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See detailEYK1 encoding erythrulose kinase as a catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Vandermies, Marie ULg; Denies, Olivia ULg; Nicaud, Jean-Marc et al

in Journal of Microbiological Methods (2017), 139

We report here on EYK1, encoding erythrulose kinase, as an efficient catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. Compared to auxotrophic markers, EYK1 increases the growth rate of ... [more ▼]

We report here on EYK1, encoding erythrulose kinase, as an efficient catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. Compared to auxotrophic markers, EYK1 increases the growth rate of transformants and allows improved efficiency of transformation. The utility of the marker EYK1 in a replicative vector was also demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailSearch for the signatures of mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries
Raucq, Françoise ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Massive stars are known for their crucial role in our Universe, through their extreme stellar parameters, leading to a strong impact on their environment. However, there remain numbers of unanswered ... [more ▼]

Massive stars are known for their crucial role in our Universe, through their extreme stellar parameters, leading to a strong impact on their environment. However, there remain numbers of unanswered questions concerning the exact processes of their formation, their stability or the processes driving their strong stellar winds. In the context of this thesis work, we adress one of the most interesting of their peculiarities: their tendency to be part of binary of higher multiplicity systems. Whilst this multiplicity does help to solve some open issues by allowing us to study some of the fundamental properties of the stars, such as their minimum masses and radii as well as their stellar luminosities, it can also lead to interactions between the components of a system, which affect the subsequent evolution of the stars and give rise to additional open questions on the processes in place in such systems. Among the possible interactions taking place within close binary systems is the possibility of a transfer of mass and kinetic momentum through a Roche lobe overflow. This process has a huge impact on the subsequent evolution of both components and many aspects of this phenomenon are not well understood yet. The present work is devoted to the search for the signatures of such past mass-exchange episodes in a sample of four short-period massive multiple systems: HD 149404, LSS 3074, HD 17505 and HD 206267. We determined a new orbital solution for three of them. We then used phase-resolved spectroscopy to perform the spectral disentangling of the optical spectra of the components. The spectral disentangling is a mathematical tool which allows to separate the contributions of both components to the observed spectra of a system. We then analysed the reconstructed spectra with the CMFGEN atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters, such as the effective temperatures and surface gravities, and to constrain the surface chemical composition of each component. The first two parts of this dissertation are dedicated to the scientific background and the description of the numerical tools and methods used in this work. The third part presents our studies of the selected massive systems. We confirmed that the hypothesis of a past Roche lobe overflow episode is most plausible to explain the observed properties of the components of HD 149404. Photometric data permitted us to confirm that LSS 3074 is in an overcontact configuration, and a combined analysis with spectroscopy showed that the system has lost a significant fraction of its mass to its surroundings. We proposed several possible evolutionary pathways involving a Roche lobe overflow process to explain the current parameters of its components. We found no evidence of past mass-transfer episodes in the spectra of HD 17505 and showed that the current properties of its components can be explained by single star evolutionary models including rotational mixing. We found clues of binary interactions in the spectra of HD 206267, but suggested that the system did not experience a complete Roche lobe overflow episode at this stage of its evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailCan electoral inequalities be legally justified?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in European Review of Public Law (2017), 2016(Automn), 839-879

In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally ... [more ▼]

In light of the principle of equality, German, Belgian and British election law contain some legal rules that tend to distribute the faculty to influence the composition of the elected assemblies equally among the governed people, and others that tend to distribute it unequally. The inequality caused by the latter group may be to some extent legally justified by concerns for the general interest, but also provides rulers with means that help them to remain in power, which is hardly justifiable from a legal perspective. In these legal systems, parties are expected to gain a significant portion of the people’s support: not only should the parliament (as a whole) and its members (as individuals) represent the governed people, but the parties themselves are expected to be sufficiently representative of the people in order to access the legislative assemblies. Notably, this thesis draws examples from the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, from which relevant decisions are mentioned here. [less ▲]

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See detailForeseeing New Control Challenges in Electricity Prosumer Communities
Olivier, Frédéric ULg; Marulli, Daniele; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proc. of the 10th Bulk Power Systems Dynamics and Control Symposium – IREP’2017 (2017, August)

This paper is dedicated to electricity prosumer communities, which are groups of people producing, sharing and consuming electricity locally. This paper focuses on building a rigorous mathematical ... [more ▼]

