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See detailComment le changement climatique influence-t-il la croissance du hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) le long du gradient bioclimatique de la Belgique ? Une approche dendroécologique.
Latte, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Health anomalies (e.g., worsening crown conditions) on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) observed throughout Europe since the 1990s have raised growing concerns among foresters, particularly about the future ... [more ▼]

Health anomalies (e.g., worsening crown conditions) on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) observed throughout Europe since the 1990s have raised growing concerns among foresters, particularly about the future behavior of the species in the face of climate change. This PhD research examined the relationship between beech and its environment in the context of global changes using dendroecology, combination of dendrochronology and forest ecology. The radial growth was used to evaluate the effects of global changes, particularly climate change, on beech development and vitality over time along a bioclimatic gradient in Belgium. Various analyses were carried out using dendrochronological tools (pointer years, mean sensitivity, growth-climate correlation, etc.) and modeling approaches (linear and non-linear mixed models, partial least squares regression, etc.) considering several scales: tree, stand and region. Results show that climate predominantly influenced beech growth since the mid-20th century and did so rather uniformly across Belgium. Beech mean sensitivity increased mainly in response to the higher frequency and intensity of summer heat waves and spring droughts. Isolated but pronounced annual growth reductions induced a gradual diminution of mean growth. The increasing influence of climate progressively concealed the effect of local site growing conditions inducing strong between-sites synchronization along the bioclimatic gradient. Increasing mean sensitivity and decreasing mean growth were more pronounced in lowlands than in uplands, and for a given site, older trees are more affected than younger ones. Although mean sensitivity increases and mean growth decreases naturally with age, the climate change effect was much more important than the age effect. Furthermore, within a tree, along the main stem, climate sensitivity slightly decreased from breast height to crown base and strongly increased from crown base to tree top. These results were interpreted based on ecophysiological knowledge of beech. The influences of silviculture, soil compaction and nitrogen deposition (as part of atmospheric pollution) as well as the consequences of the past and future climate change on beech were discussed. Comparisons with other studies in Europe highlighted that beech is affected on a large part of its natural distribution range (except in high altitude and high latitude). Contrary to what one might think, beech is not only affected in the southern limit (Mediterranean). Although growing conditions are more favorable in Belgium, beech has also more to lose. Beech has coped with global change up to now. Although its climate sensitivity increased and its mean growth decreased, diebacks observed these last years in Belgium were scarce and generally scattered. However, considering the upcoming climate change, the phytosanitary risk will undeniable increased. Forest policy should now integrate that risk and prepare managers to anticipate and prevent it. [less ▲]

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See detailAncient Egyptian philology: The digital turn. Current projects and future perspectives for the study of Ancient Egyptian texts
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Razanajao, Vincent ULg

Conference (2017, February 21)

Use of Information Technologies in Egyptology can be traced back to the early 1960s, when first efforts were made in documenting Meroitic scripts or emblematic corpora such as the Pyramid Texts. With the ... [more ▼]

Use of Information Technologies in Egyptology can be traced back to the early 1960s, when first efforts were made in documenting Meroitic scripts or emblematic corpora such as the Pyramid Texts. With the rise of the Digital Humanities in the mid-2000s, many new academic projects that implement IT solutions not only as a way to manage and present data, but also to produce, process and analyse the material, have come to light in the field. The aim of this paper is to give a survey of current digital projects related to the study of ancient Egyptian and Coptic texts. Our goal is not to be exhaustive, but to discuss the methods and tools that are being used and to describe the variety of scholarly practices. The first set of projects to be examined are those related to digital text editions and annotated corpora (including the types of representation format). Second, the question of how to handle the complex writing systems of Ancient Egypt will be addressed by looking at projects that focus on encoding (Manuel de Codage vs Unicode), on establishing hieroglyphic sign-lists (the Thot-Sign-List), on palaeographical databases and on ways to OCRize original texts efficiently. The issue of interoperability and data sharing will then be investigated through a presentation of several related projects working on a XML/TEI interchange format as well as on digital resources for enabling a Linked Open Data approach to the ancient Egyptian written material (http://thot.philo.ulg.ac.be/). Finally, we will argue in favour of a coherent data model so that encoding of data and metadata is done in the most effective way. [less ▲]

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See detailDécoder les verrous d’apprentissage d’une discipline
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Devyver, Julie ULg; Duchâteau, Dominique ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 21)

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément ... [more ▼]

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément adaptée de « bottleneck ») pour lutter contre l’échec, ou plutôt pour relever le défi de l’intégration intellectuelle du plus grand nombre. [less ▲]

