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See detailModeling the electron-nuclear dynamics induced by short laser pulses in molecules
Mignolet, Benoît ULiege

Conference (2018, January)

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See detailExamining brain structure with Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM)
Genon, Sarah ULiege

Learning material (2018)

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See detailThe Ionospheric Connection Explorer Mission: Mission Goals and Design
Immel, T. J.; England, S. L.; Mende, S. B. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2018), 214(13),

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space ... [more ▼]

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer, or ICON, is a new NASA Explorer mission that will explore the boundary between Earth and space to understand the physical connection between our world and our space environment. This connection is made in the ionosphere, which has long been known to exhibit variability associated with the sun and solar wind. However, it has been recognized in the 21st century that equally significant changes in ionospheric conditions are apparently associated with energy and momentum propagating upward from our own atmosphere. ICON's goal is to weigh the competing impacts of these two drivers as they influence our space environment. Here we describe the specific science objectives that address this goal, as well as the means by which they will be achieved. The instruments selected, the overall performance requirements of the science payload and the operational requirements are also described. ICON's development began in 2013 and the mission is on track for launch in 2018. ICON is developed and managed by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, with key contributions from several partner institutions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter
Korablev, O.; Montmessin, F.; Trokhimovskiy, A. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2018), 214

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared ... [more ▼]

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to the Trace Gas Orbiter mission objectives that specifically address the requirement of high sensitivity instruments to enable the unambiguous detection of trace gases of potential geophysical or biological interest. For this reason, ACS embarks a set of instruments achieving simultaneously very high accuracy (ppt level), very high resolving power (>10,000) and large spectral coverage (0.7 to 17 μm—the visible to thermal infrared range). The near-infrared (NIR) channel is a versatile spectrometer covering the 0.7-1.6 μm spectral range with a resolving power of ˜20,000. NIR employs the combination of an echelle grating with an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) as diffraction order selector. This channel will be mainly operated in solar occultation and nadir, and can also perform limb observations. The scientific goals of NIR are the measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and dayside or night side airglows. The mid-infrared (MIR) channel is a cross-dispersion echelle instrument dedicated to solar occultation measurements in the 2.2-4.4 μm range. MIR achieves a resolving power of >50,000. It has been designed to accomplish the most sensitive measurements ever of the trace gases present in the Martian atmosphere. The thermal-infrared channel (TIRVIM) is a 2-inch double pendulum Fourier-transform spectrometer encompassing the spectral range of 1.7-17 μm with apodized resolution varying from 0.2 to 1.3 cm[SUP]-1[/SUP]. TIRVIM is primarily dedicated to profiling temperature from the surface up to ˜60 km and to monitor aerosol abundance in nadir. TIRVIM also has a limb and solar occultation capability. The technical concept of the instrument, its accommodation on the spacecraft, the optical designs as well as some of the calibrations, and the expected performances for its three channels are described. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature estimation from hydroxyl airglow emission in the Venus night side mesosphere
Migliorini, A.; Snels, M.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULiege et al

in Icarus (2018), 300

The temperature of the night side of Venus at about 95 km has been determined by using spectral features of the hydroxyl airglow emission around 3 μm, recorded from July 2006 to July 2008 by VIRTIS ... [more ▼]

The temperature of the night side of Venus at about 95 km has been determined by using spectral features of the hydroxyl airglow emission around 3 μm, recorded from July 2006 to July 2008 by VIRTIS onboard Venus Express. The retrieved temperatures vary from 145.5 to about 198.1 K with an average value of 176.3 ± 14.3 K and are in good agreement with previous ground-based and space observations. The variability with respect to latitude and local time has been studied, showing a minimum of temperature at equatorial latitudes, while temperature values increase toward mid latitudes with a local maximum at about 35°N. The present work provides an independent contribution to the temperature estimation in the transition region between the Venus upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere, by using the OH emission as a thermometer, following the technique previously applied to the high-resolution O[SUB]2[/SUB](a[SUP]1[/SUP]Δ[SUB]g[/SUB]) airglow emissions observed from ground. [less ▲]

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See detailDes ados nouveaux lecteurs ? Enquête
Bocar, Roxane ULiege

in Lectures : La Revue des Bibliothèques (2018), 6(Janvier-février), 63-64

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See detailEffects of agricultural land use on fluvial carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in a large European river, the Meuse (Belgium)
Borges, Alberto ULiege; Darchambeau, F.; Lambert, T et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 610–611

