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See detailA Monitoring Campaign for Luhman 16AB. I. Detection of Resolved Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Variability
Burgasser, A. J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Faherty, J. K. et al

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailEau et changement climatique. Tendances et perceptions en Afrique de l’Ouest
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Perrin, Dominique ULg

in Ballouche, Aziz; Taïbi, Nuscia Aude (Eds.) Eau, milieux et aménagement. Une recherche au service des territoires (2014)

L’Afrique de l’Ouest, plus spécifiquement sa frange semi-aride que constitue le Sahel, a connu, au cours de ces dernières décennies, deux crises majeures de sécheresse presque contiguës dans les années ... [more ▼]

L’Afrique de l’Ouest, plus spécifiquement sa frange semi-aride que constitue le Sahel, a connu, au cours de ces dernières décennies, deux crises majeures de sécheresse presque contiguës dans les années 1970 et 1980. Cependant, depuis les années 1990, les tendances pluviométriques montrent globalement un retour vers des moyennes antérieures aux années 1970. Toutefois, cette amélioration des totaux pluviométriques annuels semble être partiellement le fait d’une intensité des pluies plus importante et il appert que la longueur de la saison des pluies évolue peu par rapport aux décennies de sécheresse. Par ailleurs, depuis la moitié du XXe siècle, la population sahélienne a plus que quadruplé et les prévisions pour 2050 avancent un facteur de croissance de l’ordre de dix. Les taux de croissance urbaine sont encore plus impressionnants et entraînent chaque jour d’importants bouleversements environnementaux. Une telle pression anthropique sur des ressources fragiles engendre un déboisement incontrôlé pour satisfaire les besoins en énergie des populations, la demande en bois d’œuvre et l’expansion agricole. En outre, le cheptel toujours plus nombreux et devant se satisfaire de parcours continuellement réduits engendre un surpâturage. Le tout provoque donc une dégradation de la couverture végétale du sol ainsi qu’une diminution globale des rendements des cultures. Dans le même temps, les études réalisées auprès de communautés locales et de décideurs en Afrique de l’Ouest montrent que la pauvre santé du cheptel, la réduction des rendements céréaliers, l’augmentation de la fréquence des inondations dans certaines villes et la dégradation des moyens d’existence sont le plus souvent attribués au changement climatique. Cet article fait le point sur les connaissances actuelles des variations pluviométriques passées et à venir ; ainsi que sur les perceptions des impacts du « changement climatique » en Afrique de l’Ouest. Ainsi, les famines récurrentes au Niger en 2005, 2009, 2011 et 2012 sont-elles dues au réchauffement climatique ? Les inondations, le plus souvent en zone urbaine, résultent-elles spécifiquement d’une augmentation des événements pluviométriques extrêmes ? Nous concluons sur une analyse des politiques nationales et internationales menées actuellement en Afrique de l’Ouest en termes d’adaptation aux impacts du changement climatique. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation et résilience des populations rurales face aux catastrophes naturelles en Afrique subsaharienne. Cas des inondations de 2010 dans la commune de Zagnanado, Bénin
Ahouangan, Mahutin Bernice D.; Djaby, Bakary; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Ballouche, Aziz; Taïbi, Nuscia Aude (Eds.) Eau, milieux et aménagement. Une recherche au service des territoires (2014)

Le Bénin, comme la plupart des pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne est sujet à une variabilité pluviométrique de plus en plus marquée résultant des changements climatiques. En septembre 2010, le pays a connu ... [more ▼]