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See detailLe client au cœur de l’organisation ?
Delcourt, Cécile ULg

Article for general public (2017)

Une organisation est centrée sur ses clients (customer-centric organization) quand elle met le client au cœur de sa stratégie et de ses processus. Bien que mettre les clients au centre de l’organisation ... [more ▼]

Une organisation est centrée sur ses clients (customer-centric organization) quand elle met le client au cœur de sa stratégie et de ses processus. Bien que mettre les clients au centre de l’organisation peut sembler une évidence en théorie ; en pratique cela s’avère plus ardu. [less ▲]

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See detailLevinas et les limites de la phénoménologie
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

Conference (2017, February 17)

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See detailLa Relation comme "unité dans la diversité". Esquisse du système dialectique de Leibniz
Dony, Arthur ULg

Scientific conference (2017, February 17)

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See detailÉtudier un genre littéraire en Égypte Ancienne : approche(s) et méthode
Motte, Aurore ULg

Conference (2017, February 16)

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See detailModeling the thickness dependence of the magnetic phase transition temperature in thin FeRh film
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Craig, Barton; Thomas, Thomson et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2017), 95

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by ... [more ▼]

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by experimental measurements showing an unexpected increase in the phase transition temperature with decreasing thickness of FeRh on top of MgO, we develop a computational model to investigate strain effects of FeRh in such magnetic structures. Our theoretical results show that the presence of theMgO interface results in a strain that changes the magnetic configuration which drives the anomalous behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in sand building material used in Douala Littoral Region of Cameroon, using gamma spectrometry
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULg; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; Chene, Grégoire ULg et al

in Environmental Earth Sciences (2017), 76(164),

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were ... [more ▼]

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry system. Highest values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K measured specific activities expressed in Bq Kg−1 units were, respectively, 146.7 (in Youpoue–Bamenda 2) 102.9 (in Village 1) and 928 (in Northern Akwa 6) while the lowest values were found to be, respectively, 11.8 (in Northern Akwa 6), 8.0 (in Bonaberi–Bonamikano 4) and 54.0 (Youpoue 3). The potential radiological hazards parameters were assessed by calculating successively radium equivalent activity (Raeq), outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate (Dout), annual effective dose rate, internal hazard (Hin) and external hazard (Hex) indices and alpha and gamma index from using those sand in the construction of dwellings and large buildings. Results obtained show that annual dose absorbed by inhabitants due to sand construction use in Douala is below 1.0 mSv year−1. Therefore, most of the types of sands studied and incorporated in constructions appear to be safe as building material. The outputs from this research will be useful to assess the radiation hazards of sand building material in humans and to initiate a sand database together with a radiological map of the area at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailLe fédéralisme suisse et belge
Meuwly, Olivier; Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Conférence donnée à l'invitation de la Chambre de commerce suisse pour la Belgique et le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Bruxelles, Cercle de Lorraine, 16 février 2017.

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See detailEffect of different tillage systems on aggregate structure and inner distribution of organic carbon
Gao, Lili ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Liang, Guopeng et al

in Geoderma (2017), 288

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement ... [more ▼]

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement. Soil aggregates, 4–6 mm in diameter and collected from silty loam in Belgium and sandy loam in China, were scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. Images with a pixel size of 6.9 μm were then processed with ImageJ software for pore network analysis. The treatments were no tillage (C-NT) and conventional tillage (C-CT) in China, and shallow tillage (G-ST) and conventional tillage (G-CT) in Belgium. The results showed that aggregates in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) had numerous connected pores compared with conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). The Euler number (Ev) was significantly lower and visible total porosity and surface area (SA) were significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) in both studied locations. The predominant size of pores was significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) (> 150 μm vs 90–120 μm). Pore location within the aggregates also showed differences, with porosity being evenly distributed in the aggregates under conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). Under conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT), the aggregates were heterogeneous, showing higher porosity at the center of the aggregates. There was a higher soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the external layer than in the internal layer in conservational tillage in Belgium (G-ST). In no tillage in China (C-NT), the SOC in the external and internal layers, however, showed similar results. Overall, conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) reduced the proportion of the largest pores within soil aggregates, whereas there was no significant relationship between pore morphologies and SOC content. Further investigation is required to measure the active and slow carbon pool distribution in the different layers and under different tillage practices. [less ▲]

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See detailL’énonciation visuelle entre réflexivité et métalangage
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Moutat, Audrey; Dondero, Maria Giulia; Beyaert-Geslin, Anne (Eds.) Les plis du visuel. Réflexivité et énonciation dans l’image (2017)