We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013 ... [more ▼]

We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013, 2014 and 2015), from yearly cycles in four rivers of variable size and catchment land cover, and from 111 groundwater samples. Surface waters of the Meuse river network were over-saturated in CO2, CH4, N2O with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, acting as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, although the dissolved gases also showed marked seasonal and spatial variations. Seasonal variations were related to changes in freshwater discharge following the hydrological cycle, with highest concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O during low water owing to a longer water residence time and lower currents (i.e. lower gas transfer velocities), both contributing to the accumulation of gases in the water column, combined with higher temperatures favourable to microbial processes. Inter-annual differences of discharge also led to differences in CH4 and N2O that were higher in years with prolonged low water periods. Spatial variations were mostly due to differences in land cover over the catchments, with systems dominated by agriculture (croplands and pastures) having higher CO2, CH4, N2O levels than forested systems. This seemed to be related to higher levels of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen in agriculture dominated systems compared to forested ones. Groundwater had very low CH4 concentrations in the shallow and unconfined aquifers (mostly fractured limestones) of the Meuse basin, hence, should not contribute significantly to the high CH4 levels in surface riverine waters. Owing to high dissolved concentrations, groundwater could potentially transfer important quantities of CO2 and N2O to surface waters of the Meuse basin, although this hypothesis remains to be tested. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ethics in the management of patients with disorders of consciousness
Demertzi, Athina ULiege

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma and Disorders of Consciousness (2018)

The ethical issues accrued from the study and management of patients with disorders of consciousness are variant and multifaceted. The medical, public and legal controversies are partly shaped by how ... [more ▼]

The ethical issues accrued from the study and management of patients with disorders of consciousness are variant and multifaceted. The medical, public and legal controversies are partly shaped by how different people think about pain perception and end of life. Uniform ethical frameworks need to be shaped in order to guide clinicians and caregivers in terms of clinical outcome, prognosis and medical management. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding urban development types and drivers in Wallonia. A multi-density approach
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULiege; Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege et al

in International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining (2018), 13(Nos. 1/2/3), 309330

In this study, urban development process in the Walloon region (Belgium) has been analysed. Two main aspects of development are quantitatively measured: the development type and the definition of the main ... [more ▼]

In this study, urban development process in the Walloon region (Belgium) has been analysed. Two main aspects of development are quantitatively measured: the development type and the definition of the main drivers of the urbanisation process. Unlike most existing studies that consider the urban development as a binary process, this research considers the urban development as a continuous process, characterised by different levels of urban density. Eight urban classes are defined based on the Belgian cadastral data for years 2000 and 2010. A multinomial logistic regression model is employed to examine the main driving forces of the different densities. Sixteen drivers were selected, including accessibility, geo-physical features, policies and socio-economic factors. Finally, the changes from the non-urban to one of the urban density classes are detected and classified into different development types. The results indicate that zoning status (political factor), slope, distance to roads, population densities and mean land price, respectively, have impact on the urbanisation process whatever maybe the density. The results also show that the impact of these factors highly varies from one density to another. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of market-oriented institutions in the deployment of renewable energies: evidences from Europe
Jacqmin, Julien ULiege

in Applied Economics (2018), 50(2), 202-215

Focusing on European countries, this article investigates the link between market-oriented institutions, as measured by the Economic Freedom Index, and the production of energy from renewable sources. A ... [more ▼]

Focusing on European countries, this article investigates the link between market-oriented institutions, as measured by the Economic Freedom Index, and the production of energy from renewable sources. A dynamic panel approach shows that this correlation is positive and significant while the subcomponents of the Economic Freedom Index reveal that not all market-oriented institutions have a similar impact. Indeed, long-term price stability and freedom to trade boost the reliance on renewable energies whereas the importance given to markets rather than governments has no significant impact. [less ▲]

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See detailA component method for cold-formed steel beam-to-column bolted gusset plate joints
Bucmys, Zilvinas; Daniunas, Alfonsas; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege et al

in Thin-Walled Structures (2018), 123

Cold-formed steel elements are being used more frequently on construction sites because of the good strength-to-cost ratio. However, insufficient studies are published examining the properties of these ... [more ▼]

