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See detailGrille : Plugin de création de grilles d'échantillonnage pour le logiciel QGIS
De Thier, Olivier ULg; Handerek, Daphné ULg; Modave, Maxime et al

Software (2015)

Le plugin Grille pour QGIS est destiné à définir et créer des grilles d’échantillonnage dans le cadre d’inventaires et de recensements appliqués à la gestion des ressources naturelles.

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See detailDrug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: a review
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2015), 209

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has ... [more ▼]

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described. [less ▲]

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See detailAn ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements
Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), (15), 7413-7427

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants ... [more ▼]

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAlgorithmic aspects of converting surface mesh data to volumetric images
Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2015, July 09)

In image analysis, some processes might imply a change or conversion in the structure of the data. The structure types will depend on the processing method and applications, and can consist of pixel data ... [more ▼]

In image analysis, some processes might imply a change or conversion in the structure of the data. The structure types will depend on the processing method and applications, and can consist of pixel data, point sets, finite elements, vector fields, implicit surfaces, graphs, basic shapes (spheres, cylinders, or cubes), etc. The work presented here discusses the problem of converting a triangulated surface mesh to a 3D image, a need that arises for example when using active surface-type segmentation methods of 3D images, shape-fitting, or combining data from laser surface scanning with 3D imaging. During the course of numerous projects, two main classes of mesh-to-image conversions have appeared: those identifying voxels (pixels in a 3D image) that intersect the mesh, or voxels that are contained in the mesh, supposing it defines a closed surface. [less ▲]

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See detailA probabilistic multi-scale model for polycrystalline MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

Conference (2015, July 09)

The size of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of their micro-structure, i.e. their grain size. As a result, the structural properties ... [more ▼]

The size of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of their micro-structure, i.e. their grain size. As a result, the structural properties exhibit a scatter. As an example we study the beam resonator illustrated in Fig. 1(a), made of poly-silicon material, in which each grain has a random orientation. Solving the problem with a full direct numerical simulation combined to a Monte-Carlo method allows the probability density function to be computed as illustrated in Fig. 1(b). However this methodology is computationally expensive due to the number of degrees of freedom required to study one sample, motivating the development of a non-deterministic 3-scale approach [3]. In a multiscale approach, at each macro-point of the macro-structure, the resolution of a microscale boundary value problem relates the macro-stress tensor to the macro-strain tensor. At the micro-level, the macro-point is viewed as the center of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). The resolution of the micro-scale boundary problem can be performed using finite-element simulations, as in the computational homogenization framework, e.g. [2]. However, to be representative, the micro-volume-element should have a size much bigger than the microstructure size. In the context of the MEMS resonator, this representativity is lost and Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) are considered. These SVEs are generated under the form of a Voronoi tessellation with a random orientation for each silicon grain. Hence, a Monte-Carlo procedure combined with a homogenization technique allows a distribution of the material tensor at the meso-scale to be estimated. The correlation between the meso-scale material tensors of two SVEs separated by a given distance can also be evaluated. A generator at the meso-scale based on the spectral method [4] is implemented. The generator [3] accounts for a lower bound [1] of the meso-scale material tensor in order to ensure the existence of the second-order moment of the Frobenius norm of the generated material tensor inverse [5]. Using the random meso-scale field obtained with the meso-scale generator, which accounts for the spatial correlation, a Monte-Carlo method can be used at the macro-scale to predict the probabilistic behavior of the MEMS resonator. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterministic Manufacturing constraints for Optimal Distribution in the Case of Additive Manufacturing
Bauduin, Simon ULg; Collet, Maxime ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 09)

An overview of the difficulties of coupling additive manufacturing to topology optimization with various solution founded and implemented.

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See detailDoes formal child care availability for 0-3 year olds boost mothers' employment rate? Panel data based evidence from Belgium
Dujardin, Claire; Fonder, Muriel; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

In 2003, a new multi-annual program aimed at increasing the availability of formal child care for 0-3 year old children was launched in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. This paper is ... [more ▼]

In 2003, a new multi-annual program aimed at increasing the availability of formal child care for 0-3 year old children was launched in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium. This paper is interested in evaluating if this increased availability of formal child care resulted in a higher employment rate for women with at least one child under 3. To this end, we use a difference-in-differences approach based on municipality-level panel data, taking advantage of the fact that the increase in availability of formal child care differed greatly across municipalities. We find that the raise in child care availability significantly increased the maternal employment rate, but to a lesser extent than expected, most likely because of a substantial crowding-out effect. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond indiscipline of Labor Market Intermediaries : The Case of Public Employment Services and Private Providers Partnerships
Remy, Céline ULg; Beuker, Laura ULg; Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2015, July 08)

Following the economic and social changes in the countries of the European Union (liberalization requirements, crisis of the welfare State, diversification of users expectations, etc.), compelling ... [more ▼]

