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See detailMultiscale study of the Carolingian mosaic of Germigny-des-Prés (Loiret, Fr
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Kronz, L.; Simon, K. et al

Conference (2016, July 08)

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See detailClostridium difficile a new zoonotic agent? Assessment of human transmission potential of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile through food products consumption
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium recognised as a major human pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial-antibiotic associated diarrhea. Traditionally ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium recognised as a major human pathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial-antibiotic associated diarrhea. Traditionally, hospitals were considered the main reservoirs for infection. However, in the last years the incidence, deaths, complications and costs of C. difficile infection (CDI) have been rising, not only in healthcare facilities, but also within the community. In the community, it has been detected in a growing number of CDI cases in previously healthy individuals without antimicrobial exposure, hospital stay or any other classical risk factors. Furthermore, the disease has been repeatedly described in younger patients, including children. Some hypotheses have been proposed to explain this peak of community cases, the most obvious being that nowadays more attention is given to CDI surveillance. In the last years, diarrhea due to C. difficile disease might have gone undiagnosed, and in many cases went unreported, particularly in the community. Since 2004, severe outbreaks of CDI have been documented increasingly in the United States, Canada and in Europe. These outbreaks have been associated with the emergence of a novel strain, known as PCR-ribotype 027, characterised by higher than usual levels of toxins A and B production, and the presence of a third toxin named CDT or binary toxin. This strain type is also characterised by its resistance to both erythromycin and fluoroquinolones (i.e. moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin). However, according to the latest hospital surveillance studies in Europe, since 2010 there is a decrease in the incidence rates of PCR-ribotype 027 while other PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotypes 014, 020, 001, 002, 078 and 015 are increasing. Person to person contact is one source proposed for the spread in the community, occurring after visiting hospitalised patients or residents in long-term care facilities. Employees of these health-care settings can also carry spores and contaminate their entourage. The second hypothesis is contamination from the environment, following visits to a potentially contaminated place, such as hospitals or nursing homes. The two most important potential sources of CDI in the community, which have been demonstrated by investigations in the last decade are animals and foods. While C. difficile is also known as enteric pathogen in some food producing and companion animal species, there are several reports describing the presence of the bacterium in the intestinal contents of apparently healthy animals. Moreover, data published recently suggests animals as an important source of human CDI, which can spread disease through environmental contamination, direct or indirect contact, or food contamination, including carcass and meat contamination at slaughter or in the case of crops, through the use of organic animal manure. By definition, zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, through direct contact or close proximity with infected animals, or through the environment. Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are transmitted via the consumption of contaminated food or drink water. The first description of C. difficile in domestic animals and their environments dates from 1974 and possible foodborne transmission was reported for the first time in 1982. However, nowadays the importance of C. difficile as zoonotic disease remains largely unknown. The "One Health" concept is a worldwide strategy, which recognises that the health of humans and animals is connected and also depends on the environment. The present dissertation is a 5 year national study that has investigated the presence of C. difficile in animals and food, from “farm-totable”. The study was also extended to humans resident in a nursing home and in two hospitals in Belgium and in Spain. The characterisation of the isolates obtained has ultimately allowed comparison of the PCR-ribotype distribution in the different European hospitals, as well as with the PCR-ribotype distribution found in animals and foods. This work explores how C. difficile spreads among human patients, animals, foods and the environment to better understand the potential of the bacterium as a zoonotic or foodborne infectious agent. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear analysis of compliant mechanisms: application to tape springs
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

Poster (2016, July 07)

Brief summary of the mechanical behaviour of tape springs. Main results obtained by the means of finite element models. Description of the experimental set-up and results. See the extended abstract for ... [more ▼]

Brief summary of the mechanical behaviour of tape springs. Main results obtained by the means of finite element models. Description of the experimental set-up and results. See the extended abstract for more details. [less ▲]

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See detailChapitre XIII. Droit du travail
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Watté, Nadine; Lecocq, Pascale (Eds.) Droit de la Belgique (2016)

Présentation succincte du droit du travail Belge

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See detailLa biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)
Nsevolo, Papy; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2016)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées. Elles appartiennent à l’ordre des Lépidoptères (46,7%), des Isoptères (18,6%), des Orthoptères (17,6%), des Coléoptères (9,7%) et des Hyménoptères (3,7%). De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle Molecule force spectroscopy on helical foldamers
Devaux, Floriane ULg; Li, Xuesong; Huc, Ivan et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailDiversity and evolution of transposable elements in the Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri genomes
Caron, Thibault; Legrand, Sylvain; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailNovel butanol pretreatment significantly improves delignification and saccharification of different lignocellulosic biomasses
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Teramura, Hiroshi; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2016, July 07)

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different ... [more ▼]