This paper is dedicated to electricity prosumer communities, which are groups of people producing, sharing and consuming electricity locally. This paper focuses on building a rigorous mathematical framework in order to formalise sequen- tial decision making problems that may soon be encountered within electricity prosumer communities. After introducing our formalism, we propose a set of optimisation problems reflecting several types of theoretically optimal behaviours for energy exchanges between prosumers. We then discuss the advantages and disadvantages of centralised and decentralised schemes and provide illustrations of decision making strategies, allowing a prosumer community to generate more distributed electricity (compared to commonly applied strategies) by mitigating over- voltages over a low-voltage feeder. We finally investigate how to design distributed control schemes that may contribute reaching (at least partially) the objectives of the community, by resort in to machine learning techniques to extract, from centralised solution(s), decision making patterns to be applied locally. First empirical results show that, even after a post-processing phase so that it satisfies physical constraints, the learning approach still performs better than predetermined strategies targeting safety first, then cost minimisation. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of voice disorders among teachers at the beginning of their career
Schiller, Isabel ULg

Poster (2017, August)

Due to the high vocal demands associated with their profession, teachers face an increased risk of developing voice disorders. Research suggests that up to 50 % of experienced teachers are affected. Even ... [more ▼]

Due to the high vocal demands associated with their profession, teachers face an increased risk of developing voice disorders. Research suggests that up to 50 % of experienced teachers are affected. Even student teachers, whose vocal load is still relatively low, report voice problems with a frequency of 20 % (Simberg, Laine, Sala, & Rönnemaa, 2000). Little is known about the prevalence of voice disorders among teachers at the very beginning of their career. In Germany, teachers must complete a two-year teaching practice as part of their professional training after they graduate from university, consisting of attending specialized courses and giving lessons. The aim of this symptom-based study was to determine the prevalence of voice problems among this population. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by 73 German teachers in teaching practice. The prevalence of a voice problem was defined based on the presence of two symptoms that persisted for a minimum of two weeks. Results revealed that 37 % of teachers had voice problems during their teaching practice. Among the most frequent symptoms were hoarseness, an urge to clear one’s throat and problems speaking at a loud voice. Considering that the participants had not even begun teaching full-time, the prevalence of reported voice problems is worrisome. It could be associated with their lacking experience in how to use their voice effectively. The findings highlight the necessity of early intervention programs focusing on vocal hygiene and effective voice use in classroom situations. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and environment
Ajjan, Fátima N.; Ambrogi, Martina; Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh et al

in Polymer International (2017), 66(8), 1119-1126

This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications ... [more ▼]

This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, cathechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep-eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures such as new poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers and new (semi)conducting polymer/polyelectrolyte complexes were also developed. As the final goal, the application of these innovative polymers in energy and environment was investigated. Important advances in energy storage technologies included the development of new carbonaceous materials, new lignin/conducting polymer biopolymer electrodes, new iongels and single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and batteries and new poly(ionic liquid) binders for batteries. On the other hand, the use of the innovative polyelectrolytes into sustainable environmental technologies led to the development of new liquid and dry water, new materials for water cleaning technologies such as floculants, oil absorbers, new recyclable organocatalysts platform and multifunctional polymer coatings with antifouling and antimicrobial properties. All in all this article demonstrates the potential of the poly(ionic liquid)s for high-value applications in Energy & Enviromental areas. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganometallic-mediated alternating radical copolymerization of tert-butyl-2- trifluoromethacrylate with vinyl acetate and synthesis of block copolymers thereof
Banerjee, Sanjib; Ladmiral, Vincent; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2017), 38(15), 1700203

Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has given access to well-defined poly(vinyl acetate-alt-tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate)-b-poly(vinyl acetate) and poly (VAc- alt-MAF-TBE ... [more ▼]

Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has given access to well-defined poly(vinyl acetate-alt-tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate)-b-poly(vinyl acetate) and poly (VAc- alt-MAF-TBE) copolymers composed of two electronically distinct monomers: vinyl acetate (VAc, donor, D) and tert-butyl-2-trifluoromethacrylate (MAF-TBE, acceptor, A), with low dispersity (≤1.24) and molar masses up to 57 000 g mol−1. These copolymers have a precise 1:1 alternating structure over a wide range of comonomer feed compositions. The reactivity ratios are determined as rVAc = 0.01 ± 0.01 and rMAF-TBE = 0 at 40 °C. Remarkably, from a feed containing >50% molar VAc content, poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE)-b- PVAc block copolymers are produced via a one- pot synthesis. Such diblock copolymers exhibit two glass transition temperatures attributed to the alternating and homopolymer sequences. The OMRP of this fluorine-containing alter- nating monomer system may provide access to a wide range of new polymer materials. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical modeling of overtopping induced fluvial dike failure: effects of the channel flow and floodplain innundation
Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2017, August)

