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See detailStudy of the evolution of the osteoarthritis pathology and the mechanical properties of cartilage in a spontaneous osteoarthritis model in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs.
Legrand, Catherine ULg; Centonze, Prescilia ULg; Comblain, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan content, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes ... [more ▼]

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan content, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes. In parallel to these histological analyzes, we studied the mechanical properties of cartilage at different stages of disease progression in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. We also correlated the severity of histological lesions with the mechanical properties of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailPraxis, besoins et impératifs affectifs : Réflexions sur la normativité de la conscience émue.
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2017, April 26)

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de cette communication consiste à dégager les caractéristiques normatives de la conscience émue. Nous mobiliserons pour ce faire la thématique des "impératifs affectifs", qui est abondamment discutée par Sartre dans "Les Racines de l'éthique". Sur cette base, nous développerons une réflexion en trois temps. 1° Nous situerons tout d'abord les "Racines de l'éthique" dans la continuité des réflexions de "l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions". 2° Nous montrerons ensuite que l'analyse des impératifs affectifs enveloppe une critique du positivisme, qui est une approche massivement adoptée par nombre de philosophie des émotions. 3° Enfin, nous approfondirons la description sartrienne des impératifs affectifs à partir de "L'Émile" de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. L'association de l'un et l'autre texte nous permettra en effet de commenter la "seconde forme d'émotion" qui est très allusivement décrite par les dernières pages de l'Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions. Plus largement, ce détour par la philosophie politique des modernes permettra d'établir un dialogue entre la phénoménologie sartrienne de l'affectivité et l'approche de la normativité qui est proposée par la philosophie française des sciences sociales. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des traits psychopathiques dans une population de sujets schizophrènes : Les limites de la PCL-R
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Matteucci, Marie; De Page, Louis et al

Poster (2017, April 19)

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués ... [more ▼]

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués schizophrènes. Notre hypothèse principale est que plusieurs items de l’échelle peuvent être côtés avec le même score et pourtant exprimer une manière d’être et d’agir différente si le sujet est réellement psychopathe ou s’il est schizophrène. Afin d’éprouver notre hypothèse, nous avons sélectionné sept patients présentant soit une schizophrénie, soit une personnalité psychopathiques, soit considérés comme potentiels « héboïdophrènes » (schizophrénie pseudo-psychopathique) à qui nous avons administré la PCL-R. À partir d’analyses qualitatives, nous avons ensuite établi une liste d’items de la PCL-R sensibles à la psychose. Nous observons que 45% des items se révèlent positivement ou négativement influencés par la psychose au-delà de tout trait psychopathique. Sémiologiquement, c’est la présence de la dynamique paranoïde de la schizophrénie qui influence principalement les scores attribués aux items de la PCL-R. Cette recherche suggère des hypothèses concernant l’interaction psychose-psychopathie et son rapport avec des actes de violence. La conclusion de l’étude est que la PCL-R connait des limitations importantes en ce qui concerne son application à une population de sujets schizophrènes. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une psychopathologie éthologique et criminologique : l’apport croisé de Debuyst et Demaret
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Adam, Christophe

Conference (2017, April 19)

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See detailTraits psychopathiques dans une population infra-clinique et traitement émotionnel
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Bral, Laura; Dehon, Hedwige ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 19)

L’intérêt pour la psychopathie infra-clinique n’est pas neuf. Toutefois, les études sur le sujet sont encore peu nombreuses. Notre recherche a consisté à mettre à l’épreuve deux hypothèses. La première ... [more ▼]

L’intérêt pour la psychopathie infra-clinique n’est pas neuf. Toutefois, les études sur le sujet sont encore peu nombreuses. Notre recherche a consisté à mettre à l’épreuve deux hypothèses. La première, concerne la présence de « traits psychopathiques » dans la population tout-venant et la seconde tend à évaluer dans quelle mesure la présence de ces traits influence le traitement émotionnel. Pour tester ces hypothèses, nous avons créé une version « online » du SRP-III (Self Report Psychopathy). Aux soixante-quatre items initialement présents dans cette échelle nous avons ajouté dix-sept items afin d’être en mesure d’également coter la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised). Deux groupes de chacun treize participants ont été créés sur base de leur score au SRP-III (un groupe « faibles caractéristiques psychopathique » et un groupe « fortes caractéristiques psychopathiques »). La seconde partie de l’étude consistait en une entrevue durant laquelle nous avons procédé à des mises en situation d’induction émotionnelle. Pour mesurer l’influence de cette induction, trois tâches cognitives étaient administrées aux sujets des deux groupes. La première hypothèse s’est vue confirmée à travers la récolte des données du questionnaire en ligne. Quant à la seconde hypothèse, les résultats statistiques n’indiquent aucune différence significative entre les groupes en ce qui concerne leur score aux tâches cognitives. Il est donc suggéré que la présence de traits psychopathiques n’influence pas le traitement émotionnel. Cette recherche confirme la présence de la psychopathie dans la population tout-venant et semble infirmer, parmi cette population, l’hypothèse d’un déficit du traitement émotionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various design parameters on system-level fire fragility functions for steel buildings
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

