection of the impact of the input parameter uncertainties under consideration, as well as a ranking of the input parameter uncertainties in the order of the significance of their contribution to uncertainty in future sea-level rise. In addition, we discuss how limitations posed by the available information (poorly constrained data) pose challenges that motivate our current research. [less ▲]

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See detailL’ÉCHOGRAPHIE EN SITUATION DE SOIN : STÉTHOSCOPE DU FUTUR POUR LE MÉDECIN GÉNÉRALISTE ?
Henrard, Gilles ULg; Froidcoeur, Xavier ULg; Schoffeniels, Colombe et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017)

Ultrasound is presently emerging not only as a specialist-delegated diagnostic procedure, but also as a tool used by clinicians for guiding decision. If this paradigm shift has taken roots in places like ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound is presently emerging not only as a specialist-delegated diagnostic procedure, but also as a tool used by clinicians for guiding decision. If this paradigm shift has taken roots in places like emergency departments, initiatives are also set up here and there in general practice. The aim of this article is , through a literature review, to identify possible indications of ultrasound performed by the general practitioner and to initiate a discussion about the obstacles and opportunities associated with its introduction in Belgian General Practice settings. [less ▲]

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See detailDéploiement de dispositifs numériques au sein de nouvelles formes d’organisation : de l’émergence à la stabilisation
Jemine, Grégory ULg

in Sociologies Pratiques (2017), 34(1), 49-59

De plus en plus d’organisations du secteur des services s’équipent aujourd’hui de dispositifs numériques variés qui modifient les contextes et les contenus du travail. Ces outils sont présentés comme des ... [more ▼]

De plus en plus d’organisations du secteur des services s’équipent aujourd’hui de dispositifs numériques variés qui modifient les contextes et les contenus du travail. Ces outils sont présentés comme des ingrédients indispensables des modes managériales actuelles qui permettraient à divers dispositifs organisationnels promouvant la flexibilité et la mobilité de s’incarner. La présente contribution propose une étude des ressorts de l’émergence et de la stabilisation de ces dispositifs numériques qui émergent dans le cours de transformations organisationnelles. Nous montrons comment, dans une compagnie d’assurances, les dispositifs numériques sont mobilisés pour répondre à une volonté de « modernisation » de l’organisation et d’optimisation de l’espace de travail. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy due to a novel SLCO2A1 mutation masquerading as acromegaly
Mangupli, Ruth; Daly, Adrian ULg; Cuauro, Elvia et al

in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Case Reports (2017)

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See detailA Royal Head
Laboury, Dimitri ULg; Connor, Simon

in Ben-Tor, Amnon; Zuckerman, Sharon; Bechar, Shlomit (Eds.) et al Hazor VII. The 1990-2012 excavations. The Bronze Age (2017)

Publication / entry in an archaeological report of a greywacke royal head excavated in Tell Hazor, in stratum XIII, in the debris of the final destruction of the site (mid-thirteenth century BCE)

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See detailVitamin D supplementation in the prevention and management of major chronic diseases not related to mineral homeostasis in adults: research for evidence and a scientific statement from the European society for clinical and economic aspects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (ESCEO)
Cianferotti, Luisella; Bertoldo, Francesco; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike et al

in Endocrine (2017), 56(2), 245-61

Introduction Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided ... [more ▼]

Introduction Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided indirect and some direct evidence for possible extraskeletal vitamin D-related effects. Purpose and Methods Members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis have reviewed the main evidence for possible proven benefits of vitamin D supplementation in adults at risk of or with overt chronic extra-skeletal diseases, providing recommendations and guidelines for future studies in this field. Results and conclusions Robust mechanistic evidence is available from in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies, usually employing cholecalciferol, calcidiol or calcitriol in pharmacologic rather than physiologic doses. Although many cross-sectional and prospective association studies in humans have shown that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (i.e., <50 nmol/L) are consistently associated with chronic diseases, further strengthened by a dose-response relationship, several meta-analyses of clinical trials have shown contradictory results. Overall, large randomized controlled trials with sufficient doses of vitamin D are missing, and available small to moderate-size trials often included people with baseline levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50 nmol/L, did not simultaneously assess multiple outcomes, and did not report overall safety (e.g., falls). Thus, no recommendations can be made to date for the use of vitamin D supplementation in general, parental compounds, or non-hypercalcemic vitamin D analogs in the prevention and treatment of extra-skeletal chronic diseases. Moreover, attainment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels well above the threshold desired for bone health cannot be recommended based on current evidence, since safety has yet to be confirmed. Finally, the promising findings from mechanistic studies, large cohort studies, and small clinical trials obtained for autoimmune diseases (including type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus), cardiovascular disorders, and overall reduction in mortality require further confirmation. [less ▲]

