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See detailDu stilus à la plume ... du chapeau. Quelques réflexions sur la notion de style
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Bruxelles Patrimoines (2016), (18),

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See detailVoir en art, voir en sciences
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouvelle Revue d'Esthétique (2016), 17

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of ... [more ▼]

This article is about visual devices that in history of art and in semiotics are generally called "metavisual" and that are used to study some phenomena of framing in artistic images (see the works of Victor Stoichita and of Jean-François Bordron). We are going to explore the possibility to use these devices to analyse contemporary scientific images, trying to identify some common actions that go beyond the differences in terms of objects and economy of values between arts and sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailHousing Quality as Environmental Inequality: The Case of Wallonia, Belgium
Lejeune, Zoé ULg; Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg; Kryvobokov, Marko et al

in Journal of Housing and the Built Environment (2016), 31(3), 495-512

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and ... [more ▼]

First in the USA and then in many other countries, scholarship on environmental inequality has sought to shed light on the unequal environmental conditions borne by poor people and ethnic minorities, and to challenge public policies and their unjust impacts on those target groups. Housing quality, especially the indoor characteristics of homes, offers an innovative perspective in this field of research. In previous research on environmental inequality in the Walloon context, housing quality has been proven to be a major determinant of quality of life and environmental well-being. This paper analyses housing quality through a twofold approach: through indoor characteristics on the one hand, and outdoor subjective and objective externalities on the other. It reveals the disparities between the most deprived and the wealthiest segments of the population. The evidence for this study is based on a housing quality survey carried out in 2012 and 2013 on 6,018 households in Wallonia (Belgium). The key findings are that poor people are found to live in housing of lower quality, in densely populated neighbourhoods and those with mixed use, with compensating amenities provided at the local level. Moreover, consistent with environmental inequality scholarship, deprived households are found to bear the burden of environmental degradation outside the home. People live in areas with poorer air quality, but are found to benefit from greater access to green spaces. The results of the survey reveal an interesting point concerning the environmental inequality literature; the interior features of housing are found to differ more widely between deprived and wealthier people than the surrounding environment does. [less ▲]

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See detailEnonciation et modes d'existence
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2016)

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique ... [more ▼]

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique francophone contemporaine qu’à la base de la réflexion de Bruno Latour, des années 1970 jusqu’à présent . Notre propos se déploie en deux moments : dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur l’article "Petite Philosophie de l’énonciation" (1998), et nous en suivons le développement dans l’Enquête sur les modes d’existence (2012). Dans un second temps, nous réalisons une rapide archéologie de la théorie de l’énonciation dans la sémiotique contemporaine, afin de mettre en lumière les liens entre différentes traditions sémiotiques et la théorie latourienne. Plus précisément, nous nous attachons aux propositions récentes de Jacques Fontanille et de Claudio Paolucci, en prenant également en considération les contributions d’Umberto Eco et Patrizia Violi. Il s’agit de voir comment les sémioticiens peuvent tirer profit de la théorie latourienne des modes d’existence et vice versa. [less ▲]

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See detailLes supports des images : de la photographie à l’image numérique
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Reyes, Everardo

in Revue Française des Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication (2016), 9

In this article we deal with questions related to images (painting, photography, digital image) from a semiotic standpoint, more precisely the form and substance of their expression plane. Classical ... [more ▼]

In this article we deal with questions related to images (painting, photography, digital image) from a semiotic standpoint, more precisely the form and substance of their expression plane. Classical greimasian semiotics –mainly through the works of Jean-Marie Floch (1985, 1986) and Félix Thürlemann (1982) – has concentrated on the relation between form of expression and form of content (thus in a semi-symbolic fashion). Then, in the 1990s, Jacques Fontanille started exploring the substance of expression. Later, within the framework of hierarchical levels of analysis, Fontanille (2005, 2008), introduced concepts such as material and formal support in order to distinguish between image as object and image as text. We take into account these works to study the close relationship between the substance of expression of images and the practices of production-reception. [less ▲]