Le Bénin, comme la plupart des pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne est sujet à une variabilité pluviométrique de plus en plus marquée résultant des changements climatiques. En septembre 2010, le pays a connu l’une des inondations les plus désastreuses de son histoire avec pour conséquences d’inestimables dégâts matériels et des milliers de sinistrés. Cette étude présente une analyse participative des stratégies locales d’adaptation et de résilience post-catastrophe des inondations de 2010 mises en place dans la commune rurale de Zagnanado afin de renforcer et/ou améliorer les stratégies futures. Les données qualitatives ont été récoltées à l’aide d’entretiens semi-directifs menés avec des acteurs clefs dans deux des villages les plus touchés par le sinistre : Kpoto et Agonvê. Des questionnaires individuels ont également été soumis à soixante habitants (chefs de ménage) de ces deux villages. Les sinistrés ont défini cette catastrophe comme étant exceptionnelle par l’effet de surprise, la hauteur d’eau et le niveau des dégâts occasionnés. Sur le plan socioéconomique, les dégâts causés par les eaux impactent –par ordre d’importance– les secteurs de l’habitat, de l’eau, de l’agriculture, et du transport. Sur le plan sociodémographique, les inondations ont provoqué des migrations temporaires pour la majorité de la population et des déplacements définitifs qui ont touché environ 50% de la population des jeunes. Les stratégies exogènes se résument pour la plupart en des dons en nature et en espèce ayant pour but d’aider à amortir le choc des dégâts. Les stratégies endogènes sont variables allant des changements dans les techniques de construction des maisons au développement d’activités alternatives à l’agriculture, à l’élevage et à la pêche. Globalement, la plupart des stratégies adoptées n’ont pas d’impact significatif sur une gestion future des risques de dégâts d’inondation. [less ▲]

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See detailDrug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014)

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (C max) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point de rosée en berne et la couche cornée hivernale.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(2), 68-71

The frontier between the human body and the environment is largely represented by the stratum corneum. It is obvious that the skin aspect on some body sites appears dry and rough in some predisposed ... [more ▼]

The frontier between the human body and the environment is largely represented by the stratum corneum. It is obvious that the skin aspect on some body sites appears dry and rough in some predisposed individuals during winter season. The reductions in the outdoor temperature, ambient moisture and dew point are the main physical factors involved in this process. We present the aspects seen under ultraviolet light and scanning electron microscopy. Keywords : Stratum corneum - Dew point [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic analysis of the remorin-lipid interactions at the moleculaer level
Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Perraki, Artemis; Mongrand, Sébastien et al

Poster (2014)

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See detailEfficacité énergétique et forme urbaine
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg

Scientific conference (2014)

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See detailPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.
Scheen, André ULg

in Clinical pharmacokinetics (2014), 53(3), 213-25

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin, are the first pharmacological class of antidiabetes agents to target the kidney in order to remove excess glucose from the body and, thus, offer new options for T2DM management. SGLT2 inhibitors exert their effects independently of insulin. Following single and multiple oral doses (0.5-800 mg), empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma concentrations after approximately 1.33-3.0 h, before showing a biphasic decline. The mean terminal half-life ranged from 5.6 to 13.1 h in single rising-dose studies, and from 10.3 to 18.8 h in multiple-dose studies. Following multiple oral doses, increases in exposure were dose-proportional and trough concentrations remained constant after day 6, indicating a steady state had been reached. Oral clearance at steady state was similar to corresponding single-dose values, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. No clinically relevant alterations in pharmacokinetics were observed in mild to severe hepatic impairment, or in mild to severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Clinical studies did not reveal any relevant drug-drug interactions with several other drugs commonly prescribed to patients with T2DM, including warfarin. Urinary glucose excretion (UGE) rates were higher with empagliflozin versus placebo and increased with dose, but no relevant impact on 24-h urine volume was observed. Increased UGE resulted in proportional reductions in fasting plasma glucose and mean daily glucose concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailCombating the dual burden: therapeutic targeting of common pathways in obesity and type 2 diabetes
SCHEEN, André ULg; Van Gaal, Luc

in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2014)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent ... [more ▼]

The increasing prevalence of obesity is contributing substantially to the ongoing epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Abdominal adiposity, a feature of ectopic fat syndrome, is associated with silent inflammation, abnormal hormone secretion, and various metabolic disturbances that contribute to insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects, resulting in type 2 diabetes, and induce a toxic pattern that leads to cardiovascular disease, liver pathologies, and cancer. Despite the importance of weight control strategies in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, long-term results from lifestyle or drug interventions are generally disappointing. Furthermore, most of the classic glucose-lowering drugs have a side-effect of weight gain, which renders the management of most overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes even more challenging. Many anti-obesity pharmacological drugs targeting central control of appetite were withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor orlistat was the only anti-obesity drug available until the recent US, but not European, launch of phentermine–controlled-release topiramate and lorcaserin. Improved knowledge about bodyweight regulation opens new prospects for the potential use of peptides derived from the gut or the adipose tissue. Combination therapy will probably be necessary to avoid compensatory mechanisms and potentiate initial weight loss while avoiding weight regain. New glucose-lowering treatments, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, offer advantages over traditional antidiabetic drugs by promoting weight loss while improving glucose control. In this Review, we explore the overlapping pathophysiology and also how various treatments can, alone or in combination, combat the dual burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailInterest of using lipid vesicular systems for dermatological applications
Piel, Géraldine ULg

