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See detailEstetrol Attenuates Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: Preclinical Studies
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 17)

Brain hypoxia and ischemia due to systemic hypoxemia and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) are the primary causes of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) accompanied by gray and white matter ... [more ▼]

Brain hypoxia and ischemia due to systemic hypoxemia and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) are the primary causes of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) accompanied by gray and white matter injuries occurring in neonates. Perinatal HIE still remains a challenge in perinatal medicine. About 20% of affected newborns die in the postnatal period, and an additional 25% will sustain childhood disabilities. So far no medical treatment provides important neuroprotection against HIE. Studies of new neuroprotective agents in animal models of HIE may have importance for the development of new compounds and treatment strategies for this pathological condition. Estetrol (E4) is a recently described estrogen with four hydroxyl-groups that is synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver. It has important antioxidative activity. To study the neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of E4 in vivo neonatal HIE model of 7-day-old newborn rat pups was used. Rat pups body temperatures were examined along with their body and brain weights. Brains were studied at the level of the hippocampus and cortex. Intact cell counting and expressions of markers for neuronal cell viability (microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2)), neurogenesis (doublecortin (DCX)) and angiogenesis (vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were evaluated by histo- and immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of brain damage markers (S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) were measured by ELISA. Our results demonstrate for the first time that E4 has a significant neuroprotective and therapeutic effects. It decreases the early gray matter loss and promotes neuro- and angiogenesis in vivo. Estetrol treatment has no effects on body weight, brain weight or body temperature. Taken together, E4 might become an important safe and physiological substance to treat neonatal HIE. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gestion des ressources avec Alma à l'Université de Liège
Richelle, Laurence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Retour d'expérience client sur la gestion des ressources imprimées et électroniques avec le système de gestion de bibliothèque Alma depuis février 2015.

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See detailHépatocarcinome: Place de la chirurgie
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailL'insuffisance hépatique
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2016, June 16)

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See detailLes écrits anti-simoniaques interpolés à l'abbaye de Saint-Trond au XIIe siècle
Schmidt, Kevin ULg

Scientific conference (2016, June 16)

Dénoncées dans l’Église dès le IVe siècle, les pratiques simoniaques suscitèrent de plus en plus l’indignation, jusqu’à apparaître comme l’un des combats majeurs de la réforme grégorienne. Si la lutte a ... [more ▼]

Dénoncées dans l’Église dès le IVe siècle, les pratiques simoniaques suscitèrent de plus en plus l’indignation, jusqu’à apparaître comme l’un des combats majeurs de la réforme grégorienne. Si la lutte a été majoritairement menée contre l’investiture laïque et a mené à la déposition d’un certain nombre de dignitaires du clergé séculier, elle n’est pas pour autant restée étrangère au milieu monastique ; dans le cloître aussi, le débat faisait rage. Si le fait est indéniable, saisir l’état d’esprit des individus d’une communauté à l’égard de la simonie est malaisé. En effet, dans la majorité des abbayes, seuls quelques membres sont sortis de l’anonymat et ont marqué de leur empreinte la production intellectuelle. Toutefois, il reste probable que, si les moines sont majoritairement restés cloîtrés dans le silence, ils ne se sont pas pour autant abstenus de méditer et de consigner par écrit leurs pensées ou les nouvelles idées dont ils auraient pris connaissance. Nous en tenons pour preuve quelques pièces inédites ou très largement méconnues recopiées sur les feuillets restés vierges ou sur les pages de garde des manuscrits d’un même scriptorium et qui attestent la vivacité de la lutte anti-simoniaque. Ces textes polémiques anonymes d’origine monastique sont d’autant plus révélateurs du fait que plusieurs d’entre eux s’avèrent être des copies interpolées de traités ou de poèmes bien connus par ailleurs, dont le propos ainsi modifié semble trahir la pensée d’une partie représentative des membres de la communauté. Le scriptorium de l’abbaye de Saint-Trond (diocèse de Liège, Belgique) nous en a transmis quelques-uns. Examinant deux d’entre eux, redécouverts dans des manuscrits de la bibliothèque de l’Université de Liège et spécifiquement dirigés contre les moines qui se rendent coupables de pratiques simoniaques, nous tenterons de cerner les remises en question et combats de scribes trudonnaires anonymes en ces temps agités. [less ▲]

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See detailSleep deprivation affects brain global cortical responsivenes
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Chellappa, S; Ly, J et al

Conference (2016, June 15)