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See detailLes corps des scientifiques et de l’intellectuel dans la revue La Recherche
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Mabrour, Abdel; Bajomée, Danielle (Eds.) La lettre et l’image. Enquêtes interculturelles sur les territoires du visible (2016, September)

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail ... [more ▼]

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail collectif en laboratoire etc., et les conceptions de la science qui en sont valorisées. L’étude des relations entre les photographies et les textes qui les accompagnent ont ainsi pour objectif de déployer une réflexion non seulement sur les différents types de commensurabilité entre le langage verbal et le langage visuel mais aussi sur le fait que le langage visuel est à même de forger de manière tout à fait autonome des valeurs identitaires et des formes de vie identifiables via l’analyse sémiotique. Notre exploration se développera en deux volets : le premier vise à esquisser la méthodologie de la sémiotique visuelle pour pouvoir introduire les niveaux pertinents de l’analyse sémiotique, le deuxième consiste à analyser un corpus constitué de textes tirés de quelques numéros de la revue La Recherche en en distinguant les différents genres discursifs (entretien, présentation de travaux en cours, etc.) et les différents types de cadrage et de mise en scène photographique afin d’expliquer comment ils se combinent avec les prises de position épistémologiques valorisées. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural design considering damage within an XFEM-level set framework
Noël, Lise ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Maute, Kurt

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailJudiciarisation des systèmes politiques et sociaux. Recueil d'arrêts
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailThe cardiovascular impact of intense eccentric isokinetic exercise versus aerobic treadmill running
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LAURENT, Terry ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2016), 24(3), 201-208

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is an important health factor, but intense physical stress can increase the risk of heart disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the potential cardiac ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is an important health factor, but intense physical stress can increase the risk of heart disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the potential cardiac repercussions of, and the oxidative stress resulting from a maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise and a 1-hour treadmill run at 75% ˙V O2 max (maximal exercise done 6 weeks before). METHODS: Twelve young sedentary healthy subjects randomly performed two tests separated by 6 weeks: 1) 3 sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic contractions of the quadriceps; 2) a 1-hour running on treadmill at 75% ˙V O2 max. We drew blood samples just before each exercise (T1), and just after (T2), 3 hours after (T3), and 24 hours after (T4) the end of each exercise to measure cardiac and oxidative stress biomarkers. RESULTS: In the running group, we observed significant differences for myoglobin (T3: 145 ± 80 μg/L), creatinine kinase (T4: 593 ± 350 mg/L), oxidized glutathione (T2: 22 ± 15.6 μmol/L), and highly sensitive cardiac troponin T, (T3: 0.051 ± 0.038 ng/mL). In the isokinetic group, we observed significant differences for myoglobin (T3:1419 ± 2533 mg/L), creatine kinase (3303 ± 7159 mg/L), and oxidized glutathione (T4:24 ± 14 μmol/L). Between isokinetic exercise and running, we observed significant differences for uric acid (p < 0.05, running > eccentric), myoglobin (p < 0.05, ditto), NT-proBNP (p < 0.05, ditto), hsTnT (p < 0.01, ditto), and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As cardiac biomarkers appear practically unmodified after the isokinetic exercise, despite the considerable oxidative stress, we suggest that the application of intense maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise, when indicated, should be safe for most patients including those whose cardiac status is unknown. On the other hand, the increase in cardiac biomarkers observed after running, could reflect leakage of these biomarkers from the cytosolic pool of cardiac cells, linked to membrane damage, rather than the result of a major injury and hence running is supposed to be a safe practice. However, since sudden death during running has been previously described, assesment of the cardiac biomarkers and a follow-up by a sport doctor is important especially if there is a cardiac family history. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre traditions et innovations. La tête végétalisée dans les décors romains: origine, diffusion et signification d'un thème ornemental
Derwael, Stéphanie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

La tête végétalisée est un témoin privilégié de la culture visuelle des Romains. Innovation de l’époque tardo-républicaine et proto-impériale, elle n’en demeure pas moins l’héritière du traitement formel ... [more ▼]