Scientific conference (2014)

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See detailPowerpoint "Les principaux groupes médiatiques belges privés" (9 pages)
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detailThéories et analyse de l'information - Portefeuille de lectures (104 p)
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detail¿Pudo el zapatista hablar?
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg; Diestro Zorrilla, Alberto

in Vanden Berghe, Kristine (Ed.) La Revolución mexicana. Miradas desde Europa (2014)

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See detailCombined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland
Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in Ecology (2014), 95(3), 737-748

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities ... [more ▼]

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining ;80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Study of the Human Ability to Deliberately Excite a Flexible Floor
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Berger, Alexis; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

in Zingoni, Alphose (Ed.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2014)

Human-structure interactions are not completely understood yet. This paper presents an experimental study focusing on the interaction between a human and a flexible support, with a major aim to better ... [more ▼]

Human-structure interactions are not completely understood yet. This paper presents an experimental study focusing on the interaction between a human and a flexible support, with a major aim to better understand how the behavior of a human subject, bouncing on a flexible structure, adapts to the support motion. Exploratory experiments are undertaken with a 7m-span timber footbridge tested in the Human Motion Analysis Laboratory of the University of Liege. The movements of the coupled system composed of the subject and the footbridge are recorded by Motion Capture technology; the subject\textquoteright{}s 3-D body motion is defined by three important angles: ankle, knee and hip. The interaction between the subject and the footbridge is also quantified by means of force platform measurements. The experiments indicate an influence of the support amplitude and natural frequency on the phase shift between the oscillatory floor motion and the three angles characterizing the motion. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamin D status and bone mineral density changes during alendronate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Roux, Christian; Binkley, Neil; Boonen, Steven et al

in Calcified tissue international (2014), 94(2), 153-7

Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for women with osteoporosis. In the FOCUS-D trial comparing the combination tablet alendronate plus vitamin D3 5,600 IU (ALN/D) with standard care (SC) prescribed ... [more ▼]

Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for women with osteoporosis. In the FOCUS-D trial comparing the combination tablet alendronate plus vitamin D3 5,600 IU (ALN/D) with standard care (SC) prescribed by patients' personal physicians, ALN/D was more effective in improving serum 25(OH)D and bone turnover markers by 6 months and increasing spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) after 1 year than SC. This post hoc analysis examined the relationship between BMD gain and 25(OH)D in women in SC receiving alendronate (SC/ALN, n = 134, 52% of the SC group) and in the ALN/D group (n = 257). At baseline, participants were of mean age 73 years and 72% were Caucasian, with a mean 25(OH)D of 14.9 ng/mL. In the SC/ALN group, most received vitamin D, although intake of vitamin D varied extensively (51% received <400 mug/day). In this group, end-of-study 25(OH)D correlated positively with mean percent increases from baseline in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD [Pearson correlation coefficients (95% CI) = 0.23 (0.02-0.41) and 0.24 (0.03-0.41), respectively]. Baseline 25(OH)D correlated with increases in only lumbar spine BMD [Pearson correlation coefficient (95% CI) = 0.22 (0.01-0.40)]. No correlations between mean BMD change and 25(OH)D were seen with ALN/D. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and low 25(OH)D receiving alendronate and a wide range of vitamin D doses, the increase in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D achieved by the end of the study and, to some extent, with 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline. The degree of success of alendronate therapy for osteoporosis may depend on the vitamin D status of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailYearly Follow-up of Methane Turbulent Exchange Over an Intensively Grazed Pasture in Belgium
Dumortier, Pierre ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2014), 79(1), 91-96

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