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See detailDes pratiques enseignantes qui font obstacle au rôle des modèles dans la construction des savoirs scientifiques
Dontaine, Matthieu; Heins, Pascal ULg; Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

Conference (2016, March)

Dans une perspective comparatiste, des didacticiens de plusieurs disciplines (biologie, chimie, histoire de l’art, mathématique et physique) ont étudié des pratiques enseignantes faisant obstacle au rôle ... [more ▼]

Dans une perspective comparatiste, des didacticiens de plusieurs disciplines (biologie, chimie, histoire de l’art, mathématique et physique) ont étudié des pratiques enseignantes faisant obstacle au rôle des modèles dans la construction des savoirs scientifiques. Leur réflexion croisée les a amenés à considérer des niveaux élevés de l’échelle de codétermination didactique de Chevallard (2012) pour identifier des indicateurs d’une certaine forme de positivisme empirique dans l’épistémologie spontanée des enseignants. Cette posture s’exprime plus ou moins différemment d’une discipline à l’autre mais le fait que les modèles et théories enseignées ont fait ou non l’objet d’une standardisation au sein de communautés scientifiques savantes déterminent fortement leur transposition didactique. De ce point de vue, l’exemple de l’histoire de l’art a joué un rôle méthodologique important permettant de contraster et de questionner les pratiques dans les autres disciplines. Ce questionnement s’inscrit dans un objectif à plus long terme qui est la reproblématisation (au sens de Orange, 2005) d’enseignements relatifs aux disciplines enseignées. [less ▲]

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See detailLe parc scientifique du Sart Tilman, "Liege Science Park"
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Pierre Geurts, Caroline Lamarche (Ed.) Dérivations 2 Pour le débat urbain (2016)

L'article retrace l'histoire du parc scientifique de Liège et tente d'en montrer les impacts sur le redéploiement régional. Il cherche aussi à développer une réflexion sur le concept de parc scientifique ... [more ▼]

L'article retrace l'histoire du parc scientifique de Liège et tente d'en montrer les impacts sur le redéploiement régional. Il cherche aussi à développer une réflexion sur le concept de parc scientifique, ses liens avec la recherche ainsi que les enjeux et défis liés au futur du tout parc de ce genre [less ▲]

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See detailSouthern Blues Night , Heerlen (Hollande) 19 mars 2016
Sacré, Robert ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

Compte rendu de la Southern Blues Night annuelle de Heerlen aux Pays Bas, avec photos

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Le dulaglutide (Trulicity®) : Nouvel agoniste des récepteurs du Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 en injection hebdomadaire pour traiter le diabète de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71

Summary : Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme ... [more ▼]

Summary : Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme demonstrated the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes treated by diet and exercise, metformin, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone or even by supplements of prandial insulin. In the AWARD programme, dulaglutide (subcutaneous 0.75 or 1.5 mg once weekly) exerted a greater glucose-lowering activity than metformin, sitagliptin, exenatide or insulin glargine, and was non-inferior to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily. Dulaglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure of and in combination with a dual oral therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone. [less ▲]

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See detail2nd International Conference, Architecture & Philosophy: AT THE TURN OF THE EXPERIENCE, questioning what we build, sharing what we face
YOUNES, Chris; BONNAUD, Xavier; Bodart, Céline ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, March)

The conference is an initiative of the GERPHAU lab, research group for Philosophy, Architecture, Urban (Architecture School of Paris La Villette, UMR 7218 CNRS-Lavue), in partnership with Cité de l ... [more ▼]

The conference is an initiative of the GERPHAU lab, research group for Philosophy, Architecture, Urban (Architecture School of Paris La Villette, UMR 7218 CNRS-Lavue), in partnership with Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine and philAU (a scientific thematic network : Philosophy, Architecture, Urban). This conference is also supported by ARENA(Architectural Research in Europe Network Association), a shared platform that aims to promote, support, develop and disseminate high-quality research in all fields of architecture in the widest sense. The proposal of the conference AT THE TURN OF THE EXPERIENCE is to start with the hypothesis that the architecture could be conceive as a way of enquiring on this new experience of the world. Because it provides precisely access to the experience modalities of the building world, we argue that it could in return reveal such a processing paradigm shift in the making of human settlements. We invite to re-invest and re-question its representation apparatus that it used to deploy on territories in order to translate in fictions and projects what these ones could become. To discuss about these apparatus just as such these possible translations, the conference is addressed to all researchers and practitioners, architects and creators, the experienced ones and the experiencing ones as well, whose works attempt to question what we build and to share what we face. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette diagnostique de l’étudiant. L’importance du facteur temps et de la chronologie des événements dans l’anamnèse médicale
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71

