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See detailDouble stigmatization influence in oncogeriatry
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg et al

Poster (2014, October 24)

Introduction Cancer is a major health problem widespread in elderly, which is inscribed in ageism context1. Negative influence of the vision that older people possess on aging on mental and physical ... [more ▼]

Introduction Cancer is a major health problem widespread in elderly, which is inscribed in ageism context1. Negative influence of the vision that older people possess on aging on mental and physical health2 is well established within “normal” aging. Consequently, we can ask ourselves what consequences age stigmas have in the realm of oncogeriatry. Moreover, cancerous patients face pathology-related stigmas because nowadays cancer still conveys a lot of negative representations. Method A group of 120 patients aged of 65 years old and more suffering from cancer (lung, breast or gynecological) will be followed during one year (0-3-6-12 months). Different instruments measuring quality of life, depression, symptoms, etc. are used as well as questions about their vision of aging and of cancer. Clinical parameters (weight, biologicals values, comorbidity…) are recorded too. Currently, we have 63 patients (31 breast cancer, 14 gynecological cancer and 18 lung cancer with distinction between smokers and non-smokers). Our analysis is only on the baseline at this moment, without any distinction between kinds of cancers. Results Double ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. A positive vision of aging is linked to a lower level of depression in comparison to a negative vision of aging (p = .04). Vision of pathology approach significance: less depression when vision is positive (p = .077). Concerning daily functioning (physical, emotional, social...), a positive vision of aging is related to a better functioning (p = .03) whereas vision of pathology has no effect. Eventually, a positive vision of aging and of cancer is related to a better quality of life (respectively p=.02, p=.002). Concerning clinical parameters, no results are observed. Conclusion These first results suggest that the vision patients have themselves of the age and of cancer is in relation with subjective mental and physical health. As we observe influence on vision of aging as well as pathology, we can talk about “double stigmatization”. Needless to say, more studies are needed to analyze the direction of these observation and longitudinal data analysis could bring some answers: is stigmatization provoke a less good mental and physical health or is it because I have health problem that I have a negative vision of aging and of my disease? 1. Penson, R. T., et al. (2004). The Oncologist, 9, 343-352. 2. Levy, B. (2009). Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 18, 332-336. [less ▲]

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See detailThe marauder's map or the use of non-intrusive range laser scanners in the context of smart rooms
Pierard, Sébastien ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 24)

Dans cette présentation, je vais expliquer comment des capteurs laser peuvent être utilisés pour réaliser différentes fonctionnalités importantes pour les environnements intelligents. Je montrerai comment ... [more ▼]

Dans cette présentation, je vais expliquer comment des capteurs laser peuvent être utilisés pour réaliser différentes fonctionnalités importantes pour les environnements intelligents. Je montrerai comment créer une carte précise et y représenter le mouvement de toutes les personnes, en particulier les trajectoires de leurs pieds. Celles-ci peuvent servir à identifier la personne observée, car chacune a sa propre démarche. Ceci ouvre des voies dans les domaines de la domotique, des environnements intelligents et de la sécurité. Les trajectoires de pieds ont également de nombreuses applications dans le domaine médical, en particulier pour la gériatrie, la kinésithérapie et la neurologie, ce que je détaillerai. Je démontrerai également que cette technologie permet de détecter les situations de piggybacking et de tailgating. Tout ceci étant rendu possible par une chaîne de traitement de signal minutieusement étudiée et par des techniques d'apprentissage automatique. [less ▲]

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See detailL’exemple historique dans la pensée de Machiavel et de Guichardin
Moreno, Paola ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 23)

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See detailTraining alters the innate immune response in the lower airway of horses
Frellstedt, Linda ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Many human and animal studies have examined various markers of the innate and/or adaptive immunity in association with exercise and have come to the general conclusion that exercise, either acute or ... [more ▼]