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See detailD’une victime à l’autre: Posture ou (im)posture victimaire?
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017), 2017/1

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See detailSiblings and the coming out process: a comparative case study
Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg; Cerezo, Alison; Bergfeld, Jeanette et al

in Journal of Homosexuality (2017), 64

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See detailDes "fabriques de mosquée" à Bruxelles?
Husson, Jean-François ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Le bourgmestre de Bruxelles a proposé la création de "fabriques de mosquées" pour encadrer l'action des lieux de culte musulmans. Cette carte blanche lui répond, en expliquant qu'un tel instrument existe ... [more ▼]

Le bourgmestre de Bruxelles a proposé la création de "fabriques de mosquées" pour encadrer l'action des lieux de culte musulmans. Cette carte blanche lui répond, en expliquant qu'un tel instrument existe déjà et que cela ne répondra par ailleurs pas à certaines inquiétudes exprimées. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical sub-categorization of minimally conscious state according to resting functional connectivity
Aubinet, Charlène ULg; Heine, Lizette ULg; Martial, Charlotte ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 31)

Introduction: Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) have been subcategorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, respectively with and without command following capacity. Here we aim to characterize ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) have been subcategorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, respectively with and without command following capacity. Here we aim to characterize differences in MCS plus as compared to MCS minus by means of functional connectivity (FC). Method: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI) was acquired in 292 MCS patients and a seed-based analysis was conducted on a convenience sample of 19 MCS patients (10 MCS plus and 9 MCS minus) and 35 healthy controls. We investigated the left and right frontoparietal networks (FPN), the auditory network and the default mode network (DMN). We employed a ROI-to-ROI analysis to investigate the inter-hemispheric connectivity and we investigated inter-group differences in grey and white matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry. Results: We found a higher FC in MCS plus as compared to MCS minus in the left FPN, specifically between the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the left temporo-occipital fusiform cortex (TOFC). The FC of auditory network, right FPN and DMN, inter-hemispheric connectivity and structure of grey and white matter did not show differences between patients groups. Discussion: Our results suggest that the clinical sub-categorization of MCS is sustained by FC differences in a language-related executive control network. MCS plus and MCS minus patients are not differentiated by networks involved in auditory processing, perception of surroundings and internal thoughts, nor by differences in inter-hemispheric connectivity and in morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Q-Codes et la terminologie multilingue de médecine générale et de famille
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Schuers, Matthieu; Ouvrard, Patrick et al

Conference (2017, March 31)

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See detailStaatssteun aan groene energie
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

Scientific conference (2017, March 31)

In this presentation, I tackle the subject of aid in the context of green energy, discussing the legal framework as well as cases and pitfalls.

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See detailProposals for a further expansion of day surgery in Belgium
Leroy, Roos; Camberlin, Cécile; Lefevre, Mélanie ULg et al

Report (2017)

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See detailDFT investigation of the reaction mechanism for the guanidine catalyzed ring-opening of cyclic carbonates by aromatic and alkyl-amines
Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2017), 7(31), 18993-19001

The guanidine catalysed aminolysis of propylene carbonate has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and highlights that different reaction pathways are involved depending on the ... [more ▼]

The guanidine catalysed aminolysis of propylene carbonate has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and highlights that different reaction pathways are involved depending on the aromatic or aliphatic nature of the amine. The structural ability of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) to simultaneously give and receive protons was demonstrated by a detailed mechanistic investigation. The bifunctional activity (base/H-bond donor) of TBD significantly reduces the Gibbs energy of the reaction and allows understanding its higher efficiency compared to its methyl counterpart (MTBD). [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-evaporator air-conditioning system (MEAC): NUMERICAL MODELLING & EXPERIMENTAL TEST BENCH
Gillet, Thomas ULg

Scientific conference (2017, March 31)

Regulation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions becomes more and more stringent and the fuel consumption targets decrease. In order to meet these demands, vehicle electrification has increased over the ... [more ▼]

Regulation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions becomes more and more stringent and the fuel consumption targets decrease. In order to meet these demands, vehicle electrification has increased over the last decade. With the arrival of plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles, efficient battery cooling system becomes a necessity and has to be integrated into the vehicle thermal management. One of the possibility is to integrate a chiller in the air conditioning system for extreme operating points. Moreover, this kind of system can be dedicated to luxury or large passenger cars for which a secondary evaporator is present to guarantee the comfort for rear passengers. The main challenge of this air-conditioning architecture is to maintain simultaneously the cabin thermal comfort via one or two evaporators on one hand and to maintain the battery cells in an ideal temperature range on the other hand. [less ▲]

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