Summary : Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails ... [more ▼]

Summary : Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails to use the information on time in an optimal way. The aim of this article is to draw the attention on a few key elements, especially the age of the patient, the duration of symptoms, the time of occurrence of complaints within the 24h period and, finally, how to interpret the simultaneous or sequential occurrence of two (or more) events. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing platelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knees: Exploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2016), 19(3), 200-204

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove ... [more ▼]

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of two or three successive infiltrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether two infiltrations of PRP proves more effective than a single treatment. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized and comparative study of level 2. METHODS: Twenty patients suffering from chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups (one or two infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. RESULTS: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between one or two infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the two groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie du joueur de tennis
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Schaus, Jean; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2016), 33(1), 43-47

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are ... [more ▼]

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are subject to traumatic and microtraumatic pathologies. This epidemiological review oftennis-related injuries addresses their type and locations, the cause and time of absence, the demographic and gender differences, as well as theinfluence of technique of play and type of field on their impact. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mise en état et les conclusions
Stassin, Maxime ULg

in Boularbah, Hakim; van Drooghenbroeck, Jean-François (Eds.) Pot-pourri I et autres actualités en droit judiciaire (2016)

Actualités en matières de mise en état et de rédaction des conclusions suite à la loi du 19 octobre 2015, dite "Pot-pourri I".

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See detailOrphan Black and Literature
Guesse, Carole ULg

Conference (2016, March)

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See detailInhibition of mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase impairs viability of cancer cells in a cell-specific metabolismdependent manner
Bunik, Victoria; Mkrtchyan, Garait; Grabarska, Aneta et al

in Oncotarget (2016), 7(26400), 26421

2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often implied to be inactive in cancer, but this was not experimentally tested. We addressed the question through specific ... [more ▼]

2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often implied to be inactive in cancer, but this was not experimentally tested. We addressed the question through specific inhibition of OGDH by succinyl phosphonate (SP). SP action on different cancer cells was investigated using indicators of cellular viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic profiling and transcriptomics. Relative sensitivity of various cancer cells to SP changed with increasing SP exposure and could differ in the ATP- and NAD(P)H-based assays. Glioblastoma responses to SP revealed metabolic sub-types increasing or decreasing cellular ATP/NAD(P)H ratio under OGDH inhibition. Cancer cell homeostasis was perturbed also when viability indicators were SPresistant, e.g. in U87 and N2A cells. The transcriptomics database analysis showed that the SP-sensitive cells, such as A549 and T98G, exhibit the lowest expression of OGDH compared to other TCA cycle enzymes, associated with higher expression of affiliated pathways utilizing 2-oxoglutarate. Metabolic profiling confirmed the dependence of cellular SP reactivity on cell-specific expression of the pathways. Thus, oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate is significant for the interdependent homeostasis of NAD(P)H, ATP, ROS and key metabolites in various cancer cells. Assessment of cellspecific responses to OGDH inhibition is of diagnostic value for anticancer strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailBois, brique et fer : Approche multi-disciplinaire de la charpente de l'église Notre-Dame du Sablon, Bruxelles (RBC)
CREMER, Sarah; FRAITURE, Pascale; Hoffsummer, Patrick ULg et al

in Archaeologia Mediaevalis (2016), 39

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See detailFrom Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg; DUPONT, Nathalie ULg; OUDKERK, Julie ULg et al

in Journal of Dental Research (2016), 95(5), 487-495

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have ... [more ▼]