Many human and animal studies have examined various markers of the innate and/or adaptive immunity in association with exercise and have come to the general conclusion that exercise, either acute or chronic, modifies the immune response. Regular moderate exercise has beneficial and protective effects on immunity because it results in a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. This balance may be disturbed during exhaustive exercise, such as that experienced during competition and overtraining, resulting in immunosuppression. Humans frequently suffer from upper respiratory tract infections after prolonged intense exercise, whereas horses suffer primarily from lower airway inflammation and/or infection. The underlying mechanism for this difference remains unknown at this time. The sampling of different cell types is limited in humans and therefore, these studies focus on the evaluation of cells in peripheral blood or markers in saliva. Two groups of researchers in human sports medicine have compared populations of sedentary and regularly exercising people. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 3 and 4 was decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in exercising subjects. This altered expression of TLRs was also associated with a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1α, TNF-α). Regular exercise induced circulating anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-6) and, therefore, limited the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The first line of defense in the airways is provided by pulmonary alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. Strenuous exercise impairs the viability of bronchial epithelial cells, reduces the viral defense mechanisms, and decreases oxidative burst activity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The altered immune response in association with exercise/training does not only lead to an increased risk for infection but may also cause the development of allergies and chronic inflammation in the lower airway. This may explain why young equine athletes frequently suffer from Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD). The etiology of IAD remains unknown but an association with subclinical viral infections as well as inflammatory stimuli from the environment has been suspected. The objective of this work was to increase our knowledge of immune mechanisms in young equine athletes by evaluating the effect of acute exercise and training on the innate immune responses of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) and monocytes. The hypothesis was that exercise and training modify the TLR mRNA expression as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons in these three cell types. Eight Standardbred horses were studied over a period of 9 months during which they were acclimatized, trained and deconditioned. Standardized exercise tests were performed regularly and biological samples (blood, bronchoalveolar lavages, and biopsies of the bronchial epithelium) were taken at defined intervals in order to allow a longitudinal evaluation of the different parameters. Monocytes, PAM and BEC were harvested and analyzed. The expression of TLR3 was decreased in equine PAM and monocytes after a period of training, but not after a single strenuous exercise session. In addition, the expression of TLR4 was increased in equine monocytes after training. The production of TNF-α and IFN-β was also examined in PAM and monocytes ex vivo after the stimulation with different TLR ligands. The production of these cytokines was reduced in PAM after a defined period of training and remained decreased for three months thereafter. In contrast, the synthesis of TNF-α was increased after a period of training in equine monocytes and remained increased thereafter. In a second study, a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) was developed which allowed us to evaluate the effect of exercise and training on the innate immune response of these cells. Acute exercise or training did not alter the TLR mRNA expression in EBEC. The production of IFN-β was increased in EBEC from trained horses after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand. Concurrently, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 was impaired in EBEC from trained horses after the stimulation with TLR2 and TLR3 ligands. This study focused on a single aspect of the innate immunity in horses, gaining knowledge of the TLR expression in three cell types and their response to specific TLR agonists. These results have to be considered in the global context of the innate immunity remembering that they represent only a small part of the complex immune system. Only one type of training (Standardbred race training) and one model of acute exercise (standardized exercise test on a treadmill) were evaluated in this study. This should be considered when drawing conclusions, because it is currently understood that the effects on immune responses vary with different types, intensity and duration of exercise and/or training. Nonetheless, this work has established that a local immunosuppression develops within the lungs in trained horses, and may explain the increased susceptibility of exercising horses to pulmonary viral infections. This local immunosuppression is associated with an increased potential of monocytes to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines when challenged with pathogens. The effects of exercise on innate immunity are complex and further studies are needed to continue the work in this field. In addition to the response to training in young sport horses, a number of environmental factors associated with their nutrition and housing may play important roles in the development of pulmonary infections and inflammation (e.g. IAD). To confirm the significance of the presented results, it would be interesting to investigate the innate immune response in trained horses when challenged with equine pathogens, such as equine influenza and equine herpesviruses. The ultimate goal of this work and other studies in the future is to develop immuno-modulating molecules that could be used for the prevention and treatment of equine respiratory diseases. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Initial Upper Paleolithic in Northeast Asia: toward the definition of a techno-complex
Zwyns, N.; Teyssandier, N.; Izuho, M. et al

Conference (2014, October 23)

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See detailUniversité : Les interactions possibles avec l’enseignement non-universitaire
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, October 23)

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See detailProblèmes du plurilinguisme dans l'antiquité gréco-romaine
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 23)

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See detailDebatte über Kollaboration. Tristes Spektakel
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailSafety Governance in Practice: A Vulnerability Approach
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 23)

