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See detailA First Look at the Prevalence and Persistence of Middleboxes in the Wild
Edeline, Korian ULg; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in International Teletraffic Congress (2017, September)

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various solutions have been developed to detect or circumvent unwanted middleboxes interferences such as UDP-based middlebox-proof transports (Google's QUIC, PLUS), middlebox-proof extensions to TCP (HICCUPS, TCPcrypt), and middlebox traversal mechanisms (STUN, ICE, PLUS). All those solutions make the assumption of ubiquitous middleboxes. However, a view of their actual deployment in the wild, in IPv4 wired networks, is missing. In particular, knowing how autonomous systems (ASes) deploy middleboxes in terms of prevalence and persistence would provide additional relevant information to Internet topology models. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap. Based on a large-scale measurement campaign, we highlight different characteristics of middlebox deployment within ASes to elicit middleboxes profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling structures in fire with SAFIR®: Theoretical background and capabilities
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Journal of Structural Fire Engineering (2017), 8(3), 300-323

Purpose: This paper describes the theoretical background and main hypotheses at the basis of SAFIR®, a nonlinear finite element software for modeling structures in fire. The paper also explains how to use ... [more ▼]

Purpose: This paper describes the theoretical background and main hypotheses at the basis of SAFIR®, a nonlinear finite element software for modeling structures in fire. The paper also explains how to use the software at its full extent. The discussed numerical modeling principles can be applied with other similar software. Approach: Following a general overview of the organization of the software, the thermal analysis part is explained, with the basic equations and the different possibilities to apply thermal boundary conditions (compartment fire, localized fire, etc.). Next, the mechanical analysis part is detailed, including the time integration procedures and the different types of finite elements: beam, truss, shell, spring and solid. Finally, the material laws are described. The software capabilities and limitations are discussed throughout the paper. Findings: By accommodating multiple types of finite elements and materials, by allowing the user to consider virtually any section type and to input the fire attack in multiple forms, the software SAFIR® is a comprehensive tool for investigating the behavior of structures in the fire situation. Meanwhile, being developed exclusively for its well-defined field of application, it remains relatively easy to use. Value: The paper will improve the knowledge of readers (researchers, designers and authorities) about numerical modeling used in structural fire engineering in general and the capabilities of a particular software largely used in the fire engineering community. [less ▲]

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See detailVisco-plastic Chaboche model for nickel-based alloys under anisothermal cyclic loading
Morch, Hélène ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Computational Plasticity (2017, September)

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have more or less influence on the overall behavior depending on the considered temperature. The unified constitutive model developed by Chaboche [1] is very efficient in representing this complexity as it is very adaptable and can contain many features. A basic Chaboche model contains a viscosity law and one or several hardening equations. Within these hardening equations, it is possible to add several features that will represent the complex behavior of the material. The aim of this study is to understand the role of the different parameters and the influence of the different features in an advanced Chaboche model adapted to cyclic anisothermal loading. This specific model was also developed in [2],[3]. However, part of this study is based on particular cases where different features of the model are analyzed [4]–[6]. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Background Subtraction
Braham, Marc ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Beijing 17-20 September 2017 (2017, September)

We introduce the notion of semantic background subtraction, a novel framework for motion detection in video sequences. The key innovation consists to leverage object-level semantics to address the variety ... [more ▼]

We introduce the notion of semantic background subtraction, a novel framework for motion detection in video sequences. The key innovation consists to leverage object-level semantics to address the variety of challenging scenarios for background subtraction. Our framework combines the information of a semantic segmentation algorithm, expressed by a probability for each pixel, with the output of any background subtraction algorithm to reduce false positive detections produced by illumination changes, dynamic backgrounds, strong shadows, and ghosts. In addition, it maintains a fully semantic background model to improve the detection of camouflaged foreground objects. Experiments led on the CDNet dataset show that we managed to improve, significantly, almost all background subtraction algorithms of the CDNet leaderboard, and reduce the mean overall error rate of all the 34 algorithms (resp. of the best 5 algorithms) by roughly 50% (resp. 20%). [less ▲]

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See detailMultifunctional polyelectrolytes bearing catechol / quinone for applications in energy and environment
Patil, Nagaraj ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The discovery of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA), a catechol-functionalized amino acid as major component in mussel adhesion proteins, has triggered enormous interest in mussel-mimetic adhesives ... [more ▼]

