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See detailInterspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis
Melotte, Geoffrey ULg; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2016)

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic ... [more ▼]

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. [less ▲]

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See detailRedrawing as Reframing. Graphiation, Quotation and Comics History
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 26)

Coining the concept of ‘graphiation’ to theorize the narrative functions of drawing in comics, Philippe Marion’s Traces en cases has become a seminal text in comics studies due to its further ... [more ▼]

Coining the concept of ‘graphiation’ to theorize the narrative functions of drawing in comics, Philippe Marion’s Traces en cases has become a seminal text in comics studies due to its further theorizations by, among, others, Jan Baetens, Jared Gardner, and Simon Grennan. This presentation hopes to make an original contribution to these discussions by focusing on the issue of quotation and redrawing in graphic narratives, practices that interrogate how the ‘graphic trace’ relates to the drawing subject. I will compare and contrast two culture-specific terms: ‘case mémorable’ in the context of Franco-Belgian comics and ‘swiping’ in the context of American comic books. Both terms point at how comics images circulate across the borders of their original formats trough different technicalities of reproduction (mechanical or hand-crafted) that split them from both their immediate and larger contexts. While these terms are frequently used by creators, fans and readers alike, they have gained no currency in comics theory. My attempt, however, is not to argue for their inclusion within that vocabulary but rather to understand how these terms articulate, within the comics world, debates about quotation and redrawing. I will briefly retrace the genealogy of these terms in fan discourses to finally show how two contemporary cartoonists–Charles Burns and Olivier Josso Hamel–revisit them in ways that foreground the cultural and narrative stakes of reusing ‘old’ comics. Comparing these two terms will shed light on distinct conceptions of copying, originality and quotation, hopefully providing fresh perspectives on the theory of graphiation [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of rotational hardening rule on the behavior of clayey soils
Ahayan, Sanae ULg; Kotronis, Panagiotis; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, October 26)

Induced anisotropy is a constitutive feature of clays that can be numerically introduced through a proper "Rotational Hardening Rule" allowing the rotation of the yield and the potential plastic surfaces ... [more ▼]

Induced anisotropy is a constitutive feature of clays that can be numerically introduced through a proper "Rotational Hardening Rule" allowing the rotation of the yield and the potential plastic surfaces in the stress space. In this presentation, rotational hardening rule of yield surface for clays are first reviewed. Then, two typical rotational hardening rules are selected and compared through simulating drained triaxial tests of two Finnish clays. Furthermore, finite element simulations of a strip rigid footing considering different rotational hardening rules together with the case of isotropic yield surface without rotation are carried out in order to study the consequences of the isotropy assumption and the influence of the rotational hardening rule on the behavior of shallow foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-utero coxsackievirus B4 infection of the mouse thymus
Jaïdane, Hela; Halouani, Aymen; Jmii, H. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2016), Sous presse

Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Type B coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are involved frequently in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis or Sjo€gren’s syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in-utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance. In this perspective, female Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally or orally with the diabetogenic CV-B4 E2 strain at gestational days 10 or 17. Offspring were killed at different post-inoculation times, and their thymuses were analysed for evidence of infection and alterations in thymic T cell subsets. In-utero CV-B infection of the thymus was demonstrated during the course of vertical transmission, as attested by viral RNA and infectious virus detection in most analysed samples. No histopathological changes were evident. Thymic T cells were not depleted, despite being positive for viral RNA. As evidenced by flow cytometry analysis, CV-B infection of the fetal thymus induced significant changes of thymic T cell populations, particularly with maternal inoculation at gestational day 10. Altogether, these findings suggest that CV-B infection of the fetal thymus may play an important role in the genesis of autoimmune diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailA near-infrared interferometric survey of debris-disc stars. V. PIONIER search for variability
Ertel, S.; Defrere, Denis ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Context. Extended circumstellar emission has been detected within a few 100 milli-arcsec around ≳10% of nearby main sequence stars using near-infrared interferometry. Follow-up observations using other ... [more ▼]