La tête végétalisée est un témoin privilégié de la culture visuelle des Romains. Innovation de l’époque tardo-républicaine et proto-impériale, elle n’en demeure pas moins l’héritière du traitement formel de figures telles que la Rankenfrau et le Rankengott et d’un symbolisme végétal séculaire. Elle évoque une nature naissante ou renaissante qui ne possède pas encore les frontières du cosmos ordonné, et fonctionne comme une épithète iconographique permettant de mettre en évidence un aspect particulier d’un personnage, tel le dieu Oceanus. L’étude des spécificités culturelles et des traditions iconographiques des différentes régions de l’Empire romain, couplée à la mise en série et à l’analyse contextualisée des documents, permet de mettre en évidence les formes de diffusion, de réception et d’appropriation de ce thème ornemental, de sa naissance à son assimilation par le monde chrétien. A côté de tendances relativement homogènes communes à l’Empire, se dessinent quelques courants particuliers, comme l’enrichissement nord-africain de la forme océanique, le renouveau oriental de la bordure à rinceau peuplé héritée de la tradition picturalisante hellénistique, ou « l’humanisation du végétal » gallo-germanique. Entre traditions et innovations, la tête végétalisée du monde romain développe des spécificités iconographiques pérennes qui lui confèrent une signification inhérente à toute forme d’hybridité végétale, tout en permettant à différentes visions du monde de s’exprimer en elle sans se dissoudre. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecision synthesis of poly(ionic liqui)s in aqueous media by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization
Cordella, Daniela ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are a subclass of polyelectrolytes that gained an enabling role in many fields of polymer chemistry and material science. PILs combine the unique properties of ionic liquids ... [more ▼]

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are a subclass of polyelectrolytes that gained an enabling role in many fields of polymer chemistry and material science. PILs combine the unique properties of ionic liquids with the flexibility and properties of macromolecules, and provide novel attractive functions. Recently, the precision design of novel PILs by controlled/living polymerization (CLP) techniques was intensively searched for developing emerging applications, such as those based on the self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs). Indeed, combining the physicochemical properties of PILs with the self-assembly of BCPs is a route to easily produce innovative functional nanostructures that have a huge potential for many applications, e.g. for electrochemical devices, gas membranes, nanostructures materials, etc. Among the panel of poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers (PIL BCPs) that is available, vinyl imidazolium-based derivatives are highly attractive due their high charge density, the possibility to easily tune their properties by the nature of the alkyl chain, etc. However, when this PhD thesis started, their synthesis by direct polymerization of N-vinyl imidazolium-type monomers was challenging for most of the CLP techniques. Only few examples of vinyl imidazolium-based PIL BCPs were accessible by Reversible Addition Fragmentation Transfer (RAFT) polymerization or Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP), and in organic media exclusively. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop a controlled radical polymerization technique for N-vinyl imidazolium-type monomers in water that would facilitate the precision synthesis of PIL BCPs in this green solvent under non-demanding experimental conditions. Due to its compatibility to water and to its high versatility, the CMRP process was used for that purpose. The synthetic challenges that we address in this thesis are (1) to perform the CMRP of N-vinyl imidazolium type monomers in water, (2) to prepare hydrosoluble but also amphiphilic all PIL BCPs in this green solvent, and (3) to simplify the process to facilitate its scaling-up. The potential of the innovative PILs developed during this thesis was then explored for applications in energy (as solid electrolytes for battery applications) and environment (as antibacterial coatings/materials). [less ▲]

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See detailElectric current crowding effects in microstructured superconductors
Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Many applications of modern electronic devices are based on thin film geometries including sharp turns, holes and exhibiting inhomogeneities. The inevitable detour of current streamlines around such ... [more ▼]

Many applications of modern electronic devices are based on thin film geometries including sharp turns, holes and exhibiting inhomogeneities. The inevitable detour of current streamlines around such obstacles cause an inhomogeneous current density profile giving rise to current crowding. The goal of my research is to highlight the current crowding effects in micro and nanopatterned superconducting films. [less ▲]

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See detailNormative data on teachers’ voice use in real-life situations
Schiller, Isabel ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Alcoulombre, Anaëlle et al

Conference (2016, August 25)