Conference (2017, April 07)

The existing literature in fire engineering is mostly based on single component study of structures, as opposed to system level building performance. In current practice, fire does not need to be ... [more ▼]

The existing literature in fire engineering is mostly based on single component study of structures, as opposed to system level building performance. In current practice, fire does not need to be considered as part of the structural design of the building. The required fire protection for steel components in a building is based on prescriptive design guidelines, which are based on standard fire tests on individual structural members. In addition, the fire-structure engineering has primary focused on deterministic analysis, while the field is moving towards performance-based design in recent years. Meanwhile, the scenarios leading to a fire event and the performance of the structure at elevated temperatures involve a great level of uncertainty. This work focuses on fire-structure interaction with the objective of developing fire fragility functions that capture fire damage uncertainty for the entire building (i.e., at the system-level). A fragility function provides the probability of exceeding a damage state for a given intensity measure of a given hazard. Fire fragility functions can be developed to measure the expected losses based on performance of a building structural system, rather than a single component. Different functions can be developed for buildings with different typologies (e.g. high-rise steel building with moment resisting frame, low rise steel building with bracing). This presentation derives fragility functions based on stochastic analyses of prototype buildings. In developing the fragility functions, uncertainties in the fire model, the heat transfer model and the thermo-mechanical response should be considered; but such a large number of random variables adds to the complexity of analysis and the computational time. Based on a sensitivity analysis for steel gravity frames, this work identifies the most important input parameters to be considered as random variables when developing fire fragility functions for an entire building. The sensitivity analysis for a multi-story steel building prototype is completed considering uncertainties at the compartment and building levels. At the compartment level, uncertainty in the fire scenario, compartment geometry, applied load, thermal and mechanical properties of steel and insulating materials are considered. At the building level, the influence of fire-resistance rating, building height, and occupancy type are studied. The results of this study identify the local and global parameters needed as part of deriving system-level fire fragility functions for a steel building. [less ▲]

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See detailThe matter of personal identity
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2017, April)

This talk will discuss the concepts of facticity and worked matter in Sartre's philosophy. Questionning these notions through the issue of personnal identity, I will try to answer this question : What are ... [more ▼]

This talk will discuss the concepts of facticity and worked matter in Sartre's philosophy. Questionning these notions through the issue of personnal identity, I will try to answer this question : What are the powers of matter in the genesis of the selfhood (ipséité) of consciousness ? In other terms, my goal will be to identify in which sense the facticity of the consciousness inflects the constitution of her selfhood. [less ▲]

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See detailA terminology in General Practice / Family Medicine to represent non-clinical aspects for various usages
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; GROSJEAN et al

in Studies in Health Technology and Informatics (2017, April)

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See detailImpact of tillage on greenhouse gas emissions by an agricultural crop and dynamics of N2O fluxes: Insights from automated closed chamber measurements
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Soil & Tillage Research (2017), 167

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O ... [more ▼]

Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O fluxes. Gas measurements were performed from June to October 2015 in a Belgian maize crop, with homemade automated closed chambers, allowing continuous measurement at a high temporal resolution. After 7 years of treatment, CO2 and N2O average emissions were significantly larger in the RT parcel than in the CT parcel. This observation was attributed to the effect of tillage on the distribution of crop residues within the soil profile, leading to higher soil organic C and total N contents and a greater microbial biomass in the upper layer in RT. A single N2O emission peak triggered by a sudden increase of water- filled pore space (WFPS) was observed in the beginning of the measuring campaign. The absence of large emission afterwards was most likely due to a decreasing availability of N as crop grew. N2O background fluxes showed to be significantly correlated to CO2 fluxes but not to WFPS, while the influence of soil temperature remained unclear. Our results question the suitability of reduced tillage as a “climate-smart” practice and suggest that more experiments be conducted on conservation practices and their potent negative effect on environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Semiotics of Design in Media Visualization: Mereology and Observation Strategies
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Information Design Journal (2017)