The discovery of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA), a catechol-functionalized amino acid as major component in mussel adhesion proteins, has triggered enormous interest in mussel-mimetic adhesives. The design of innovative bioinspired polymers-containing catechols has rapidly gained widespread utility in the (bio)material field, ascribed to the versatility of the catechol chemistry that allows anchoring (bio)polymers, biomolecules, nanoparticles (metals and metal oxides) and other compounds onto almost any kind of surfaces without any pre-treatment. Amongst the various synthetic protocols to incorporate catechol functionalities into (bio)polymers, the radical polymerization of catechol-bearing vinyl monomers in their protected form has proven to be a versatile technique to impart intrinsic physico–chemical properties of the catechol pendants to polymers after appropriate deprotection. Importantly, the scope of applications of catechol-bearing polymers can potentially be drastically increased by developing controlled radical polymerization (CRP) techniques of their protected vinyl monomers. Indeed, these techniques will enable to precisely design the polymer with the appropriate structure, molar mass and functionality that fit at best the target application. When this thesis started in 2013, only very limited examples of functional catechol-bearing polymers prepared by CRP were reported. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop well-defined innovative catechol-containing (co)polymers that find applications in energy storage and environmental fields by employing function-oriented macromolecular engineering approaches. In this work, numerous catechol-protected monomers have been prepared and their CRP investigated to afford well-defined (co)polymers with controlled and tunable molar masses, compositions, functionalities, and architectures (homopolymers, statistical and block copolymers). The potential of these innovative catechol-containing (co)polymers was then explored for applications in energy storage (as active-material in lithium-ion half-cells) and environment (as protein fouling/antifouling coatings). [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Uses of a 3D Point Cloud: the Castle of Franchimont (Province of Liège, Belgium)
Luczfalvy Jancsó, Andrea ULg; Jonlet, Benoît ULg; Hallot, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2017, August 29)

This poster presents the identified obstacles, needs and selected solution for the study of the medieval castle of Franchimont, located in the province of Liège (Belgium). After taking into account the ... [more ▼]

This poster presents the identified obstacles, needs and selected solution for the study of the medieval castle of Franchimont, located in the province of Liège (Belgium). After taking into account the requirements from all the disciplines at work as well as the problems that would have to be tackled, the creation of a 3D point cloud was decided. This solution would be able to deal with the characteristics and needs of a research involving building archaeology and related fields. The decision was made in order to manage all of the available data and to provide a common working tool for every involved cultural heritage actor. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-resolution reconstruction of 8.2 ka event recorded in Belgian Holocene speleothems
Allan, Mohammed ULg; verhyden, sophie; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

Scientific conference (2017, August 24)

Two abrupt shifts in d18O and trace element contents of a stalagmite from the northwestern European continent (southern Belgium) suggest that two cold anomalies occurred beginning at 8.4±0.04 and ending ... [more ▼]

Two abrupt shifts in d18O and trace element contents of a stalagmite from the northwestern European continent (southern Belgium) suggest that two cold anomalies occurred beginning at 8.4±0.04 and ending at 8.15±0.03, possibly reflecting climatic effects associated with the 8.2 ka event. The younger of the two anomalies lasted about 30 years, from 8.18 to 8.15±0.03 ka, with a maximum d18O amplitude of 1.4‰. Trace element (Sr, Ba and Mg) peaks coincide with this second drop of d18O. The anomaly initiation is marked by Sr, Ba and Mg concentration peaks suggesting drier conditions during the coldest years, consistent with previous research in the North Atlantic. The earlier anomaly in trace element, d18O records is associated with generally cold but wet conditions at 8.4 ka, lasted 50 years, and ended abruptly. The interval from 8.4 ka to 8.15 ka was less favorable for speleothem deposition, with denser speleothem calcite deposition and lower growth rate, consistent with a cold, dry climate. The clear recovery in both temperature and rainfall between after both anomalies (8.2 and 8.4 ka), suggests that these anomalies are distinct, and may represent two episodes of AMOC weaking related to the drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. [less ▲]

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See detailCO2-sourced α-alkylidene cyclic carbonates: a Step forward in the quest for functional regioregular poly(urethane)s and poly(carbonate)s
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2017), 56(35), 1039410398

We describe a robust platform for the synthesis of a large diversity of novel functional CO2 -sourced polymers by exploiting the regio-controlled and site selective ring-opening of α- alkylidene ... [more ▼]

We describe a robust platform for the synthesis of a large diversity of novel functional CO2 -sourced polymers by exploiting the regio-controlled and site selective ring-opening of α- alkylidene carbonates by various nucleophiles. The remarkable reactivity of α-alkylidene carbonates is dictated by the exocyclic olefinic group that selectively orients the cyclic carbonate ring- opening with the formation of an enol species. The polyaddition of CO2 -sourced bis-α-alkylidene carbonates (bis-αCCs) with primary and secondary diamines provides novel regioregular functional poly(urethane)s. The reactivity of bis-αCCs is also exploited for producing new poly(β-oxo-carbonate)s by organocatalyzed polyaddition with a diol. All polyadditions were feasible under ambient conditions. This synthesis platform provides new functional variants of world-class leading polymers families (polyurethanes, polycarbonates) and valorises CO2 as a chemical feedstock. [less ▲]