Organosolv pretreatment using diluted acid and butanol allows the separation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin into three distinct phases. The butanol process has been investigated on six different biomasses: tall fescue, sugarbeet pulp, sugarcane bagasse, beech wood, eucalyptus and Japanese cedar. Dilute acid pretreatment has been performed under similar conditions for comparison. [less ▲]

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See detailTime travelling into human prehistory using GC×GC-TOFMS
Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg et al

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailFiniteness of the weighted likelihood estimator and applications to CAT
Magis, David ULg

Scientific conference (2016, July 07)

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this talk is to present some recent research on the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) of ability in item response theory (IRT). This estimator is quite commonly used as an alternative to usual maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators. However, the uestion of providing finite ability estimates was left unsolved and led to some controversy. Recently, Magis and Verhelst (in press) established that the WLE always returns finite values, independently of the IRT model, the number of items, and the item responses. This general result will be briefly outlined. The finiteness of the WLE has straightforward impact within the field of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). One technical and crucial issue in CAT is to accurately estimate the latent ability at the early stages of the adaptive process, when only a few items are available. Currently heuristic adjustments are adviced to avoid infinite estimates with only a few item responses. In this talk it will be highlighted how the use of the WLE throughout the CAT can be a promising and performant approach to solve this issue. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and optimization of a TD-GC/MS methodology for detection and quantifi cation of furan released in air using of an experimental design.
Alsafra, Zouheir ULg; Scholl, Georges ULg; Romain et al

Poster (2016, July 07)

In the aim of understanding the way in which human is exposed to furan present in the air of an occupational area, an analytical method of Thermal desorption-gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS ... [more ▼]

In the aim of understanding the way in which human is exposed to furan present in the air of an occupational area, an analytical method of Thermal desorption-gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) has been developed and optimized using a Plackett–Burman experimental design. This method was then used to study the phenomena of diffusion of furan released in air from a contamination source. This source of furan is simply a coffee machine located in a closed controlled room. Results show that furan concentration increases quickly over time after turning on the coffee machine until reaching a maxima. Then it starts to decrease slowly. On the other hand, concentration of furan seems to be identical everywhere in the conditioned room in each moment. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrated microfluidic device for in line SERS detection for glyphosate and related metabolites
Emonds-Alt, Gauthier ULg; Malherbe, Cédric ULg; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2016, July 07)

The goal of this work is to develop a quantitative analytical method for the glyphosate and its major metabolite the aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) by coupling microfluidics with surface enhanced Raman ... [more ▼]

The goal of this work is to develop a quantitative analytical method for the glyphosate and its major metabolite the aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) by coupling microfluidics with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This work is divided into 4 axes : (a) bimetallic nanoparticles synthesis in a microreactor, (b) nanoparticles functionnalisation, (c) SERS quantification of glyphosate/AMPA and (d) miniature prototype development composed of axes a to c. The first section aims at the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-Ag, Au-Cu and Ag-Cu) in a microfluidic device. This microfluidic device integrates a first section for the synthesis of monometallic nanoparticles (core) and a second section for the reductive deposition of a second metal (shell). The second axe of this work deals with the functionnalisation of nanoparticles to improve the selectivity of this method for the selected analytes. Two types of functionnalisation are studied : PEGylation (a) with multi-arm PEG ending with -SH and/or (b) with linear heterobifunctionnal PEG. The third axe consists in measuring quantitatively glyphosate and AMPA in different matrices, such as water, urine and fruit juice. Finally, the forth axe deals with the development of a portable detection system to perform on-site analysis. This prototype integrates the microfluidic device for nanoparticles synthesis, their functionnalisation, an injection port followed by a mixing section for the sample and an integrated Raman spectrometer for in-line analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailRestricted interests in autism with versus without speech onset delay : the importance of perceptually versus thematically organized interests
Chiodo, Liliane ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Eusèbe, Sandrine et al

Poster (2016, July 07)

Objectives : To explore whether autistic adults with vs without speech delay also differ in the perceptual vs thematic nature of their restricted interests.

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See detailGamifier un quiz – Effet graduel sur la performance, l’immersion et la perception de compétence
le Maire, Nathalie ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Colaux, Catherine ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 06)