Cold-formed steel elements are being used more frequently on construction sites because of the good strength-to-cost ratio. However, insufficient studies are published examining the properties of these constructions. This paper presents a study of cold formed steel bolted gusset plate connections. A “three springs” mechanical model to calculate joint stiffness is presented. Then the results predicted through the proposed model are validated through comparisons to experimental and finite element results. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis
Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon et al

in Lancet Infectious Diseases (2018), 18(1), 95-107

Background In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta ... [more ▼]

Background In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of procalcitonin-guided treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections from different clinical settings. Methods Based on a prespecified Cochrane protocol, we did a systematic literature search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, and pooled individual patient data from trials in which patients with respiratory infections were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin concentrations (procalcitonin-guided group) or control. The coprimary endpoints were 30-day mortality and setting-specific treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were antibiotic use, length of stay, and antibiotic side-effects. Findings We identified 990 records from the literature search, of which 71 articles were assessed for eligibility after exclusion of 919 records. We collected data on 6708 patients from 26 eligible trials in 12 countries. Mortality at 30 days was significantly lower in procalcitonin-guided patients than in control patients (286 [9%] deaths in 3336 procalcitonin-guided patients vs 336 [10%] in 3372 controls; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·83 [95% CI 0·70 to 0·99], p=0·037). This mortality benefit was similar across subgroups by setting and type of infection (pinteractions>0·05), although mortality was very low in primary care and in patients with acute bronchitis. Procalcitonin guidance was also associated with a 2·4-day reduction in antibiotic exposure (5·7 vs 8·1 days [95% CI −2·71 to −2·15], p<0·0001) and a reduction in antibiotic-related side-effects (16% vs 22%, adjusted OR 0·68 [95% CI 0·57 to 0·82], p<0·0001). Interpretation Use of procalcitonin to guide antibiotic treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections reduces antibiotic exposure and side-effects, and improves survival. Widespread implementation of procalcitonin protocols in patients with acute respiratory infections thus has the potential to improve antibiotic management with positive effects on clinical outcomes and on the current threat of increasing antibiotic multiresistance. Funding National Institute for Health Research. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of PIV measurements using modal decomposition techniques, POD and DMD, to study flow structures and their dynamics within a stirred-tank reactor
de Lamotte, Anne ULiege; Delafosse, Angélique ULiege; Calvo, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2018)

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred ... [more ▼]

The present work is a comparative analysis of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) computed on experimental turbulent velocity fields measured in a 20L-tank stirred by two Rushton impellers at two rotating speeds, N = 150 and 300 rpm. POD identifies flow structures that optimally capture the total kinetic energy of the flow, while DMD identifies structures that significantly contribute to the dynamics of the flow. The experimental data, i.e. the instantaneous radial and axial velocity fields, come from 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow motion is turbulent, and it occurs over a wide range of length and time scales, from equipment-dependent large-scale coherent structures to the smallest-scale eddies where energy dissipation takes place. It thus provides an interesting benchmark case for the comparison between POD and DMD, which are based on energy and dynamic analysis, respectively. POD analysis reveals that the most energetic structures are related to the inherent periodic unsteadiness due to the relative motion between the rotating impeller blades and the non-moving baffles. Apart from the mean field, the first most energetic group of modes is related to trailing vortices induced by the Rushton turbines and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the blade passage frequency and its overtones. The second most energetic group of modes is related to vortical structures in the impeller stream and is associated to a frequency equivalent to the rotating speed. DMD analysis identifies flow structures that are found similar to these most energetic modes, although differences appear due to the fact that DMD isolates structures associated to a single frequency and their corresponding growth/decay rate. As in POD, the relative importance of each DMD mode can be estimated using an appropriately defined energy criterion. Comparison of the results from both modal decomposition methods points out their complementarity and their potential for describing the spatial and time characteristics of the flow within a stirred tank. [less ▲]

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See detailDébit de filtration glomérulaire : Détermination de formules d’estimation adaptées à l’adulte noir ouest-Africain
Yayo, Sagou Eric-Didier ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2018)

La maladie rénale chronique (MRC) est reconnue comme un problème de santé publique. L’estimation du débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) est une donnée fondamentale à son dépistage et à sa prévention ... [more ▼]