Context. Extended circumstellar emission has been detected within a few 100 milli-arcsec around ≳10% of nearby main sequence stars using near-infrared interferometry. Follow-up observations using other techniques, should they yield similar results or non-detections, can provide strong constraints on the origin of the emission. They can also reveal the variability of the phenomenon. Aims: We aim to demonstrate the persistence of the phenomenon over the timescale of a few years and to search for variability of our previously detected excesses. Methods: Using Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI)/Precision Integrated Optics Near Infrared ExpeRiment (PIONIER) in H band we have carried out multi-epoch observations of the stars for which a near-infrared excess was previously detected using the same observation technique and instrument. The detection rates and distribution of the excesses from our original survey and the follow-up observations are compared statistically. A search for variability of the excesses in our time series is carried out based on the level of the broadband excesses. Results: In 12 of 16 follow-up observations, an excess is re-detected with a significance of > 2σ, and in 7 of 16 follow-up observations significant excess (> 3σ) is re-detected. We statistically demonstrate with very high confidence that the phenomenon persists for the majority of the systems. We also present the first detection of potential variability in two sources. Conclusions: We conclude that the phenomenon responsible for the excesses persists over the timescale of a few years for the majority of the systems. However, we also find that variability intrinsic to a target can cause it to have no significant excess at the time of a specific observation. [less ▲]

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See detail1-D shallow water model for industrial practice: Application to the River Romanche
Goffin, Louis ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailPlace de l'élevage bovin dans l'économie rurale des Peuls du Nord Bénin
Chabi Toko, Roukayath ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an ... [more ▼]

Fulani belong to a socio-cultural group mainly encountered in West Africa and usually raises cattle. In Benin, Fulani are predominantly met in the two eastern departments of the North where they lead an agro-pastoral way of life. In addition to livestock farming, they cultivate food and cash crops such as cotton. However, they hold majority of the country’s cattle population. The present study was initiated to understand to what extend cattle contributes to their rural economy. A stratified random sample of 150 heads of Fulani households, cattle farmers have been identified in Malanville, Banikoara and Kalalé districts in Borgou and Alibori departments. The criteria considered were: the agro-ecological zone, cattle population and the importance of Fulani population. The first series of surveys enable to characterize Fulani’s cattle farming system and their family farms. Among the 50 heads of households of Kalalé district (which has the more important Fulani community), 16 were selected and it is within their households that the study continued. The households selected were that with a better milk production. Surveys were then carried out during two years, both in dry season and rainy season to describe the Fulani’s household’s economy. The cattle stock composition showed a gender imbalance, with a preponderance of female stock (76%). Cattle herds which average size were 66 animals are made of 86% of Borgou breed. The herds have low breeding performance characterized by a high rate of calf mortality (10%) and low reproductive parameters: calving and fertility rates were 64%. The purchase of fodder in dry season, which concerns 17% of farmers, is a practice encountered in agroecological zones that register light rainfall. Fulani’s large households enable them to have enough family labor to carry out both livestock and agriculture activities. The land is mostly inherited and the average size for a household is about 10.5 ha. All Fulani households are crops producers of which majority (80%) is consumed. A significant part (45%) of them grow an average of 3.3 ha of cotton. In Fulani family farms, cattle represent 52% of the household livestock size; there is also small ruminants and poultry. This cattle permit to majority (76%) of Fulani households to have milk for sale. But milk is managed to favor household consumption and ensure the herd's reproduction. The organization around milk involves male and female. The profits from milk and cheese are distributed among the women of the household at various levels. Although the low (7%) cattle market rate, it contributes significantly (68%) to the household’s monetary income in rainy season and represents the second source (27%) of revenue in dry season. The 20% of food products are mainly sold in dry season and thus contribute to the majority (64%) of income sources. However, when rains started late and the delayed payment of cotton fees, the majority of Fulani households’ cash income in the rainy season, came from cotton (64%) and food products (23%). The growing involvement of Fulani cattle herders of northern Benin on the foodstuffs market and in cotton will lead to two types of farms with opposed production targets (those that will favor livestock and others agriculture). Fulani are a target population that should receive a little more support from authorities because enable them to value their resources would ensure availability and accessibility of food and pastoral products and contribute to the improvement of country’s agricultural production. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific interests in Autism with versus without speech onset delay : the importance of perceptually versus thematically organized interests
Chiodo, Liliane ULg; Eusèbe, Sandrine; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

