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See detailSpectrometric monitoring of atmospheric carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the Jungfraujoch station since 1989: evidence of continued increase but at a slowing rate
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2014), 7

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the ... [more ▼]

The long-term evolution of the vertical column abundance of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) above the high-altitude Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) has been derived from the spectrometric analysis of Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at that site between 1989 and 2012. The investigation is based on a multi-microwindow approach, two encompassing pairs of absorption lines belonging to the R-branch of the strong ν3 band of CF4 centered at 1283 cm−1, and two additional ones to optimally account for weak but overlapping HNO3 interferences. The analysis reveals a steady accumulation of the very long-lived CF4 above the Jungfraujoch at mean rates of (1.38 ± 0.11) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1989 to 1997, and (0.98 ± 0.02) × 1013 molec cm−2 yr−1 from 1998 to 2012, which correspond to linear growth rates of 1.71 ± 0.14 and 1.04 ± 0.02% yr−1 respectively referenced to 1989 and 1998. Related global CF4 anthropogenic emissions required to sustain these mean increases correspond to 15.8 ± 1.3 and 11.1 ± 0.2 Gg yr−1 over the above specified time intervals. Findings reported here are compared and discussed with respect to relevant northern mid-latitude results obtained remotely from space and balloons as well as in situ at the ground, including new gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch since 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailDu Bengale à la Nouvelle Angleterre (en passant par l'Inde): Trajectoires transnationales et mémoires transrégionales dans "The Lowland" de Jhumpa Lahiri
Munos, Delphine ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 31)

Comme son titre le suggère déjà, le dernier roman de l’auteur bengali-américain Jhumpa Lahiri, The Lowland (« La Basse Terre »), traite moins de la vie d’hommes et de femmes qu’il ne parle d’espace et de ... [more ▼]

Comme son titre le suggère déjà, le dernier roman de l’auteur bengali-américain Jhumpa Lahiri, The Lowland (« La Basse Terre »), traite moins de la vie d’hommes et de femmes qu’il ne parle d’espace et de géographie, et plus particulièrement, de la façon dont certains paysages peuvent se substituer à l’Histoire, quand cette dernière n’arrive plus à ‘porter’ ses zones d’ombre, ses propres impensés. Comme son titre ne l’indique pas, cette fois, The Lowland prend pour sujet les répercussions de l’Indépendance indienne, à Calcutta et au-delà, à travers les destinées entrecroisées de deux frères, Udayan et Subhash – le premier qui embrasse la révolution armée d’obédience maoïste et la cause des Naxalites, avec des conséquences dramatiques, le deuxième qui choisit de s’exiler aux Etats-Unis pour ses études, moins par ambition personnelle ou en raison de la grande instabilité politique de Calcutta dans les années 60 et 70, d’ailleurs, que pour enfin se donner le droit de rivaliser d’audace avec son frère cadet. Si j’ai choisi The Lowland pour aborder le sujet des enjeux esthétiques et spirituels de la commémoration, c’est justement parce que dans le dernier roman de Lahiri (paru en septembre 2013 et non encore traduit en français), la thématique historique est omniprésente, bien qu’elle reste en sourdine, perpétuellement soumise à une esthétique du détour, du déplacement, et du non-dit, qui trouvera son apogée (et, pour Subhash, une certaine forme de rédemption spirituelle) dans ce que l’on pourrait appeler l’émergence d’une topographie transnationale – et bien plus, transrégionale – de l’impensé historique. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dispositif carcéral : visages, corps et… liberté
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 31)

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See detailQuestions de droit pénal social - Petit état de la jurisprudence
Michiels, Olivier ULg

Conference (2014, January 31)

L'exposé portait sur les points suivants : L’obstacle à la surveillance Lien de subordination Les infractions règlementaires Le moyen tiré de la violation par l’article 5 de la loi du 4 août 1996 du ... [more ▼]