Background As part of their working routine, teachers use their voice for extended periods of time. To compensate for adverse acoustic conditions and background noise, they are also required to speak at ... [more ▼]

Background As part of their working routine, teachers use their voice for extended periods of time. To compensate for adverse acoustic conditions and background noise, they are also required to speak at high intensities. Since teaching is acknowledged to be vocally demanding, several studies have investigated teachers’ vocal load, that is, the stress inflicted on the larynx during vocalization, which is thought to be influenced by duration, intensity and frequency of phonation. A promising method for analyzing teachers’ phonatory behavior in real-life situations is the use of a portable voice dosimeter that objectively documents vocal parameters. Depending on several factors, those parameters may vary within the teaching profession (Masuda et al., 1993; Morrow and Connor, 2011; Remacle, Morsomme, and Finck, 2014). With the aim of quantifying their vocal parameters and identifying the most at-risk teaching conditions, we have established a large database of French-speaking teachers. Based on this database, this study analyzed vocal loading differences with regard to gender, teaching level, and environment (professional versus extra-professional). Methods Seventy-six French-speaking teachers (15 males and 61 females) were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor voice dosimeter (KayPENTAX). The subjects included 21 kindergarten, 20 primary and 35 secondary school teachers. All male subjects were in the latter group. The vocal parameters analyzed were phonation time, intensity and fundamental frequency (F0). Results The statistical analysis revealed that, irrespective of gender, phonation time, F0 and intensity level were significantly higher in the professional environment than the extra-professional environment (p<.01). Among female subjects, the F0 of kindergarten teachers was significantly higher than that of primary school teachers, which in turn was higher than that of secondary school teachers (p<.01). The phonation time and intensity were also higher in female kindergarten teachers than other female teachers, but this difference did not reach significance. As expected, regarding gender differences, we found that female secondary school teachers spoke with significantly higher F0 than their male colleagues (p<.001). In the extra-professional setting, they also spoke with a significantly higher intensity (p<.05), but no such effect was found in the professional environment. Conclusion Overall, our subjects showed an increase in vocal loading parameters when they were at work compared to their free time. This confirms the results of earlier studies and demonstrates that teaching is an occupation with remarkably high vocal demands. The analysis of mean frequency showed that lower school levels were associated with higher-pitched voice. It can be assumed that kindergarten teachers adapt to the higher F0 of their young pupils and that their effort to maintain the pupils’ attention results in greater frequency variations. References Masuda, T., Ikeda, Y., Manako, H., & Komiyama, S. (1993). Analysis of vocal abuse: Fluctuations in phonation time and intensity in 4 groups of speakers. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 113(3), 547–552. Morrow, S. L., & Connor, N. P. (2011). Comparison of voice-use profiles between elementary classroom and music teachers. Journal of Voice, 25(3), 367–372. Remacle, A., Morsomme, D., & Finck, C. (2014). Comparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(2), 406–415. [less ▲]

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See detailDobble, analyse d'un jeu de cartes
Rigo, Michel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailEtude des sémiochimiques volatils impliqués dans le mutualisme fourmis-pucerons
Fischer, Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

For decades, the mutualistic relationship that ant and aphids may present has fascinated entomologists, as evidenced by the abundant literature on the subject. The principles of this interaction are ... [more ▼]