To explore whether autistic adults with versus without speech delay also differ in the perceptual vs thematic nature of their specific interests.

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See detailLes impacts socio-économiques des indications géographiques
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Aucuit, Natacha; Parmentier, Isabelle et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Monter un dossier en vue d’obtenir un label européen AOP ou IGP peut s’avérer fastidieux et long : cela implique un consensus entre producteurs, le cahier des charges comprend un volet technique mais ... [more ▼]

Monter un dossier en vue d’obtenir un label européen AOP ou IGP peut s’avérer fastidieux et long : cela implique un consensus entre producteurs, le cahier des charges comprend un volet technique mais aussi un volet socio-historique, et les étapes de la procédure s’étendent sur de nombreux mois. Les producteurs sont donc en droit de se demander quelles pourront être les retombées de cette labélisation. Cette présentation illustre les impacts socio-économiques des indications géographiques et démontre l’intérêt de ces labels pour les producteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDes expériences vécues aux savoirs d'expérience : (in)former la santé et la maladie dans des associations de patients en Belgique francophone
Duysens, Fanny ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re ... [more ▼]

Le diagnostic médical d'une pathologie est un événement significatif dans les parcours de vie des patients et de leurs proches. Il vient catégoriser des symptômes, participer aux processus de (re)construction de soi, et induire des attitudes et comportements en vue d'intervenir activement sur les événements. Notamment, il correspond pour certains au moment de leur engagement au sein d'une association concernée par la pathologie ou le syndrome diagnostiqué en question. De telles associations de patients s'impliquent souvent dans diverses activités de production, de mobilisation et de circulation de connaissances sur les conditions et leurs causes. Ces modes d'activisme dits "basés sur la connaissance" (evidence-based activism) se caractérisent par une articulation étroite entre des connaissances issues d'expertise biomédicale et des connaissances expérientielles, issues des expériences vécues au quotidien par les patients et leurs proches, dont ils revendiquent la légitimité. S'inscrivant à la croisée des Science and Technology Studies et de l'anthropologie de la santé et de la maladie, la présente communication vise à explorer les dynamiques de cette articulation à partir d'une ethnographie multi-site menée auprès d'associations belges francophones concernées par des pathologies ou syndromes génétiques. Plus particulièrement, la communication s'intéresse à un projet d'information et de sensibilisation autour du trouble du spectre autistique (TSA) qui est développé par un groupe de parents concernés. Le TSA y est défini comme une condition complexe et multidimensionnelle, aux causes incertaines et controversées mais dont ils revendiquent la part déterminante de la génétique. Comment des "connaissances expérientielles" sont-elles produites, validées et mises en circulation dans le cadre de telles activités ? Au-delà de la simple information, les observations montrent qu'elles comportent des enjeux identitaires importants. [less ▲]

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See detailORBi : user friendly interface & services
Chalono, Dominique ULg; Dohogne, Cécile ULg

Scientific conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailInventory routing for perishable products
Rezaei Sadrabadi, Mahmood ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different ... [more ▼]