L'exposé portait sur les points suivants : L’obstacle à la surveillance Lien de subordination Les infractions règlementaires Le moyen tiré de la violation par l’article 5 de la loi du 4 août 1996 du principe de légalité L’article 128, 1° du Code de droit pénal social Cumul des allocations et non bis in idem La condamnation d’office au triple des cotisations éludées La libre circulation des travailleurs provenant d’un nouvel Etat membre de l'Union Le mandataire ad hoc Le concours entre infractions de droit commun et de droit pénal social [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances littéraires et genre: proposition à partir de la notion d’ethos à travers une lecture de The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao de J. Díaz.
Berlage, Pauline ULg

Conference (2014, January 31)

Face la population transnationale d’origine latino-américaine croissante à travers le monde – spécialement présente en Espagne et aux États-Unis – je me suis intéressée à la création littéraire en tant ... [more ▼]

Face la population transnationale d’origine latino-américaine croissante à travers le monde – spécialement présente en Espagne et aux États-Unis – je me suis intéressée à la création littéraire en tant que mise en récit de Soi et de l’Autre. Dans le cadre de cette littérature latinoaméricaine de la migration, je me centrerai sur la représentation du genre dans ces romans, c'est-à-dire sur ces attitudes performatives qui (re)produisent les normes et les modèles mais aussi parfois des corps a-normatifs et illisibles (Butler, T. de Lauretis). Je proposerai donc d’articuler la notion stimulante de performance de genre telle que proposée par J. Butler à celle d’ethos rhétorique (Amossy, Maingueneau) dans le but d’analyser la voix narrative du roman The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao de Junot Díaz (2008). Cette lecture nous permettra de mettre en lumière le jeu de va-et-vient par rapport aux stéréotypes de genre qui font autorité et, plus fondamentalement, la construction d’un corps queer apatride qui s’oppose "naturellement" au corps masculin de la diaspora. [less ▲]

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See detailLight modulates cognitive brain functions
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 31)

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See detailCaracterización y estudio de inversión para la reconstrucción de los sistemas de riego canillá, Rio Blanco, Tzununul, Chuaxic y Xibalbay
Estrada Orozco, Nick Kenner ULg

Report (2014)

Las unidades de riego en Guatemala que en total suman 29 han sido construidas en promedio desde hace mas de 25 años, la vida util de las mismas a llegado a su fin ademas de ser vistimas de fenomenos ... [more ▼]

Las unidades de riego en Guatemala que en total suman 29 han sido construidas en promedio desde hace mas de 25 años, la vida util de las mismas a llegado a su fin ademas de ser vistimas de fenomenos naturales que han en algunos destruido gran parte de la infraestructura hidraulica, por tal motivo el ministerio de agricultura ha decidido realizar una serie de estudios que permitan cuantificar la inversión necesaria para que estos sistemas de riego puedan operar a un ciento por ciento. Parte de estos estudios se realizo este, que comprende las unidaades de riego de Chuaxic, Xibalbay, Canilla, Rio blanco y Tzununul de los departamentos de Solola y Quiche, para determinar los tipos de daños y la inversion requerida para su reconstruccion. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Bind the International Criminal Court by Human Rights Standards?
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, January 31)

Although no one seriously disputes the binding nature of human rights standards on the activity of the International Criminal Court (“the ICC” or “the Court”), the precise boundaries of this human rights ... [more ▼]

Although no one seriously disputes the binding nature of human rights standards on the activity of the International Criminal Court (“the ICC” or “the Court”), the precise boundaries of this human rights constraint still lack clarity. In particular, there is no consensus on the basis for such an obligation, especially given the fact that the Court is not party to the relevant international and regional instruments. It is argued that the lack of clarity on the exact foundations for the binding nature of human rights standards towards the Court presents a real threat to the development of international criminal jurisprudence. This is because the legal grounds on which the ICC is bound to respect individual rights are also determinative of the very content of the resulting obligations. This paper aims to contribute to remedy this lacuna by listing and critically assessing the theoretical legal constructions on the basis of which human rights law is commonly said to enter the framework of the Court. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet
Edwards, T.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Gagliardini, O. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2014), 8