La maladie rénale chronique (MRC) est reconnue comme un problème de santé publique. L’estimation du débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) est une donnée fondamentale à son dépistage et à sa prévention particulièrement dans les pays Africains au sud du Sahara où les moyens de prise en charge de la maladie sont limités. Or dans les principales formules (MDRD et CKD-Epi) recommandées pour la détermination du DFG chez les Africains, un facteur ethnique est actuellement appliqué. Cependant, ces facteurs ont été déterminés à partir de l’étude de sujets afro-américains (AA) et leur validité chez le sujet africain (non américain) reste une question. Le présent travail a visé à déterminer la valeur de référence du DFG par une méthode de référence en population générale noire, ouest-africaine et à évaluer la pertinence des équations d’estimation actuellement en vigueur. L’étude a porté sur 254 Ivoiriens adultes présumés sains (120 femmes et 134 hommes). Chez chaque participant, le DFG a été mesuré par la clairance plasmatique de l’iohexol et estimé par les formules de CG, MDRD et CKD-Epi (à base de créatinine et/ou cystatine C). Les performances des équations d’estimation ont été évaluées à partir du biais, de la précision et de l’exactitude. A l’issue de nos travaux, les valeurs de référence de DFG ont été établies en population noire Africaine à partir d’une méthode de référence. Elles sont de l’ordre de 104 ml/min/1,73m2. Concernant les formules d’estimation, l’usage du facteur actuel donne une surestimation systématique des résultats du DFG estimé et devrait être abandonné. Il ressort également que la formule CKD-Epi sans facteur AA présente les meilleures performances pour l’estimation du DFG chez l’adulte noir Africain. Enfin, l’introduction de la cystatine C dans les différentes équations d’estimation n’a pas apporté de valeur ajoutée significative par rapport à la créatinine dans notre cohorte. [less ▲]

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See detailIdée et perception. Une recherche épistémologique à partir de Descartes
Twardowski, Kasimir; Dewalque, Arnaud ULiege

in Twardowski, Kasimir; Fisette, Denis (Eds.) TBA (recueil de textes de K. Twardowski) (2018)

La dissertation doctorale de Twardowski, originellement publiée à Vienne en 1892, est ici traduite en français pour la première fois. L'auteur y offre une exégèse des expressions "clara et distincta ... [more ▼]

La dissertation doctorale de Twardowski, originellement publiée à Vienne en 1892, est ici traduite en français pour la première fois. L'auteur y offre une exégèse des expressions "clara et distincta perceptio" et "clara et distincta idea" chez Descartes, en assignant à la perception et à l'idée le rôle qui leur revient dans la théorie cartésienne de la connaissance. [less ▲]

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See detailDiabetes: Metformin - a cardiovascular moderator of DPP4 inhibitors?
Scheen, André ULiege

in Nature Reviews. Endocrinology (2018), 14(1), 8-9

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See detailRadio drama and its avatars in the work of Caryl Phillips
Ledent, Bénédicte ULiege

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2018)

Between 1984 and 2016 Caryl Phillips wrote nine radio plays which were all broadcast on the BBC. Meant for a different circuit of communication than his novels, essays and published stage plays ... [more ▼]

Between 1984 and 2016 Caryl Phillips wrote nine radio plays which were all broadcast on the BBC. Meant for a different circuit of communication than his novels, essays and published stage plays, Phillips’s radio plays might be dismissed as minor writing, yet they constitute a fascinating, under-investigated body of texts which are worth exploring alongside the rest of his work. Thematically, Phillips’s radio drama covers similar ground to his fiction and essays. Starting from this sense of familiarity, this article examines the formal and communicative specificities at play in Phillips’s contributions to the radio drama genre. Focusing on two radio plays entitled Crossing the River (1985) and A Kind of Home: James Baldwin in Paris (2004), this piece discusses which features of this marginal genre inform Phillips’s radio-dramatic characterization of protagonists with complex identities, but also, more generally, how these aspects infuse his formally experimental fiction. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathologie du sens commun
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege; Recchia, Fabio ULiege

Book published by Cercle Herméneutique (Le) (2018)

Traduction en français et présentation de "Psicopatologia del senso commune" de Giovanni Stanghellini.

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