We explore three problems in this thesis and develop solution methods for each problem. First, an inventory routing problem for a perishable product with stochastic demands is considered and different approximate solution methods are developed to solve. Based on computational experiments, the solution methods are compared in terms of average profit, service level, and actual freshness. The impact of relevant parameters on the performance of the solution methods is investigated. Managerial insights are drawn by analyzing the impact of shelf life and store capacity on the profit. The value of considering uncertainty and the value of accessing full information are measured. The computational results highlight that a simple ordering policy can often replace a more sophisticated solution method, while preserving the same efficacy. Second, we introduce a vehicle routing problem (VRP) where a set of stores places deterministic orders to a logistics service provider (LSP) for two successive periods. Deliveries requested in each period can be shifted by the LSP to the other period, possibly with modified quantities. The LSP incurs a penalty for any diversion from the initial delivery period. The data regarding shifted delivery quantities and penalties are provided by the stores. From the perspective of the LSP, diversions could be beneficial if savings in the routing costs outweigh the penalties. In this work, we introduce a new two-period VRP model where the LSP seeks to improve its total cost, compared to solving two independent VRPs with fixed delivery periods, by allowing deliveries to be shifted. We solve this model to optimality by an efficient branch-and-price algorithm implementing several cutting-edge techniques. We draw algorithmic and managerial insights based on our test instances. Third, a two-period VRP is considered where the orders placed by stores for each period can be partially shifted to the other period, given that the sum of the delivery quantities in two periods to each customer is fixed. A linear penalization of delivery shifts is assumed based on the quantity shifted. We represent two mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations for the problem. A column-row generation algorithm to solve the LP-relaxation of the first formulation is developed. To solve the LP-relaxation of the second formulation, we develop a column generation algorithm. Details of two label-setting algorithms to solve the pricing problems of the column-row generation and column generation algorithms are discussed. Numerical results can be compared with a similar model in which only full delivery shifts are allowed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa importación literaria a finales del siglo XIX en Colombia: el caso de José Asunción Silva
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

The analysis of the of Silva’s collection of works places us in quite a disconcerting, yet no less encouraging, position, when re-assessing the different forms of importing literary movements. On one hand ... [more ▼]

The analysis of the of Silva’s collection of works places us in quite a disconcerting, yet no less encouraging, position, when re-assessing the different forms of importing literary movements. On one hand, the image attributed to Silva both by his contemporaries and his successors is that of the leading figure in the assimilation and absorption of the literary European movements that would give rise to modernism. On the other hand, the absence of public visibility for Silva’s works, be it through texts or paratexts, let us in a difficult situation to prove the poet’s will to position himself as the one who introduced the new literary movement to Colombia. If we accept from the outset, as we will in this article, that the Colombian poet possessed an obstinate determination to appropriate and assimilate the European literary movements that give rise to modernism, then we must entertain the possibility that Silva’s literary transfer took place through media other than books, journals or magazines. Our hypothesis is that by focusing on the acts of reading and poise, the literary coterie became the ideal platform for the Colombian writer to adopt and propagate the image of the decadent writer, which would become the embodiment of the aesthetic ideals of modern literature. [less ▲]

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See detailHeta-Uma: manga on the other side of the mirror
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

Conference (2016, October 25)

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See detailLe droit international : un fleuron de la Belgique
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
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See detailA benchmark for urban flood modelling
Arrault, Anaïs; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 25)

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See detailVelocimetry of superconducting vortices based on stroboscopic resonances
Jelic, Zeljko ULg; Milosevic, Milorad; Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present ... [more ▼]

An experimental determination of the mean vortex velocity in superconductors mostly relies on the measurement of flux-flow resistance with magnetic field, temperature, or driving current. In the present work we introduce a method combining conventional transport measurements and a frequency-tuned flashing pinning potential to obtain reliable estimates of the vortex velocity. The proposed device is characterized using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, where the velocimetry method exploits the resonances in mean vortex dissipation when temporal commensuration occurs between the vortex crossings and the flashing potential. We discuss the sensitivity of the proposed technique on applied current, temperature and heat diffusion, as well as the vortex core deformations during fast motion. [less ▲]

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See detailUn cadrage général pour l'éducation aux médias?
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2016, October 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (26 ULg)