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD- CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks—especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature–high pressure (HT-HP)—are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high- performance composite CAD-CAM blocks—particularly experimental PICNs—can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as “no prep” treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial need to conduct clinical studies. Last, manufacturers should provide more complete information regarding their product polymerization process, microstructure, and composition, which significantly influence CAD-CAM material properties. [less ▲]

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See detailLa glande pinéale, la mélatonine, et la régulation des rythmes hormonaux
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 29)

The pineal gland, melatonin, and the regulation of hormonal rhythms Dr. H Valdés-Socin. Head of clinic. Department of Endocrinology. CHU de Liège The pineal gland is known by Anatomists since the middle ... [more ▼]

The pineal gland, melatonin, and the regulation of hormonal rhythms Dr. H Valdés-Socin. Head of clinic. Department of Endocrinology. CHU de Liège The pineal gland is known by Anatomists since the middle ages. Andrea Vesalius described it in the chap VII of his monumental book "De humani corporis fabrica (1555)". René Descartes had the intuition that the pineal gland is a "third eye" and that is how his illustrator Florent Schuyl represented it in figure 34 of Descartes book "De Homine" (1662). As for the artists, some of them illustrated from their paintings some craniotomies in which the surgeon performs the extraction of the stone of madness. Thus, "the extraction of the stone of madness" from Pieter Huys, is exposed in the Museum of the Périgord (1561). Jan Sanders showed the same subject in his painting "The surgeon" (1550) exhibited in the Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. During the 20th century the anatomy and the physiology of the pineal gland will be revisited: it appears so that the pinealocytes are in close relationship to the photoreceptors. In certain animal species (birds, reptiles) the pinealocytes are also photosensitive: their pineal gland is directly sensitive to light. In addition, in humans, the pinealoblastomes may occur related to the "trilateral retinoblastoma syndrome" caused by mutations in the RB1 gene (13q14.2) (Plowman & al Clin Oncol 2004). These patients present with retinoblastoma in both eyes but also in the pineal. This only strengthens the intuition of Descartes as the pineal as a "third eye". As for the genetic and hereditary aspect, we had the opportunity as well as other authors, to describe the family presentation of pineal lesions with hypersecretion of melatonin (Allouch & al 2002). With the greater availability of Radiology and brain scans, it was discovered with interest that the pineal gland is often calcified. This calcification can be observed since the second decade of life. It is not yet established if the pineal gland should be considered a"stone of madness " however it is a sort of “cerebral lithiasis”. Indeed, during this oral presentation, we will show some data linking the pineal gland and the light to seasonal depression. "Folly" induced by the long winter nights can be prevented from light therapy treatment. Severe head trauma is associated to Hypopituitarism up to 10-35% of cases, depending on the dynamic tests used to diagnose hypopituitarism (Valdés-Socin & al 2009, Valdés-Socin & al 2015). A current research topic is the study of disturbance of circadian hormonal cycles and secretion of melatonin. The secretion of melatonin occurs at night, and its synthesis is made in the pineal gland and then discharged to the general circulation. However, there is a quantitatively most important melatonin production at the level of the digestive tract. This melatonin would have essentially a paracrine effect. The administration of melatonin in humans results in variable pharmacokinetics due to its hepatic metabolism and its urinary excretion. Membrane melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors use G proteins transduction. They are distributed mainly in the CNS at the level of the retina, hypothalamic nuclei and the pineal gland. They are also found in the periphery and in endocrine glands. A third melatonin receptor or MT3 is intracellular: this is the quinone reductase enzyme that has an important role in protection against oxidative stress (Lucchetti & al FASEB 2010). A current research topic is the role of a variant MT2 receptor (Variant rs 10830963) in diabetology. Patients harbouring this variant has been shown to have a a decrease in the early phase of insulin secretion(Langenberg & al Diabetologia 2009), and have a higher fasting morning glycemia, and consequently, an increased risk of developing a type 2 diabetes. These findings were demonstrated in a meta-analysis involving 170 000 patients (Mao & al PLOS one 2012). The same variant has been identified in patients at risk of developing glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes (al Diabetologia 2012, Liao, Walford & al PLO one 2012) Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland from the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin. Enzymes such as alkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and of acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) ensure the synthesis of melatonin from serotonin. Apart from melatonin which can be prescribed as such in Belgium, there are synthetic analogs of melatonin such as CIRCADIN. AGOMELATONINE is available in France (lab SERVIER). VALDOXAN is a structural analogue of melatonin developed as a sedative antidepressant daily, which must be taken at sunset. It is a MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and antagonist of the serotonin 5HT2C receptors. We can also mention RAMELTEON (TAKEDA lab), which is registered as an hypnotic. Références B Claustrat. Médecine du Sommeil 2009 Allouch A , Valdes Socin H, Hendrick JC, Beckers A et Legros JJ. Pinéalomes familiaux: études biologiques et génétiques préliminaires. Annales Endocrinol 2002 (abstract). H Valdes-Socin, L Vroonen, P Robe, D Martin, A Beckers. Hypopituitarisme consécutive aux dommages cérébraux: le trauma crânien et l’hémorragie sous-arachnoïdienne mis en cause. Rev Med Liège 2009 ;64(9),457-464. Valdes-Socin, Potorac , Matagne, Bonneville & Beckers. Etude et prévalence des troubles neuroendocriniens dans une série de 65 patients avec dommages cérébraux post traumatiques (TBI) recrutés à partir de la médecine d'expertise. Annales d'Endocrinologie (abstract) 2015 Goyal &l. Diabetol Metab Syndr. Melatonin supplementation to treat the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.2014 Nov 18;6:124. doi: 10.1186/1758-5996-6-124. eCollection 2014. Romo-Nava & al. Melatonin attenuates antipsychotic metabolic effects: an eight-week randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Bipolar Disord. 2014 Jun;16(4):410-21. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12196. Epub 2014 Mar 17. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3
Sando, D.; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous ... [more ▼]