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See detailLandscape and hydrological controls on the downstream transport of dissolved organic matter in the Congo and Zambezi rivers
Lambert, T; Bouillon, S; Teodoru, CR et al

Conference (2017, August 20)

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See detailEffect of AP102, a subtype 2 and 5 specific somatostatin analog, on glucose metabolism in rats
Tarasco, Erika; Seebeck, Petra; Pfundstein, Svende et al

in Endocrine (2017)

Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as ... [more ▼]

Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies. AP102 is a new somatostatin analogs with high affinity at both SSTR2 and SSTR5. We aimed to characterize the effects of AP102 vs. pasireotide on random and dynamic glucose levels, glucoregulatory hormone concentrations and growth axis measures in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction of high-resolution trace element time-series in Belgian speleothems by LA-ICP-MS
Allan, Mohammed ULg; verheyden, sophie; crucifix, michel et al

Conference (2017, August 17)

Speleothems, presented in Belgium, are now regarded as valuable archive of paelenvirenmental variations on the continents, offering a number of advantages relative to other continental climate proxy ... [more ▼]

Speleothems, presented in Belgium, are now regarded as valuable archive of paelenvirenmental variations on the continents, offering a number of advantages relative to other continental climate proxy recorders such as lake sediments. They are reliable continental archives of high interest due to their dating possibilities and their possibility to preserve multi-proxy records of environmental and climatic dynamics. Establishing high-resolution trace element time series in speleothems requires analytical techniques capable of representative sampling at sub-annual spatial resolution (on order of 22 µm in this study). In the Belgian Pere Noel cave (PN), high spatial resolution measurements of trace elements (e.g., Mg, Sr, Ba) were realized by using LA-ICP-MS and compared with results from lower resolution techniques (ICP-MS). The results from both techniques have been analysed in order to assess the capability of each technique to reconstruct climate changes at high resolution from PN stalagmite. Results showed that LA-ICP-MS technique allows a rapid analysis of multiple elemental concentrations, and uses minimal sample volume allowing for replicate sampling and availability of almost the entire original sample for other analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailLa influencia normativa de China en América Latina y en el Caribe: ¿Un desafío estratégico para la Unión Europea?
Wintgens, Sophie ULg

Scientific conference (2017, August 16)

El crecimiento de los intercambios económicos y comerciales entre China y el subcontinente latinoamericano va acompañado de la imposición de normas económicas y políticas, de la cual su política de ... [more ▼]

El crecimiento de los intercambios económicos y comerciales entre China y el subcontinente latinoamericano va acompañado de la imposición de normas económicas y políticas, de la cual su política de comercio internacional es portadora. Esta constatación plantea la cuestión del desafío que esta influencia normativa china representa para la estrategia desplegada por la Unión Europea en América Latina y el Caribe. A fin de responder a esta cuestión, esta presentación contiene dos objetivos relacionados entre sí: por una parte, analizar el alcance normativo de la política comercial de China en ALC, con el fin de ver si ella es portadora de un proyecto político-económica regional comparable al modelo de integración y de gobernabilidad regional desplegado por la UE en el subcontinente latinoamericano; por otra parte, medir de la influencia de la producción normativa china en ALC a través de su capacidad para competir con las normas exportadas por la UE en esta región del mundo. [less ▲]

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See detailTwenty-year tracking of lighting savings and power density in the residential sector
Attia, Shady ULg

in Energy and Buildings (2017)

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See detailCompositional gap at La Picada (CSVZ, Chile) results from critical cristallinity and compaction
Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg; Namur, Olivier ULg; Coumont, Valentin et al

Poster (2017, August 16)

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See detailComplete mitogenome sequence of Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae) reveals extensive mitochondrial DNA rearrangement within the Peltigerales (lichenized ascomycetes)
Simon, Antoine ULg; Liu, Yang; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg et al

in Bryologist (2017), 120(3), 335-339

The structure of mitochondrial genomes varies among non-lichenized fungi in terms of their genic and intronic content and genic order. Whether lichenized fungal mitogenomes are equally labile is unknown ... [more ▼]

The structure of mitochondrial genomes varies among non-lichenized fungi in terms of their genic and intronic content and genic order. Whether lichenized fungal mitogenomes are equally labile is unknown due to the paucity of available mitogenomes. We assembled the mitogenome of Ricasolia amplissima (Peltigerales, Lobariaceae), using massive parallel sequencing, and compared its structure to that of two species of Peltigera (Peltigeraceae). The mitochondrial genome of R. amplissima comprised 82,333 bp, with a 29.8% G+C content, and holds 15 unique protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one non-coding RNA gene. Although the protein-coding gene content in the mitogenome of Peltigera and Ricasolia was identical, the relative gene order differed substantially, revealing that significant gene rearrangements also characterize the evolution of mitogenomes of lichenized ascomycetes at a relatively shallow phylogenetic depth, such as within the order Peltigerales. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)