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See detailGestion des stupéfiants au bloc opératoire
LOMMEL, Isabelle ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2016)

La gestion des stupéfiants est une obligation légale. Dans le travail quotidien de l’infirmier de salle d’opération, la redondance d’écritures et le manque de disponibilités entrainent une banalisation de ... [more ▼]

La gestion des stupéfiants est une obligation légale. Dans le travail quotidien de l’infirmier de salle d’opération, la redondance d’écritures et le manque de disponibilités entrainent une banalisation de cette obligation. On oublie que ce médicament ‘différent’ est source de danger, d’addiction, de deal et qu’il peut être mortel. Ce travail est le résultat d’une analyse de la situation existante et de son adéquation avec la loi et la littérature scientifique. Sa conclusion permet de mettre en évidence que les participants au flux des stupéfiants doivent être conscientisés que leurs actions doivent être guidées par une logique. Cette logique de processus doit être institutionnelle. La philosophie Lean est d’application dans ce travail. Par la publication d’une synthèse des pistes de perfectionnement sous forme de délivrable ‘A3’, cette étude sera remise aux dirigeants du bloc opératoire Selon cette philosophie, il faut impérativement implémenter des méthodes de brainstorming consistant à mettre en évidence, entre collègues, les raisons de mal-fonctionnement. C’est également en équipe que des moyens d’amélioration de la situation doivent être élaborés, ce sans bouleversement majeur, c’est la méthode des petits pas. L’équipe du bloc doit mettre en place: 1. Un descriptif de la situation existante. 2. La pose en groupe d’indicateurs de bon fonctionnement. 3. L’étude collégiale de méthodes d’optimalisation des processus existants via des standards de travail. 4. Le suivi des indicateurs pour constater les améliorations et les amplifier par ajustement des processus. 5. Le bénéfice doit être visible tant au niveau de la sécurité du patient et du personnel que du stress ambiant. Cette philosophie doit perdurer dans le temps et s’intégrer dans le LEAN institutionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Crucifix, Benoît ULg; Rommens, Aarnoud ULg; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference (2016, June 15)

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See detailAn efficient and flexible software tool for genome-wide association interaction studies
Van Lishout, François ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Humans are made up of approximately 3.2 billion base pairs, out of which about 62 million can vary from one individual to another. These particular base pairs are called single nucleotide polymorphisms ... [more ▼]

Humans are made up of approximately 3.2 billion base pairs, out of which about 62 million can vary from one individual to another. These particular base pairs are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It is well known that some particular combination of SNP values increase dramatically the risk of contracting certain type of disease, like Crohn's disease, Alzheimer, diabetes and cancer, just to name a few. However, there are still a lot of new discoveries to make and specialized software is required for this task. It has been shown that individual SNPs cannot account for much of the heritability on their own. Therefore, this PhD thesis is dedicated to interaction studies, the purpose of which is to identify pairs of SNPs and/or environmental factors that might regulate the susceptibility to the disease under investigation. Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MB-MDR) is a powerful and flexible methodology to perform interaction analysis, while minimizing the amount of false discoveries. Before this thesis, the only available implementation was an R-package taking days to analyze a dataset composed of just hundred of SNPs. However, a typical dataset contains hundreds of thousands or millions of SNPs, even after data cleaning and quality control. The aim of this thesis is to write a software able to analyze such datasets within a few days with the MB-MDR methodology. In other words, the goal is to get 10^8 times faster than the R-package, while still remaining powerful, flexible and keeping the amount of false discoveries low. Several contributions were needed to reach this goal and are presented in this thesis. First, a new software was written from scratch in C++, in order to be able to optimize every single computation, instead of relying on too generic functions as was the case for the R-package. Second, the methodology itself was improved, irrespective of the programming language. Indeed, MB-MDR is based on the maxT algorithm (introduced by Westfall&Young in 1993) to assess significance of the results and it can be customized for interaction analysis. A first major contribution of this PhD work, called Van Lishout's implementation of maxT, was introduced in 2011. The parallel version of this algorithm enables to analyze a dataset composed of hundred thousands of SNPs within a few days. The most important contribution of this thesis, called the gammaMAXT algorithm, was introduced in 2014. The parallel version enables to analyze a dataset composed of one million SNPs within one day. In this thesis, we also propose a new viewpoint to handle population stratification and correct for covariates. Many simulated and real-life data analysis are provided, to highlight the flexibility of the software and its ability to find interesting results from a biological point of view. The latest version, called mbmdr-4.4.1.out, can be downloaded freely at http://www.statgen.ulg.ac.be with the corresponding documentation. [less ▲]