Ce texte vise tout d’abord à illustrer l’hypothèse selon laquelle le langage verbal n’est pas le traducteur unique et universel de toutes les sémiotiques (visuelles, musicales, audiovisuelles, etc.) comme ... [more ▼]

Ce texte vise tout d’abord à illustrer l’hypothèse selon laquelle le langage verbal n’est pas le traducteur unique et universel de toutes les sémiotiques (visuelles, musicales, audiovisuelles, etc.) comme l’affirment la sémiologie de Roland Barthes et l’approche linguistique. Nous comparons ensuite la notion de réflexivité à celle de métalangage : si les études sur la réflexivité sont assez répandues dans plusieurs disciplines concernant l’image dont en histoire de l’art, il n’en est pas de même pour la notion de métalangage qui implique généralement la hiérarchie d’un langage sur l’autre. Nous prenons en considération à ce propos les critiques des détracteurs de la possibilité d’envisager un métalangage visuel qui s’appuient sur la conviction que le langage visuel n’a pas d’alphabet ni de grammaire stables, voire qu’il est démuni d’unités morphologiques ainsi que de règles syntaxiques. Nous illustrons brièvement des tentatives de construire un alphabet d’unités visuelles, telle que celle de Paul Klee, et nous passons en revue des concepts opérationnels qui permettent de concevoir en image une dimension méta et notamment celui de « semi-symbolisme » selon A.J. Greimas et J.-M. Floch ainsi que celui de « pli » chez Ch. Metz. [less ▲]

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See detailLes plis du visuel. Réflexivité et énonciation dans l’image
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg; Beyaert-Geslin, Anne; Moutat, Audrey

Book published by Lambert Lucas (2017)

L’ambition de cet ouvrage est de développer en sémiotique visuelle une théorie et une méthodologie originairement formulées en linguistique, celles de l’énonciation. L’analyse énonciative permet de ... [more ▼]

L’ambition de cet ouvrage est de développer en sémiotique visuelle une théorie et une méthodologie originairement formulées en linguistique, celles de l’énonciation. L’analyse énonciative permet de décrire les points de vue à partir desquels l’image a été conçue et d’étudier les valeurs, les formes de vie ainsi que les idéologies offertes à l’observateur. Les plis du visuel revient sur la théorie inaugurale d’Émile Benveniste, sur ses apports et ceux de l’histoire de l’art (Louis Marin, Meyer Schapiro, Victor Stoichita…) et de la sémiotique contemporaine en vue de restituer la trajectoire théorique de la sémiotique visuelle et de dépasser la simple transposition dans l’image d’un appareil formel de l’énonciation validé en linguistique. Cet ouvrage se donne plus exactement pour objectif principal de constituer un organon de concepts inter-définis et d’instruments analytiques permettant de diversifier les différents types d’énonciation dans le cadre du langage visuel, à partir non seulement des constructions langagières de chaque image (type de perspective, rapports entre figure et fond, entre espaces englobant et englobé, entre forme et texture, etc.) mais aussi de leur appartenance à différents domaines socio-culturels (la publicité, l’éducation, la politique, etc.) et à différents médias (le cinéma, l’art numérique, les jeux-vidéo, etc.). Il s’articule en trois parties, « Enonciation et pratiques de l’audiovisuel », « Enonciation et perception. Cas de la peinture, de la photographie et du numérique », et « Enonciation et métalangage visuel », qui explorent trois points fondamentaux de la réflexion sémiotique contemporaine : la question de la transposabilité/transversalité de l’appareil formel de l’énonciation et de la spécificité de chaque pratique médiatique, la relation entre énonciation et perception et les propriétés métalinguistiques de l’énonciation. Au fil des différentes contributions, cet ouvrage propose ainsi un parcours de la sémiotique visuelle qui accompagne l’innovation technologique et médiatique à l’origine des nouvelles formes d’image ; il met l’accent sur la spécificité de l’énonciation dans les langages visuel et audiovisuel et impose une conceptualisation spécifique des contextes médiatiques. [less ▲]

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See detailRéflexions pour une anti-pédagogie publique et un chahut endémique : renversement du rapport maître-élève
Franck, Thomas ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailThe desire of parenthood: intuitive co-parental behaviors and quality of couple relationship among Italian and Belgian same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Pagone, Paolo et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8(110),

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s ... [more ▼]

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnectedand contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality offamily interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors andthe quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention anddesire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects ina cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gaycouples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affectsco-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors havebeen evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay andlesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted tobecome parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic AdjustmentScale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existentliterature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexualcouples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to betterparental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggestalso that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on thecapability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in furtherlongitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmissionof psychopathology. [less ▲]

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