Dans un contexte marqué par l’arrivée d’une génération pour laquelle les technologies, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux en ligne relèvent de l’évidence (Stein, 2013; Weiler, 2004), le jeu a souvent été ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte marqué par l’arrivée d’une génération pour laquelle les technologies, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux en ligne relèvent de l’évidence (Stein, 2013; Weiler, 2004), le jeu a souvent été qualifié de véhicule d’une pédagogie rendant l’étudiant acteur de son apprentissage, conférant une dimension de défi aux activités éducatives et générant une motivation intrinsèque (Foster, 2008; Kang & Tan, 2008; McFarlane et al., 2002; Mitchell & Savill-Smith, 2004; Papastergiou, 2009). Ce potentiel éducatif du jeu a cependant été souvent associé à des jeux immersifs (de Freitas, 2006) requérant la mise en œuvre d’une trame narrative et dont le développement peut s’avérer couteux. L’utilisation de mini-jeux est considérée comme une solution alternative à ces « serious games » complexes car ils permettent d’enseigner un grand nombre de concepts tout en générant de faibles coûts de développement (Illanas, Gallego, Satorre, & Llorens, 2008). Ceux-ci présentent des règles basiques, sont faciles à jouer et conçus comme objets d’apprentissage de sorte qu’il soit aisé pour l’étudiant de percevoir les informations essentielles et que leur pratique soit bénéfique pour l’apprentissage (Frazer, Argles, & Wills, 2007). La gamification, à savoir la transposition des principes issus de l’univers du jeu au domaine de l’éducation (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011), ne porte donc pas ici sur des jeux de simulation immersifs mais vise plus réalistement la transposition à des activités d’apprentissage d’un certain nombre de principes et de leviers à l’œuvre dans des mini-jeux populaires tel que Candy Crush. La question de recherche qui a guidé l’expérience décrite ci-après concerne l’évaluation du potentiel pédagogique de l’utilisation d’un mini-jeu de ce type dans un cours de chimie générale en complément des supports pédagogiques plus classiquement utilisés en première année d’université. Concrètement, ce mini-jeu appelé « Atomica » se présente comme un quiz d’entrainement portant sur un chapitre réputé difficile du cours, l’atomistique. Ce quiz a fait l’objet de quatre versions activant chacune un nombre croissant d’éléments de gamification (indiqués en gras) décrits par plusieurs auteurs comme étant les « ingrédients » ou « building blocks » d’un bon jeu (Bunchball Inc., 2010; Dignan, 2011; Reeves & Read, 2013) : - La version contrôle du QCM se présente comme similaire aux évaluations formatives couramment utilisées à l’université ; - La version 1 segmente le QCM en six niveaux de difficulté ; - La version 2 ajoute un feedback automatisé aux niveaux de difficulté ; - La version 3 présente une version maximaliste de la gamification puisque, aux éléments précédents, elle ajoute un compte à rebours, des indices dont l’appel engendre une perte de points, un classement des meilleurs joueurs et un indicateur social (possibilité de se situer par rapport à la communauté de joueurs). Ce choix d’un dispositif graduel se justifie notamment par l’intérêt pour la détection d’un seuil à partir duquel l’ajout d’éléments de gamification fait basculer la perception d’un quiz habituel vers un artefact relevant du mini-jeu et générant ainsi un état de flow chez le joueur. Chaque version a été soumise à un groupe d’une trentaine d’étudiants, selon une procédure expérimentale contrôlée, avec pour objectif la collecte de données (en cours) sur : - L’état de flow ou expérience optimale engendré par chacune des versions (orientation comparative) défini comme un état subjectif de bien-être (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) engendrant une immersion totale dans l’activité. Afin de mesurer le flow, une échelle spécifique aux jeux éducatifs (EGameFlow) développée en 2009 (Fu, Su, & Yu, 2009) a été utilisée dans le cadre de cette étude. - Une des trois composantes du modèle de la dynamique motivationnelle de Viau, la perception du sentiment de compétence (Bandura, 1993; Pajares, 2014) considéré comme un moteur essentiel à l’apprentissage et un déterminant de l’intérêt pour une discipline scolaire. - La performance à un test de connaissance soumis aux étudiants avant et après l’expérience de jeu. Les motivations sous-tendant le processus d’exploration des mini-jeux sont à chercher du côté d’un certain discours pédagogique qui prône l’inscription d’une dimension ludique dans les apprentissages en enseignement supérieur. Nourrie par ses résultats expérimentaux, la communication proposera un retour réflexif plus général sur la valeur, les limitations et les conditions de réalisation de ce discours. [less ▲]

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See detailDu tableau au plan. Remake et transmédialité dans "Shirley" (2013) de Gustav Deutsch
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2016, July 06)

Cette communication prend pour objet "Shirley" (2013), le dernier en date des films de Gustav Deutsch. Dans ce film de fiction, l'artiste autrichien vise à recréer, à incarner et à animer treize tableaux ... [more ▼]

Cette communication prend pour objet "Shirley" (2013), le dernier en date des films de Gustav Deutsch. Dans ce film de fiction, l'artiste autrichien vise à recréer, à incarner et à animer treize tableaux du grand peintre américain Edward Hopper. Partant de ce constat, il s'agit d'étudier au plus près les enjeux théoriques et esthétiques dont ce remake transmédial est porteur. [less ▲]

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