Following the economic and social changes in the countries of the European Union (liberalization requirements, crisis of the welfare State, diversification of users expectations, etc.), compelling readability needs and modernization of Public Employment Services (PES) have appeared. Meanwhile, a spectacular growth of private employment operators - market and non-market - was recognized by the International Labor Organization in all member states, in order to respond effectively to the increased requests of support and training for the beneficiaries of the PES. In this new context, PES are invited by the European Union (EU) – particularly through its multiple directives – to rethink and reposition their traditional activities of placement, training and support for jobseekers according to a "mixed" management of the labor market. Therefore, PES entrust operation and management of their activities to private providers, as part of a contractual agreement. In this way, these operators provide a "back office function for SPE via a system of delegation governed by a specific division of labor formalized in a partnership agreement between PES and the private provider". Thus, these private labor market intermediaries (LMI’s) as active members on the public orders market work both on their own behalf and on behalf of the public authority. These new collaborations, qualified public-private partnerships (PPPs), allow PES to outsource and delegate a part of their missions they could not achieve internally. So PES combine the role of "actor" and the role of "manager" / "principal" in the labor market. To facilitate the coordination of their activities with the private sector, PES made the decision to create a partnerships service. The officers of this service have the mission to oversee this new form of regulation of the labor market. While collaboration rules are initially determined by the PES, the agents are required to implement them and have the private operators following them. Our interest is to study how these actors – or stakeholder of the PPPs – implement this public action device. Despite differences in both organizational and cultural (for instance bureaucratic rigidity versus informal structure, constraint reporting, management autonomy, etc.), public and private actors work together to serve community and beneficiaries of the PES for their professional integration in the labor market. To analyze how these actors interact and live the partnership relationship, established between agreement and disagreement, we will rely on the economy of conventions and especially on the theoretical contributions of the Theory of justification. In this way, we will identify the different logics of action (present in the merchant, civic, industrial worlds, etc.) that guide the practices of stakeholders, from their discourse and in particular the underlying arguments to justify their actions. Our analysis is rooted in empirical material composed of semi-structured interviews (N=89) and various observations of interactions made within the partnership services and with providers (N=132). These observations focused on three key moments in the life of the partnership: the selection of projects, the monitoring and evaluation of projects by the agents. With this approach, our goal is twofold. On the one hand, we want to highlight the moments when the actors "interpret" the regulatory framework that structure their actions within the partnership relationship. On the other hand, we want to understand the arguments used by actors to justify and legitimize their indiscipline. [less ▲]

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See detailDe "Poétique" à "Points Essais" : (ré)invention du livre ?
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, July 08)

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See detailStress constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing: Specific character and solution aspects
Duysinx, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, July 07)

Since the fundamental work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi (1988), topology optimization has been based on compliance type formulations (Bendsoe & Sigmund, 2003) while the number of works considering stress ... [more ▼]

Since the fundamental work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi (1988), topology optimization has been based on compliance type formulations (Bendsoe & Sigmund, 2003) while the number of works considering stress constraints are rather limited (Duysinx & Bendsoe, 1998). More recently the generalized shape optimization approach using level set methods (see for instance Allaire, Jouve, Troader, 2004, Belytchko, Xiao, Parimi, 2003) has followed the tracks of topology optimization and has mainly been focusing on compliance minimization problems. The ‘compliance type’ formulation has produced quite interesting results in many problems because controlling the energy and the displacements under the loads is generally favourable for deflection control and because, for one load case, the compliance minimization leads to a fully stressed design nearly everywhere in the structure. However there are theoretical results that clearly show that the strongest and the stiffest structural layout can be quite different. As demonstrated in Rozvany & Birker (1994) truss topology optimization can lead to different results when there are several load cases, different stress limits in tension and compression, or when there are several materials involved. Therefore, the first goal of the paper points out the importance of considering stress constraints as soon as the preliminary design phase, that is, to include stress constraints in the topology optimization problem. Revisiting some contributions of the authors, this paper aims at illustrating the key role of stress constraints in the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures. The recent developments are able to treat: • Integrated stress criteria (i.e. global) relaxed stress constraints that aggregate the stress constraints in each finite element in order to be able to circumvent the large scale character of the local stress constraints. • Stress criteria that are able to tackle non equal stress limits in tension and compression. The usual von Mises criterion is unable to predict real-life designs when the structure is made of materials with unequal stress limits like concrete or composite materials. These different behaviours in tension and compression result in quite specific designs. Numerical applications make possible to point out the different nature of structural lay out for maximum strength and maximum stiffness. This one is clearly demonstrated in two kinds of particular situations: once several load cases are considered and when unequal stress limits in tension and compression are involved. The second contribution of the paper deals with the solution aspects of large scale constrained optimization problems. Because of the huge number of design variables, dual methods combined with local convex approximations such as CONLIN (Fleury, 1989) or MMA (Svanberg, 1987) are well indicated to solve classical topology optimization methods. However stress constrained problems introduce also a so large number of active constraints that one comes to a rather delicate situation. We show that the optimizer effort increases mostly as the cube of the number of constraints. In order to circumvent the problem, the idea developed in the paper is to combine first or second order approximations (Bruyneel, Duysinx, Fleury, 2002) with zero order approximations of stress constraints, especially for the subset of restrictions that are likely not to be active or not to change too fast. At first the paper presents the way to derive zero-order approximations of -relaxed stress constraints (that is necessary to cope with the singularity phenomenon of stress constraints in topology optimization). Then the proposed hybrid approach mixing approximation of different orders is benchmarked on numerical applications illustrating the reduction of computation time for solving optimization problems without sacrifying to the robustness and efficiency. Numerical applications will investigate topology optimized benchmark examples combined with additive manufacturing fabrication to illustrate the developments. [less ▲]