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology—a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption—reminiscent of piezochromism—which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses. [less ▲]

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See detail1949/1979 : Les Temps Modernes et l'Allemagne
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 29)

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See detailMultiscale approach of spray retention on superhydrophobic plant surfaces
Massinon, Mathieu ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

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See detailIndirect quadrangular mesh generation and validation of curved finite elements
Johnen, Amaury ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Among the different types of 3D finite element meshes, hexahedral meshes present properties that can be highly desirable, such as alignment with physical features or a lower computational cost. For this ... [more ▼]

Among the different types of 3D finite element meshes, hexahedral meshes present properties that can be highly desirable, such as alignment with physical features or a lower computational cost. For this reason and despite the maturity of the tetrahedral mesh generators, hexahedral mesh generation has always been a prolific research domain. Yet, there exists currently no robust algorithm capable of generating conformal all-hexahedral meshes with prescribed input size field on any arbitrary geometry. One difficulty that remains is that there exists no method to robustly assert that a hexahedron is valid. Indeed, linear hexahedra can be folded (tangled) in the same way than curvilinear tetrahedra. This thesis addresses two subjects. First, two original quadrangular mesh generation techniques are investigated, with the aim to generalize them to 3D. Both are indirect methods and thus consider the problem of combining pairs of triangles of an initial input triangular mesh. The first technique, called Blossom-Quad, computes the optimal solution of this problem with respect to a given quality criterion. As for any indirect method, the quality of the solution strongly depends on the location of the nodes in the initial triangular mesh. The generalization to 3D is however unclear and a second technique is investigated. This one aims at computing a near-optimal solution by using a look-ahead tree technique. The corresponding algorithm allows tuning the quality of the final mesh by choosing the depth of the tree as a parameter. This technique gives a promising way forward, especially as it is directly applicable in 3D. The second subject concerns the development of a method that permits to compute, with respect to any prescribed tolerance, the extrema of Jacobian-based quantities defined on finite elements of any order and type. Applied to the Jacobian determinant, this method allows to assert the validity of any (curvi-)linear finite element. This method is also applied to a quality measure that quantifies the pointwise anisotropy of the elements. Besides being very attractive for hexahedral mesh generation, this method is especially useful for the analysis of curvilinear finite element meshes. It can moreover be an important component of optimization techniques for achieving robustness. [less ▲]

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See detailLe poète François Jacqmin
Purnelle, Gérald ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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