Fluvial dikes have been constructed as flood defense structures, but their failure may lead to casualties and major damages in the protected areas. Flow overtopping is listed as the main cause of dike ... [more ▼]

Fluvial dikes have been constructed as flood defense structures, but their failure may lead to casualties and major damages in the protected areas. Flow overtopping is listed as the main cause of dike failure. An accurate assessment of the breach evolution is a prerequisite to a sound flood risk assessment and management. in contrast, the current knowledge of the physical processes involved in fluvial dike failure by overtopping remains highly fragmented. This paper presents experimental tests on the breaching of homogenous sand-dikes in a fluvial configuration, i.e. the flow is parallel to the longitudinal dike axis. Overtopping is initiated over a pilot notch at the dike crest. Experiments are performed for different inflow discharges in the main channel and under different levels of floodplain confinement. The transient evolution of the dike geometry is monitored using a laser profilometry technique. The detailed reconstruction of the breach formation and expansion provides key insights into the mechanisms involved in the failure of fluvial dikes. Results show that the breach development differs highly from experiments disregarding the flow parallel to the dike axis (i.e. frontal configuration) as in the fluvial configuration the breach develops mainly in the flow direction and the floodplain water level strongly conditions the breach horizontal and vertical extent. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh School Sport in Belgium (Wallonia)
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2017, July 31)

In Belgium, since 1969, sport is a competence under the control of public authorities defined according to the linguistic regime. As in most Western European countries, sport has been compartmentalised by ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, since 1969, sport is a competence under the control of public authorities defined according to the linguistic regime. As in most Western European countries, sport has been compartmentalised by giving rise to three main types of practice: "professional", "traditional" and "alternative" sports (Diegel, 1995). Clubs linked to sports federations constitute the local setting up of the sports organization, which is largely a majority (Zintz, 2014). Other operators from the public domain and the private sphere coexist (Cloes, 2012). In the school environment, sport can be found in three contexts: within the compulsory curriculum (physical education), integrated to extracurricular activities (activities organized during recess or free periods), and peripheral activities (use of school sports facilities by organizers who are not belonging to the school actors). If inter-school competitions are organized by several school sports federations (depending to the educational network), they are far from reaching the interest and involvement reached by the competitions managed by the traditional sports federations. So there is hardly any systematic sports training in French-speaking Belgian schools. Some PE teachers propose voluntary training sessions but there are less and less connections between their actions and sport clubs. On the other hand, young sportsmen appointed by the Minister of Sports have a special status enabling them to benefit facilities to pursue their double career. They are sometimes gathered in special organizations - sport-studies or development centers - which have been the subject of several studies (Cloes et al., 2002, Lacrosse et al., 2014, Theunissen et al., 2016) but PE teachers are very few involved in these development opportunities. In many situations of partnership between the school and sports structures, their role is often limited to a simple accompanying action (sports days, projects "My club-My school." Cloes (2017) insisted however on the need to make them a priority in the coordination of the preparation of physically educated citizens. References Cloes, M. (2012). La Wallonie en mouvement : vers une culture sportive et de l’activité physique ? In, M. Germain et R. Robaye (Eds.), L'état de la Wallonie. Portrait d'un pays et de ses habitants – 2011. (pp. 70-80). Namur : Les éditions namuroises. Available on Internet : http://hdl.handle.net/2268/117294 Cloes, M. (2017). Preparing physically educated citizens in physical education. Expectations and practices. Retos, 31, 245-251. Available on Internet : http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/retos/article/view/53497/32304 Cloes, M., Schelings, V., Ledent, M, & Piéron, M. (2002). Sport-études : comparaison des caractéristiques motivationnelles et des relations sociales des élèves sportifs et de leurs condisciples. eJRIEPS (e Journal de la Recherche sur l'Intervention en Éducation Physique et Sport), 1, 57-72. Available on Internet: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/10187 Diegel, H. (1995). Sport in changing society – Sociological essays. Schorndorf: Verlag Karl Haufmann. Lacrosse, Z., Martin, V., & Cloes, M. (2014, July). Analyse qualitative du fonctionnement du centre de formation d’une fédération sportive. Paper presented at the 8ème biennale de l’ARIS ‘Temps, temporalités et intervention en EPS et en sport’, Genève, Suisse. Available on Internet: http://hdl.handle.net/2268/170020 Theunissen, C., Meys, G., & Cloes, M. (2016). Encadrement du staff autour du double projet des sportifs dans un centre de formation en handball. Revue de l’Éducation physique, 56, 1/2, 20. Disponible sur Internet: http://yessport.be/educationphysique/file/REVUE_1_ET_2_2016_-2eme_COLLOQUE_GUY_NAMUROIS.pdf ou http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/199016 Zintz, T. (2014). Module 3 - Le paysage sportif : du pratiquant aux fédérations. Thématique 1 - Cadre institutionnel et législatif. Cours généraux de la formation ‘Moniteur Sportif Initiateur’. Brussels, Belgium : Administration des sports, Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles. Internet : http://www.sport.cfwb.be/index.php?id=7370 [less ▲]