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See detailMethane distributions and sea-to-air fluxes in the South China Sea and the West Philippines Sea
Tseng; Chen; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

Poster (2015, July 07)

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See detailModelling Uncertainties in Long-Term Predictions of Urban Growth: A Coupled Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Approach
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Ferreira, Joseph; Goodspeed, Robert (Eds.) Proceedings of CUPUM 2015 (2015, July 07)

Modelling the growth of urban settlements is of considerable interest for different applications, amongst which integrated flood management. This study aims at modelling urban growth for a long time ... [more ▼]

Modelling the growth of urban settlements is of considerable interest for different applications, amongst which integrated flood management. This study aims at modelling urban growth for a long time horizon up to 2100 and to integrate the model outcomes with a hydrological model for the same time horizon. Forecasting land-use change over such time frames entails very significant uncertainties. In this regard, the main focus of this paper is attributed to the handling of uncertainty in an urban growth model. To this end, we examine a Monte Carlo Simulation method, which is integrated in the proposed urban growth model. Transition probabilities for each non-urban cell are estimated by a coupled Cellular Automata-Agent-Based ap-proach. The results help to handle uncertainty over long time horizons and to assess the increment in degree of uncertainty at every time-step. [less ▲]

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See detailModes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Hamaïdia, Malik ULg et al

in Viruses (2015), 7

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic ... [more ▼]

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of demented patients with urinary incontinence: A case study
de Codt, Aloïse; Grotz, Catherine ULg; Degaute, Marie-France et al

in Clinical Neuropsychologist (The) (2015)

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See detailEvaluation of the promethazine and acepromazine sedative and hemodynamic effects and norepinephrine reversal of acepromazine induced hemodynamic alterations in the standing horse
De Araujo Pequito, Manuel ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Some phenothiazine derivates, such as acepromazine (ACP), have beneficial properties that could be interesting in equine patients with systemic inflammatory diseases where neutrophil activation and ROS ... [more ▼]