The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of computational analysis of culture, particularly in the field of Cultural Analytics as implemented by the Russian Art Historian and Computer Scientist Lev Manovich. These semiotic approaches will be helpful in understanding what kinds of visualizations are being generated for use in Cultural Analytics, and what kinds of operations the observer must perform in order to experiment with scientific visualizations of this information. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty quantification of Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise using the fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet (f.ETISh) model
Bulthuis, Kevin ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Pattyn, Frank et al

Conference (2017, April)

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ... [more ▼]

Uncertainties in sea-level rise projections are mostly due to uncertainties in Antarctic ice-sheet predictions (IPCC AR5 report, 2013), because key parameters related to the current state of the Antarctic ice sheet (e.g. sub-ice- shelf melting) and future climate forcing are poorly constrained. Here, we propose to improve the predictions of Antarctic ice-sheet behaviour using new uncertainty quantification methods. As opposed to ensemble modelling (Bindschadler et al., 2013) which provides a rather limited view on input and output dispersion, new stochastic methods (Le Maître and Knio, 2010) can provide deeper insight into the impact of uncertainties on complex system behaviour. Such stochastic methods usually begin with deducing a probabilistic description of input parameter uncertainties from the available data. Then, the impact of these input parameter uncertainties on output quantities is assessed by estimating the probability distribution of the outputs by means of uncertainty propagation methods such as Monte Carlo methods or stochastic expansion methods. The use of such uncertainty propagation methods in glaciology may be computationally costly because of the high computational complexity of ice-sheet models. This challenge emphasises the importance of developing reliable and computationally efficient ice-sheet models such as the f.ETISh ice-sheet model (Pattyn, 2015), a new fast thermomechanical coupled ice sheet/ice shelf model capable of handling complex and critical processes such as the marine ice-sheet instability mechanism. Here, we apply these methods to investigate the role of uncertainties in sub-ice-shelf melting, calving rates and climate projections in assessing Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise for the next centuries using the f.ETISh model. We detail the methods and show results that provide nominal values and uncertainty bounds for future sea- level rise as a reflection of the impact of the input parameter uncertainties under consideration, as well as a ranking of the input parameter uncertainties in the order of the significance of their contribution to uncertainty in future sea-level rise. In addition, we discuss how limitations posed by the available information (poorly constrained data) pose challenges that motivate our current research. [less ▲]

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See detailBien raisonner en TSUM (Transition Secondaire-Université en Mathématiques)
Bair, Jacques ULg

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Bien raisonner est assurément une des compétences clés que doivent acquérir et développer les étudiants entrant à l’Université. Nous y consacrons entièrement ce travail illustré par de nombreux exemples ... [more ▼]

Bien raisonner est assurément une des compétences clés que doivent acquérir et développer les étudiants entrant à l’Université. Nous y consacrons entièrement ce travail illustré par de nombreux exemples construits à partir de notre expérience professionnelle. En premier lieu, nous distinguons, à la suite de G. Polya, les raisonnements plausibles des raisonnements démonstratifs. Ensuite, nous nous intéressons à certains éléments de logique qui nous paraissent importants au niveau d’une TSUM. Puis, nous analysons la nature de preuves mathématiques à ce stade de l’apprentissage. Enfin, nous dissertons quelque peu sur l’usage des démonstrations dans l’enseignement. Ce travail se termine par deux annexes techniques, relatives respectivement à différents types de syllogismes et à quelques éléments plus formels de logique mathématique. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic flood modelling to support flood-proof urban design
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Mustafa, Ahmed; Aliaga, Daniel et al

Conference (2017, April)

Urban flood risk is influenced by many factors such as hydro-meteorological drivers, existing drainage systems as well as vulnerability of population and assets. The urban fabric itself has also a complex ... [more ▼]