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to concretely imagine. Their final objective is to ... [more ▼]

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to concretely imagine. Their final objective is to maintain or improve the safety of the system considered. In this respect, the risk-based and the vulnerability-based approaches are different, yet complementary. After presenting the main forms taken by vulnerability approaches in the scientific literature, we elaborate on the potential of “opening-up” such an analysis through the use of a Science and Technology Studies (STS) vulnerability-based approach. We then present results from case studies concerning emergency planning, on the one hand, and an analysis of the perception of the REX system of SCK•CEN, on the other hand. We demonstrate how such an approach contributes to shed light on under-explored aspects of safety and provides a nuanced perspective on actual safety practices. As a conclusion, we propose further work directions to be followed. [less ▲]

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See detailReformage catalytique du toluène
Claude, Vincent ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Courson, Claire

Poster (2014, October 23)

This poster summarizes results obtained for the catalytic reforming of tar in the oultlet gas of a biomass gasifier. All samples were synthesized with aluminum nitrate and an organosilane (EDAS) in order ... [more ▼]

This poster summarizes results obtained for the catalytic reforming of tar in the oultlet gas of a biomass gasifier. All samples were synthesized with aluminum nitrate and an organosilane (EDAS) in order to enhance the metallic dispersion and surface area. Three different compositions have been studied (Al2O3-SiO2; Al2O3-SiO2+2%wt Ni; Al2O3-SiO2+10%wt Fe). The catalytic tests highlight the fact that the sample containing 2%Ni wt is the more appropriate in our conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging understory light to maintain the coexistence of forest tree species with different shade tolerances
Ligot, Gauthier ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Similar to the management of the other environmental resources, forest management has been questioned and more sustainable practices of forest management are being sought. New close-to-nature practices ... [more ▼]

Similar to the management of the other environmental resources, forest management has been questioned and more sustainable practices of forest management are being sought. New close-to-nature practices aim to favor natural processes over human interventions. Particularly, continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade tolerances appears arduous with such a silvicultural system. Successfully managing irregular and mixed forests, relying on natural processes, requires a strong knowledge of the ecology of natural regeneration. In particular, strong knowledge is required to predict the result of the interspecific competition in the understory depending upon light availability. The amount of radiation transmitted to the understory is indeed a critical factor determining regeneration dynamics. It determines, at least in part, regeneration composition because of interspecific differences of growth and survival under shade. Moreover, our quantitative understanding of understory light in uneven-aged and mixed stands remains incomplete. A better quantitative understanding of understory light is needed to provide quantitative guidelines for the management of understory light in uneven-aged and mixed stands and, hence, for the management of natural regeneration. The purpose of this thesis is to determine how close-to-nature forest management can maintain mixtures of species with contrasting shade tolerances. I consider ecological conditions with good water and nutrient supplies. In these conditions, partially closed canopy limits the amount of light that reaches the understory, and light is the major factor driving regeneration composition. Consequently, I study the dynamics of natural regeneration with regards to light availability as well as the interception of light by the canopy of heterogeneous stands. Studying the regeneration ecology of two species with contrasting shade tolerances (Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), I find that the shade-tolerant species outgrow the less shade-tolerant species in all light conditions. Even though the control of understory light with continuous-cover silviculture is required to sustain the growth of less shade-tolerant regenerations, it might not be sufficient to maintain the coexistence of species with contrasting shade tolerances. In order to examine the effects of canopy structure and composition on understory light availability, I use a model of light interception by heterogeneous canopies after synthesizing and discussing the approaches reported in the literature. The model predicts satisfactorily measures of transmitted light even though it is a relatively simple radiative transfer model. I next explore how various silvicultural treatments can be manipulated to provide favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration. These silvicultural strategies correspond to selective thinnings of five different types, e.g., harvesting preferentially small trees, large trees, or trees of shade-tolerant species or creating circular gaps. The results underline that creating favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration can be achieved with various regeneration treatments. However, the adequate reduction of stand density depends upon the chosen silvicultural strategies. In particular, creating gaps of about 500 m2 provides adequate light for small regeneration clumps. Harvesting preferentially small and trees of shade-tolerant species are also appropriate but required higher harvest intensity. Harvesting preferentially large trees slightly increases understory light and promotes more shade-tolerant species than less shade-tolerant species. In order to maintain the coexistence of species with contrasting shade tolerances, forest manager must control understory light and manually suppress the regeneration of the shade-tolerant species. The outcome of this study provides foresters with the necessary tools to evaluate how silvicultural treatments can be manipulated to create or maintain favorable light conditions for the regeneration of species of different shade tolerances. Guidelines are additionally proposed for forest managers wanting to maintain the coexistence of species with contrasting shade tolerances. [less ▲]