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See detailRhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 as a bioaugmentation starter: mechanisms, constrains and potentialities for the hydrocarbon degradation
Masy, Thibaut ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Since the advent of the industrial revolution in the 19th century, anthropogenic activities and lack of environmental concern gave birth to numerous contaminated areas. Amongst released pollutants ... [more ▼]

Since the advent of the industrial revolution in the 19th century, anthropogenic activities and lack of environmental concern gave birth to numerous contaminated areas. Amongst released pollutants, hydrocarbons (HC) are the most widespread in the environment but they can also constitute a carbon source for numerous microorganisms. Therefore, bioremediation (i.e. the use of microorganisms to degrade pollutants) appears as an ecologically- and cost-effective technique compared to chemical or physical treatments. This biotreatment technology often relies either on stimulating indigenous microorganisms already present in soil (biostimulation) or on adding specific microbial degraders (bioaugmentation) to enhance the natural attenuation of contaminants. However, there is a need for improved understanding of the causes that can lead to its failure or its low efficiency, such as diverse environmental constraints or poor adaptation ability of laboratory-cultivated microorganisms. Amongst bacteria studied, Rhodococcus sp. has been previously described as a potential candidate for bioaugmentation due to its ability to degrade a broad range of organic pollutants, to produce biosurfactants, which improves pollutant bioavailability, and to rapidly adapt to many environmental stresses (e.g. desiccation, low temperature, high salinity). The main objective of this work is thus to assess the potentiality and limitations in the use of a specific strain, Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1, to degrade HC (from simple n-alkanes to polyaromatic) in diverse field conditions. The factors limiting such a process have to be identified and, as much as possible, overcome. A first bioaugmentation experiment in microcosms aimed at identifying these constrains in carbon and clay-rich soils contaminated with heating oil. This treatment was successful in strongly polluted soil, since the addition of the strain T902.1 helped in redirecting the limited quantity of available oxygen towards a higher HC degradation and also correlated with a higher proportion of degrading genes in bioaugmented soils, compared to biostimulated and control ones. However, this effect decreased with time as T902.1 development was curtailed by competition and potentially predation from the endogenous flora. In addition, HC were heterogeneously distributed and this hampered the detection of a real degradation in lowest polluted soils. As a result, inoculation should be targeted to highly polluted areas (e.g. contaminant source zones), but it requires controlling soil heterogeneity.   We thus resorted to electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), to describe this heterogeneity and to monitor bacterial HC degradation activity. This geophysical tool could discriminate lithological heterogeneities that were artificially introduced in a 2 m³ pilot. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, the introduction of R. erythropolis T902.1 in this pilot led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the injection zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. Simultaneously, HC mineralization and biosurfactant production were deduced from the monitoring of ERT, biological and physicochemical parameters. In another study, R. erythropolis T902.1 could form stable biofilms on the materials constituting draining pavement structures, which allowed its long-term survival in a real parking lot and improved the decontamination of runoff water drained through this structure during pollution tests carried out at a pilot scale. This indicates that the strain could be widely used in other decontaminating systems and not only in soil. Furthermore, this biofilm formation could be triggered by an appropriate pre-adaptation of the cells before their injection in the polluted environment, to ensure a higher ecological robustness of the inoculum, compared to the one observed in the microcosm experiment. A third constrain is the poor or slow degrading activity toward some recalcitrant compounds, such as polyaromatic HC (PAH). Metallic nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel process were considered as potential catalysts for the improvement of degradation kinetics. Iron nanoparticles boosted the bacterial catalytic activity of the strain T902.1 in liquid cultures containing biphenyl as the sole carbon source. Following results suggested that the iron encapsulated in the porous silica matrix, was progressively attracted by siderophores (heterobactins) produced by the strain. However, this hypothesis has still to be confirmed by further analyses. From these experiments, R. erythropolis T902.1 globally proved to compete and improve degradation rates in highly polluted soils compared to biostimulation, even under low oxygen and nutrient contents. Notably, the production of trehalolipidic biosurfactants enhances HC bioavailability for their further uptake by the strain and surrounding microorganisms. Furthermore, this strain forms stable biofilms on several supports, which increases its lifespan and paves the way for many applications in bioremediation systems. Finally, it can also be used in synergy with sol-gel iron nanoparticles to treat recalcitrant compounds such as PAH and some chlorinated aromatics, but this combination needs to be further tested in more complex media, such as soil or waste water. [less ▲]