Some phenothiazine derivates, such as acepromazine (ACP), have beneficial properties that could be interesting in equine patients with systemic inflammatory diseases where neutrophil activation and ROS production are implicated. Besides, ACP’s vasodilatatory properties can also be of clinical importance in conditions such as acute laminitis or in anaesthetic protocols. However, the vasodilation induced by ACP is contraindicated in horses suffering from hypotension, a typical complication of systemic inflammatory diseases in horses. The sedative effect of ACP can also have an impact on the correct evaluation of the mental state of a horse in intensive care. Hence, it could be important either to select another phenothiazine derivate with the same beneficial effects as ACP, but with fewer undesirable effects, or to create a medication protocol, in which ACP is associated to another molecule, with the purpose of diminishing its undesired effects. Therefore, this work focused on the comparison of the sedative and peripheral hemodynamic effects of ACP and promethazine (PTZ) as well as on the evaluation of the hemodynamic effects of the administration of ACP followed by a norepinephrine (NOR) infusion in the standing healthy horse. To achieve this objective, 3 different studies were designed. The first one focused on the comparison between ACP and PTZ and the two other ones focused on the study of the association between ACP and NOR. In the first experimental protocol, 9 healthy Warmblood horses randomly received either intravenous ACP at 0.1 mg/kg or PTZ at 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 mg/kg. A sedation score based on clinical examination was recorded, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) was noninvasively evaluated using a Doppler flow detector at the tail, just before and every 15 minutes until 60 minutes after drug injection. Hemodynamics of the median artery of the left forelimb was studied using Doppler ultrasonography just before and 45 minutes after injection of the drug, which allowed calculation of surface (SURF), diameter (DIAM), and circumference (CIRC) of the vessel, as well as peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), volumetric flow (VF), and resistivity index (RI) of the blood flow. In the second experimental protocol, an infusion of NOR at a constant rate of 1 μg/kg/minute for 15 minutes was administered to 5 standing healthy horses 45 minutes (TACP+45) after intravenous injection of ACP at 0.1 mg/kg. Non-invasive SAP and the same hemodynamic parameters than in study 1 were evaluated on the median artery. The SAP was evaluated before, 15, 30, 45 and every 5 minutes during the NOR infusion (TNORa, TNORb, TNORc) from TACP+45 to 60 minutes (TACP+60) after ACP administration and at 5 (TACP+65), 15 (TACP+75), 30 (TACP+90) and 45 (TACP+105) minutes after stopingt the NOR infusion. In the third experimental protocol, 45 minutes after ACP intravenous injection at 0.1 mg/kg, a continuous NOR infusion was performed during 10 minutes at 0.3 μg/kg/min, then 10 minutes at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and finally 10 minutes at 1 μg/kg/min in 5 standing healthy horses. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured using lithium dilution (LiDCO). The mean (MAP), systolic and diastolic (DAP) systemic arterial pressures were measured invasively using an anesthesic monitoring system, that also automatically calculated the heart rate (HR). All parameters were measured immediately before ACP administration, 45 minutes after, at the end of each incremental 10 minutes NOR continuous infusion rate (TNOR0.3, TNOR0.5 and TNOR1) and ten minutes after terminating the NOR infusion. Regardless of the used dose, PTZ had lesser sedative and hypotensive effects than ACP at 0.1 mg/kg and did not induce significant variations in SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV, VF, and RI of the studied standing horses. Conversely, the vasodilatory and hypotensive properties of ACP were illustrated by a significant increase in SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV, and VF and a significant reduction of the RI and SAP. Unlike ACP, PTZ did not induce alterations on the morphology of the Doppler waveform. All the ACP-induced hemodynamic alterations, with the exception of PSV and MV were significantly counteracted by the NOR infusion at a constant 1 μg/kg/minute rate, from TNORa to TNORc for EDV, VF, MV and RI, and to TACP+65 for SAP, from TNORb to TACP+90 for CIRC and SURF and to TNORc for DIAM. Besides, although the ACP induced hypotension, no significant changes were observed in the CO, SV, SVR and HR. NOR infusion at incremental doses counteracted the decrease of SAP, from TNOR0.3 to TNOR1, of MAP at TNOR0.3 and TNOR1 and of DAP at TNOR1. After the ending of the infusion, the arterial pressure again dropped significantly, the CO and HR increased non significantly, and the SVR decreased non significantly. PTZ appears to have less sedative and peripheral vasodilator effects than ACP, thus it could be safer than ACP in patients suffering from hypotension. The results also demonstrate that a NOR infusion can reverse ACP’s vasodilatory effects, restoring hemodynamic parameters and blood pressure in horses. The studied NOR infusion proved hence to be useful in horses suffering from vasodilation and hypotension, as it reverted the hemodynamic alterations induced by ACP. [less ▲]

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See detailA Non-Local Damage-Enhanced Incremental-Secant Mean-Field-Homogenization For Composite Laminate Failure Predictions
Wu, Ling ULg; Adam, Laurent; Doghri, Issam et al

Conference (2015, July 06)

Recently, the authors have presented an incremental-secant mean-field homogenisation (MFH) process for non-linear composite materials [4]. In this formulation, a virtual elastic unloading is applied to ... [more ▼]

Recently, the authors have presented an incremental-secant mean-field homogenisation (MFH) process for non-linear composite materials [4]. In this formulation, a virtual elastic unloading is applied to evaluate the virtual residual stress and strain states reached in each elasto-plastic phase. These virtual states are then used as a starting point to apply a secant homogenization method. This incremental-secant MFH process can handle non-proportional and nonmonotonic loadings, and naturally possesses an isotropic instantaneous stiffness operator to be used in the Eshelby tensor. This incremental-secant MFH homogenization can account for the first and second statistical moment estimation of the current yield stress in the composite phases during the computation of the plastic flow. When accounting for a second statistical moment estimation, the plastic yield in the composite material phases is captured with a higher accuracy, improving the predictions, mainly in the case of short fiber composite materials [6], see Fig. 1(a). The incremental MFH can handle material softening when extended to include a damage model. Indeed, as the secant formulation is applied from an unloaded state, the inclusion phase can be elastically unloaded during the softening of the matrix phase, contrarily to the case of the incremental-tangent method [3, 5], see Fig. 1(b). Moreover, when formulating the damage model in the composite phases in a non-local way, as with the non-local implicit approach, [1, 2], the MFH scheme can be used to model strain localization in composite structures [5], without suffering from the loss of the solution uniqueness. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytoplankton abundance and diversity in the Congo river at high and low waters
Stoyneva, MP; Descy, JP; Bouillon, S et al

Conference (2015, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)