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See detailA model for concrete in the fire situation and its application in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 21)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCombined holography and thermography in a single sensor through image-plane holography at thermal infrared wavelengths
Georges, Marc ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg et al

in Optics Express (2014), 22(21), 25517-25529

Holographic interferometry in the thermal wavelengths range, combining a CO2 laser and digital hologram recording with a microbolometer array based camera, allows simultaneously capturing temperature and ... [more ▼]

Holographic interferometry in the thermal wavelengths range, combining a CO2 laser and digital hologram recording with a microbolometer array based camera, allows simultaneously capturing temperature and surface shape information about objects. This is due to the fact that the holograms are affected by the thermal background emitted by objects at room temperature. We explain the setup and the processing of data which allows decoupling the two types of information. This natural data fusion can be advantageously used in a variety of nondestructive testing applications. [less ▲]

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See detailLa famille isiaque en bords de Vesdre
Winand, Jean ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 20)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR
Noel, Brice; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; van de Berg, W.J. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North ... [more ▼]

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007–2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Assessment of Lifetime of Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft: Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Guidance Control & Dynamics (2014)

This paper is devoted to the probabilistic uncertainty quantification of orbital lifetime estimation of low-altitude satellites. Specifically, given a detailed characterization of the dominant sources of ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the probabilistic uncertainty quantification of orbital lifetime estimation of low-altitude satellites. Specifically, given a detailed characterization of the dominant sources of uncertainty, we map this input into a probabilistic characterization of the orbital lifetime through orbital propagation. Standard Monte Carlo propagation is first considered. The concept of drag correction is then introduced to facilitate the use of polynomial chaos expansions and to make uncertainty propagation computationally effective. Finally, the obtained probabilistic model is exploited to carry out stochastic sensitivity analyses, which in turn allow gaining insight into the impact uncertainties have on orbital lifetime. The proposed developments are illustrated using one CubeSat of the QB50 constellation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Riemannian approach to large-scale constrained least-squares with symmetries
Mishra, Bamdev ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

This thesis deals with least-squares optimization on a manifold of equivalence relations, e.g., in the presence of symmetries which arise frequently in many applications. While least-squares cost ... [more ▼]

This thesis deals with least-squares optimization on a manifold of equivalence relations, e.g., in the presence of symmetries which arise frequently in many applications. While least-squares cost functions remain a popular way to model large-scale problems, the additional symmetry constraint should be interpreted as a way to make the modeling robust. Two fundamental examples are the matrix completion problem, a least-squares problem with rank constraints and the generalized eigenvalue problem, a least-squares problem with orthogonality constraints. The possible large-scale nature of these problems demands to exploit the problem structure as much as possible in order to design numerically efficient algorithms. The constrained least-squares problems are tackled in the framework of Riemannian optimization that has gained much popularity in recent years because of the special nature of orthogonality and rank constraints that have particular symmetries. Previous work on Riemannian optimization has mostly focused on the search space, exploiting the differential geometry of the constraint but disregarding the role of the cost function. We, on the other hand, propose to take both cost and constraints into account to propose a tailored Riemannian geometry. This is achieved by proposing novel Riemannian metrics. To this end, we show a basic connection between sequential quadratic programming and Riemannian gradient optimization and address the general question of selecting a metric in Riemannian optimization. We revisit quadratic optimization problems with orthogonality and rank constraints by generalizing various existing methods, like power, inverse and Rayleigh quotient iterations, and proposing novel ones that empirically compete with state-of-the-art algorithms. Overall, this thesis deals with exploiting two fundamental structures, least-squares and symmetry, in nonlinear optimization. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles aides proposer aux victimes d’infractions ?
Garcet, Serge ULg

Article for general public (2014)

L'article propose un panorama de l'offre en matière d'aide aux victimes.

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (5 ULg)