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See detailLa question urbaine revisitée. Analyse socio-politique comparée de la régulation publique des inégalités environnementales
Lejeune, Zoé ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Les inégalités environnementales forment un relatif « impensé » de la plupart des politiques publiques qui sont aujourd’hui mises en place dans nos villes. S’il apparaît qu’il y a une sous-estimation de ... [more ▼]

Les inégalités environnementales forment un relatif « impensé » de la plupart des politiques publiques qui sont aujourd’hui mises en place dans nos villes. S’il apparaît qu’il y a une sous-estimation de cet enjeu de la part des autorités politiques au sens large, il nous a semblé utile de mieux comprendre les processus socio-politiques à l’œuvre. C’est un double mouvement que nous interrogeons dans la thèse. D’une part, quels sont les processus « sociétaux », collectifs qui contribuent à la production de phénomènes inégalitaires en matière environnementale ? D’autre part, quels sont les dispositifs socio-politiques qui se dessinent afin d’y trouver une solution collective et politique ? La première approche privilégiée pose la question des conditions sociétales de la formation et de l’émergence des inégalités environnementales : distribution des charges environnementales, inégale participation dans la vie publique et collective et inégalités socio-spatiales. Cette première question nous a conduit à mobiliser les données du Baromètre social de la Wallonie 2012 et son module de questions sur l’environnement. La seconde grande question interroge les modalités de la gestion collective et publique des inégalités environnementales, à savoir les solutions mises en place aujourd’hui pour y faire face. Cette analyse se propose dès lors d’étudier les modalités de la régulation publique des inégalités environnementales dans une perspective comparative internationale face à la transformation de l’action collective et publique urbaine. Pour ce faire, nous avons réalisé des enquêtes de terrain qualitatives (entretiens semi-dirigés) dans plusieurs villes, en Angleterre (Sheffield) et en Belgique (Liège). Celles-ci nous ont conduit à proposer un modèle conceptuel de lecture de la régulation publique des inégalités environnementales en milieu urbain. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychocriminologie des troubles sévères du comportement chez les adolescents
Garcet, Serge ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailLe rôle du Système européen des comptes nationaux et régionaux (SEC) dans la gouvernance budgétaire européenne
Piron, Damien ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailReversal of global atmospheric ethane and propane trends largely due to US oil and natural gas production
Helmig, Detlev; Rossabi, Samuel; Hueber, Jacques et al

in Nature Geoscience (2016)

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady ... [more ▼]

Non-methane hydrocarbons such as ethane are important precursors to tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Using data from a global surface network and atmospheric column observations we show that the steady decline in ethane concentrations that began in the 1970s halted between 2005 and 2010 in most of the Northern Hemisphere, and has since reversed. We calculate a yearly increase in ethane emissions in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.42 (+/-0.19) Tg/yr between mid-2009 and mid-2014. The largest increases in ethane and for the shorter-lived propane are seen over the central and eastern USA, with a spatial distribution that suggests North American oil and natural gas development as the primary source of increasing emissions. By including other co-emitted oil and natural gas non-methane hydrocarbons, we estimate a Northern Hemisphere total non-methane hydrocarbon yearly emission increase of 1.2 (+/-0.8) Tg/yr. Atmospheric chemical transport modelling suggests that these emissions could augment summertime mean surface ozone by several nanomoles per mole near oil and natural gas production regions. Methane/ethane oil and natural gas emission ratios suggest a significant increase in associated methane emissions; however, this increase is inconsistent with observed leak rates in production regions and changes in methane’s global isotopic ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailLa filière fonio en Afrique de l’ouest: analyse des potentialites
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailLignin as a bio-based flame retardant additive: Pretreatments overview
Istasse, Thibaut ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Poster (2016, June 12)

Lignin is a cross-linked phenol polymers from plant cells wall and is the third most abundant organic material after cellulose and hemicelluloses. This substance was studied as a flame retardant for ... [more ▼]

Lignin is a cross-linked phenol polymers from plant cells wall and is the third most abundant organic material after cellulose and hemicelluloses. This substance was studied as a flame retardant for various polymers and represents an interesting opportunity to create more eco-friendly and safer plastics and resins. This poster explains one potential technology to extract lignin: the organosolv treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailTeneurs en fibres de légumes cultivés en Wallonie
Bindelle, Jérôme ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailL'histoire de la bande dessinée par ses auteurs : une historiographie ‘Bizarro’
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)