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See detailDynamicized semantic maps of content words. Comparing long-term lexical changes in Ancient Egyptian and Greek
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2017, July 31)

This paper aims at demonstrating how information on the paths of semantic extensions undergone by content words may be incorporated into semantic maps. For this purpose, particular changes that affected ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at demonstrating how information on the paths of semantic extensions undergone by content words may be incorporated into semantic maps. For this purpose, particular changes that affected the meanings of words in the course of the Ancient Egyptian and of the Ancient Greek language history are investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and complexation of superbulky imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligands
Beltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel ULg

in Dalton Transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2017), 46(28), 9036-9048

The superbulky N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylimidazol-2-ylidene (IDip*Me) and its 4-methoxy analogue (IDip*OMe) reacted instantaneously with carbon disulfide to afford the ... [more ▼]

The superbulky N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylimidazol-2-ylidene (IDip*Me) and its 4-methoxy analogue (IDip*OMe) reacted instantaneously with carbon disulfide to afford the corresponding imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions in high yields. These new dithiolate ligands were fully characterized and their coordination chemistry toward common Re(i) and Ru(ii) metal sources was thoroughly investigated. Neutral [ReBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] chelates featured three facially-arranged carbonyl groups on a distorted octahedron, whereas cationic [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C[middle dot]NHC)]PF6 complexes displayed a piano-stool geometry. The molecular structures of the six new compounds revealed that the NHC[middle dot]CS2 inner salts were highly flexible. Indeed, the torsion angle between their anionic and cationic moieties varied between ca. 63[degree] in the free ligands and 3[degree] in the ruthenium complexes. Concomitantly, the S-C-S bite angle underwent a contraction from 131[degree] to 110-113[degree] upon chelation. Computation of the %VBur parameter showed that the dithiocarboxylate unit of the NHC[middle dot]CS2 betaines chiefly determined the steric requirements of the imidazolium moieties, irrespective of the metal center involved in the complexation. The replacement of the p-methyl substituents of IDip*Me with p-methoxy groups in IDip*OMe did not significantly affect the ligand bulkiness. The more electron-donating methoxy group led, however, to small changes in various IR wavenumbers used to probe the electron donor properties of the carbene moiety. [less ▲]

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See detailEl impacto del fin del “giro al la izquierda” sobre las relaciones entre China y América Latina
Wintgens, Sophie ULg

Conference (2017, July 28)

La llegada de China en América Latina a finales de los años 2000 se ha presentado como una nueva opción en el contexto histórico de un “movimiento pendular” que siempre ha visto los países latino ... [more ▼]

La llegada de China en América Latina a finales de los años 2000 se ha presentado como una nueva opción en el contexto histórico de un “movimiento pendular” que siempre ha visto los países latino-americanos girar principalmente en torno a Europa y sus antiguas potencias coloniales o en torno a los Estados Unidos. En el marco de esa dinámica del “triángulo Atlántico” en la que se encuentra encerrada América Latina, China ha también beneficiado de un entorno regional propicio como consecuencia de factores tanto estructurales (las debilidades del regionalismo latinoamericano), como coyunturales (la escalada de la “nueva” izquierda sudamericana). El inicio de la década de 2010, sin embargo, parece marcar el final del “giro à la izquierda” y los límites del modelo de desarrollo extractivo adoptado por la mayoría de los gobiernos progresistas latino-americanos. Al mismo tiempo, las autoridades chinas han también iniciado un cambio de modelo de desarrollo económico con el undécimo Plan Quinquenal (2006-2010) para que sea más autocentrado y basado en la producción de productos de alta calidad. Basándose en estas observaciones, este ponencia interroga el impacto de este contexto sobre las relaciones entre China y América Latina. [less ▲]

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See detailOccupational social and mental stimulation and cognitive decline with advancing age
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Meillon, Céline; Amieva, Hélène et al

in Age and Ageing (2017)

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See detailBuilding flow and transport models with electrical resistivity tomography data
Gottschalk, Ian; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Knight, Rosemary et al

Poster (2017, July 26)

Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is the process of enhancing natural groundwater resources and recovering water for later use by constructing engineered conveyances. Insufficient understanding of ... [more ▼]

Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is the process of enhancing natural groundwater resources and recovering water for later use by constructing engineered conveyances. Insufficient understanding of lithological heterogeneity at ARR sites often hinders attempts to predict where and how quickly infiltrating water will flow in the subsurface, which can adversely affect the quality and quantity of available water in the ARR site. In this study, we explored the use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to assist in characterizing lithological heterogeneity at an ARR site, so as to incorporate it into a flow and contaminant transport model. In this case, we had non-collocated well core log data and ERT data from a full-scale ARR basin. We compared three independent methods for producing conditional lithology-resistivity probability distributions: 1) a search template to relate the nearest logged well lithologies with ERT resistivity panels, given search criteria; 2) a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to match bimodal normal distributions to the histogram of each ERT line; and 3) variogram-based lithology indicator simulations constrained to well data. Each approach leverages Bayes’ Rule to estimate lithology probability given electrical resistivity. The simplest approach (method 1) yields an erroneous conditional probability function where sand dominates the conditional probability at nearly all resistivities, due in part to the strong presence of sand in the wells nearest the ERT lines. The approaches using MLE and lithology simulations (methods 2 and 3) produce similar, more realistic lithofacies probability functions. The range of resistivities where clay and sand overlap differs between methods 2 and 3: ranging between 100 and 200 ohm-m for method 2, and between 30 and 50 ohm-m for the method 3. These differences affect the posterior lithology distributions in multiple point geostatistical (MPS) simulations, and in turn, predictions of flow from models which integrate these results. To test the models, we can compare measured breakthrough times of recharged water at the site to groundwater flow simulation results using the lithofacies models created by each method. The methods described here can inform the integration of non-collocated geophysical data into a variety of applications. [less ▲]

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See detailShape and spin determination of Barbarian asteroids
Devogele, Maxime ULg; Tanga, P.; Bendjoya, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017)

The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such ... [more ▼]

The so-called Barbarian asteroids share peculiar, but common polarimetric properties, probably related to both their shape and composition. They are named after (234) Barbara, the first on which such properties were identified. As has been suggested, large scale topographic features could play a role in the polarimetric response, if the shapes of Barbarians are particularly irregular and present a variety of scattering/incidence angles. This idea is supported by the shape of (234) Barbara, that appears to be deeply excavated by wide concave areas revealed by photometry and stellar occultations. Aims. With these motivations, we started an observation campaign to characterise the shape and rotation properties of Small Main- Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) type L and Ld asteroids. As many of them show long rotation periods, we activated a worldwide network of observers to obtain a dense temporal coverage. Methods. We used light-curve inversion technique in order to determine the sidereal rotation periods of 15 asteroids and the con- vergence to a stable shape and pole coordinates for 8 of them. By using available data from occultations, we are able to scale some shapes to an absolute size. We also study the rotation periods of our sample looking for confirmation of the suspected abundance of asteroids with long rotation periods. Results. Our results show that the shape models of our sample do not seem to have peculiar properties with respect to asteroids with similar size, while an excess of slow rotators is most probably confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailModèles de porosité pour les inondations urbaines
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg et al

Scientific conference (2017, July 25)

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See detailEvaluating model simulations of 20th century sea-level rise. Part 1: AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Global mean sea-level change
Slangen, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Journal of Climate (2017)

Sea-level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, we compare Global Mean Sea-Level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 ... [more ▼]

Sea-level change is one of the major consequences of climate change and is projected to affect coastal communities around the world. Here, we compare Global Mean Sea-Level (GMSL) change estimated by 12 climate models from the 5th phase of the World Climate Research Programme’s Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to observational estimates for the period 1900-2015. We analyse observed and simulated individual contributions to GMSL change (thermal expansion, glacier mass change, ice sheet mass change, landwater storage change) and compare the summed simulated contributions to observed GMSL change over the period 1900-2007 using tide gauge reconstructions, and over the period 1993-2015 using satellite altimetry estimates. The model-simulated contributions allow us to explain 50 ± 30% (uncertainties 1.65σ unless indicated otherwise) of the mean observed change from 1901-1920 to 1988-2007. Based on attributable biases between observations and models, we propose to add a number of corrections, which result in an improved explanation of 75 ± 38% of the observed change. For the satellite era (1993-1997 to 2011-2015) we find an improved budget closure of 102 ± 33% (105 ± 35% when including the proposed bias corrections). Simulated decadal trends over the 20th century increase, both in the thermal expansion and the combined mass contributions (glaciers, ice sheets and landwater storage). The mass components explain the majority of sea-level rise over the 20th century, but the thermal expansion has increasingly contributed to sea-level rise, starting from 1910 onwards and in 2015 accounting for 46% of the total simulated sea-level change. [less ▲]

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