For decades, the mutualistic relationship that ant and aphids may present has fascinated entomologists, as evidenced by the abundant literature on the subject. The principles of this interaction are simple: as long as their colony remains, aphids provide ants with a stable and abundant source of sugars, honeydew. In exchange, ants tend aphid colonies and provide them cleaning and protection against various natural enemies. Nevertheless, some aspects of this relationship remain misunderstood. This is for example the case of the factors influencing the search and the discovery of a potential partner, first step to any potential mutualistic interaction. The role held by volatile chemical cues, called semiochemicals, in this relationship is also misunderstood. The objective of this thesis is to improve understanding of the role played by volatile semiochemicals in this mutualistic relationship, especially during the partner search stage, both from the perspective of the ant and of the aphid. The black garden ant, Lasius niger L., and the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop., constitute our biological model. The impact of volatile compounds on the search behavior of the ant has first been investigated. These compounds are from multiple origins, either directly emitted by the aphid or induced by its presence. First, the ability of ants to perceive E-β-farnesene, the main component of many aphid alarm pheromone, and to use it to locate aphid colonies has been highlighted. This compound has indeed shown attractiveness to ants, even at low doses corresponding to the emissions of an unstressed aphid colony. Then, the roles played by honeydew volatile compounds in ant attraction have been demonstrated. These compounds also allow ants to remotely discriminate different aphid species and to direct their searches accordingly. These semiochemicals are produced by honeydew microflora, and a particularly attractive bacterial strain, Staphylococcus xylosus, has been isolated from A. fabae honeydew. Finally, the active role of winged aphids, which are aphid’s dispersal form, in the search for a mutualistic partner was also studied. Aphids do not appear to be preferentially attracted toward a host plant frequented by ants or close an ant nest. Nevertheless, once a potential host plant reached, they remain longer on it in case of ant presence. This thesis highlights the importance of volatile semiochemicals and honeydew microflora in ant-aphid mutualistic relationships, thus completing by a new aspect an already well documented biological model. [less ▲]

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See detailAgeism in Belgium and Burundi: A comparative analysis
Marquet, Manon ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Schroyen, Sarah ULg et al

in Clinical Interventions in Aging (2016), 11

Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than ... [more ▼]

Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least-developed country compared with a developed country. Methods: Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures. Results: Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other. Conclusion: Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and healthcare systems) may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. [less ▲]

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See detailMESURES INCITATIVES A LA PRODUCTION COTONNIERE ET PERSPECTIVES DE LA PRIVATISATION DES FILIALES CMDT AU MALI
Koné, Bouréma ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Cotton is the first export crop in Mali with 84,370 billion Fcfa in 2010 (INSTAT, 2010), but the production of this crop has huge problems due to external factors (prices of inputs and seed cotton) and ... [more ▼]

Cotton is the first export crop in Mali with 84,370 billion Fcfa in 2010 (INSTAT, 2010), but the production of this crop has huge problems due to external factors (prices of inputs and seed cotton) and internal (within payment to producers, internal debts of cooperatives). To boost cotton production during the years 2010/11 and 2011/12, the government had maintained the level of fertilizer subsidy at 50% of normal price on the market. In addition to this level of subsidy, the incentive price of 255Fcfa / kg was fixed to the producer and the National Union of Cotton Producers Cooperative Societies (NU-CPCS) facilitated the clearance of the internal debts of cooperatives. Despite the fall in world prices after 2011/12, the price of cotton seed remains little changed. The price stayed at 255 CFA francs / kg in 2012/13 and got back to 250 CFA francs / kg in 2013/14. The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of incentives factors cotton production with a view to the privatization of CMDT subsidiaries Surveys were conducted with a sample of 240 farms selected from the four zones of the CMDT zones based on two villages subsidiary during the years of 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2011/12. The results showed a positive trend in production (mainly due to an increase in the area) and in the income of cotton producers with a higher reimbursement rate of input credits under cultivation. The analysis of the Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) the Nominal protection coefficients (NPC) and the Effective (CPE) showed an improvement in thèse variables in 2011/12 with the incentive policy. An analysis of the determinants of the supply of cotton showed that only two variables were significant: the price cottonseed and payment period. The incentive factors are influenced by fiber market in 2011/12 which took a downward trend from the campaign. This incentive policy being favored by the market of fiber which is very unstable, it would be necessary to create conditions in which the producer can benefit from the price obtained on the quality of fiber to maintain the incentive policy for producers. For the privatization of Cotton Company, an upgrade of this company is necessary with the support of the Malian state. But this upgrade should not affect too much the selling price of sale of cotton that can bring new companies in a situation of too long term recovery of capital invested (long period of investment recovery). The privatization scheme as presented makes major companies more competitive. In order to reduce the operating costs a form of collaborative relationships among delivery companies would be required. Keywords: fertilizer subsidy, incentive price, cotton sector in Mali, privatization subsidiary, competitiveness. [less ▲]

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