Urban flood risk is influenced by many factors such as hydro-meteorological drivers, existing drainage systems as well as vulnerability of population and assets. The urban fabric itself has also a complex influence on inundation flows. In this research, we performed a systematic analysis on how various characteristics of urban patterns control inundation flow within the urban area and upstream of it. An urban generator tool was used to generate over 2,250 synthetic urban networks of 1 km². This tool is based on the procedural modelling presented by Parish and Müller (2001) which was adapted to generate a broader variety of urban networks. Nine input parameters were used to control the urban geometry. Three of them define the average length, orientation and curvature of the streets. Two orthogonal major roads, for which the width constitutes the fourth input parameter, work as constraints to generate the urban network. The width of secondary streets is given by the fifth input parameter. Each parcel generated by the street network based on a parcel mean area parameter can be either a park or a building parcel depending on the park ratio parameter. Three setback parameters constraint the exact location of the building whithin a building parcel. For each of synthetic urban network, detailed two-dimensional inundation maps were computed with a hydraulic model. The computational efficiency was enhanced by means of a porosity model. This enables the use of a coarser computational grid , while preserving information on the detailed geometry of the urban network (Sanders et al. 2008). These porosity parameters reflect not only the void fraction, which influences the storage capacity of the urban area, but also the influence of buildings on flow conveyance (dynamic effects). A sensitivity analysis was performed based on the inundation maps to highlight the respective impact of each input parameter characteristizing the urban networks. The findings of the study pinpoint which properties of urban networks have a major influence on urban inundation flow, enabling better informed flood-proof urban design. [less ▲]

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See detailUsefulness of multi-breed models in genetic evaluation of direct and maternal calving ease in Holstein and Belgian Blue Walloon purebreds and crossbreds
Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Gillon, Alain; Glorieux, Géry et al

in Livestock Science (2017), 198

The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of a joint genetic evaluation system for calving ease trait of Belgian Blue (BBB) and Holstein (HOL) Walloon cattle based on data of purebred and ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of a joint genetic evaluation system for calving ease trait of Belgian Blue (BBB) and Holstein (HOL) Walloon cattle based on data of purebred and crossbred animals. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL animals were estimated by using single-breed linear animal models. This analysis showed clear genetic differences between breeds. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (± standard error) were 0.34 (±0.02) and 0.09 (±0.01) for BBB, respectively, but only 0.09 (±0.01) and 0.04 (±0.01) for HOL, respectively. Moreover, a significant negative genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects was obtained in both breeds: −0.46 (±0.04) for BBB and −0.29 (±0.11) for HOL. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL and crossbred BBB ×× HOL cattle were then estimated by using two multi-breed linear animal models: a multi-breed model based on a random regression test-day model (Model MBV), and a multi-breed model based on the random regression multi-breed model (Model MBSM). Both multi-breed models use different functions of breed proportions as random regressions, thereby enabling modelling different additive effects according to animal's breed composition. The main difference between these models is the way in which relationships between breeds are accounted for in the genetic (co)variance structure. Genetic parameters differed between single-breed and multi-breed analysis, but are similar to the literature. For BBB, estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (±SE) were 0.45 (±0.07) and 0.08 (±0.01) by using Model MBV, and 0.45 (±0.08) and 0.09 (±0.02) for Model MBSM, respectively. For HOL, these estimates were 0.18 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) using Model MBV, and 0.16 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) for Model MBSM, respectively. Reliability gains (up to 25%) indicated that the use of crossbred data in the multi-breed models had a positive influence on the estimation of genetic merit of purebred animals. A slight re-ranking of purebred sires and maternal grandsires was observed between single-breed and multi-breed models. Moreover, both multi-breed models can be considered as quasi-equivalent models because they performed almost equally well with respect to MSE and correlations, for purebred and crossbred animals. [less ▲]

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See detailBaelo dans l'Antiquité tardive. L'occupation du secteur sud-est du forum entre les IIIe et VIe s.
Brassous, Laurent; Deru, Xavier ULg; Rodriguez, Oliva et al

in Melanges de la Casa de Velazquez (2017), 47(1),

Les recherches archéologiques conduites au sud-est du forum de la ville romaine de Baelo claudia ont permis de mettre au jour au-dessus du secteur monumental, plusieurs phases de transformation, d’abandon ... [more ▼]

Les recherches archéologiques conduites au sud-est du forum de la ville romaine de Baelo claudia ont permis de mettre au jour au-dessus du secteur monumental, plusieurs phases de transformation, d’abandon et de réoccupation entre les IIIe et VIe s. Les structures découvertes ainsi que le nombreux mobilier qui leur était associé (monnaies, céramique, verre, métal, faune, etc.) fournissent un éclairage nouveau sur l’histoire et la nature de l’agglomération dans l’antiquité tardive, qui entre la fin du IVe s. et son abandon définitif au VIe s. ressemble moins à une ville qu’à un gros village. [less ▲]

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