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR ... [more ▼]

We apply a new parameterisation of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) feedback between surface mass balance (SMB: the sum of surface accumulation and surface ablation) and surface elevation in the MAR regional climate model (Edwards et al., 2014) to projections of future climate change using five ice sheet models (ISMs). The MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional: Fettweis, 2007) climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs) under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9%) at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0%) at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs) for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à l’amélioration de l’épidémiosurveillance des maladies animales en Afrique francophone de l’Ouest et du Centre
Ouagal, Mahamat ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Livestock is an important source of income in most developing countries. In Africa, it often makes up 10% to 20% of the gross national product at level. One of the major constraints to the development of ... [more ▼]

Livestock is an important source of income in most developing countries. In Africa, it often makes up 10% to 20% of the gross national product at level. One of the major constraints to the development of this sector is animal diseases, which sometimes generate significant economic losses with social consequences that are often very burdensome for farmers. They restrict trade between countries. Reducing the impact of these constraints necessarily involves the prevention and the control of diseases. For this purpose, an adequate knowledge of the epidemiology of the diseases is a prerequisite to define a strategy for their prevention and/or the design of appropriate monitoring measures. One of the essential tools of production remains the epidemiological information network for the surveillance of animal diseases. It is also a tool for decision in international trade involving livestock products. For this purpose, its effectiveness is a guarantee for its credibility. An effective network system must be well organized, meet scientific standards and satisfy the efficiency characteristics which are sensitivity, specificity, acceptability, responsiveness and cost. In west and central Africa, epidemiological surveillance networks of animal diseases are mostly created in the 1990s through the Pan African Program for the Control of Epizootics. A 2004 assessment carried out by this program revealed that these networks are at different stages and found weaknesses in their efficiency. To contribute to the improvement of these systems, an analysis of some performance parameters of these networks has been conducted and suggestions for improvement were made. To achieve this overall objective, the following specific objectives were listed: (i) analyze the technical and functional organization of epidemiological surveillance networks in West and Central Africa; (ii) compare the effectiveness of active surveillance and passive surveillance, the two main monitoring methods used by the networks in West and Central Africa using the case study of the epidemiological surveillance network, in Chad, namely REPIMAT; (iii) assess the sensitivity of an epidemiological surveillance network from an approach based on prevalence of a disease such as Foot and Mouth Disease; (iv) develop performance indicators for regular monitoring of the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in West and Central Africa, again by taking the case of REPIMAT; and finally, (v) estimate the cost incurred by an epidemiological surveillance network in West and Central Africa, for example the REPIMAT. Each of these specific objectives leads to a specific study of which results are presented below: Organization of epidemiological surveillance networks in West and Central Africa The survey on technical and institutional organizations networks in west and central Africa was organised on the basis of a written questionnaire. It involved nine networks of which five were in West Africa (Senegal, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Togo, Guinea) and four in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad). The results of this survey showed that the oldest epidemiological surveillance network is that of Chad, REPIMAT. There are more similarities than differences between these networks. In general, network monitoring of animal diseases in west and central Africa are technically and institutionally well formalized. The establishment and operation of the networks surveyed are mainly financed by foreign aid. In general, these are epidemiological surveillance networks that monitor several diseases. All countries surveyed have a central national laboratory for the analysis of samples collected. However, only four countries (Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea and Senegal) can make a diagnosis of all diseases selected for monitoring. The laboratories are considered as partners with surveillance networks in most of the countries surveyed. All networks use the PID/ARIS for data management. In addition to the latter, countries such as Guinea, DRC, Senegal and Chad use a national database developed with Access®. On average, 26% of veterinary stations on the total networks surveyed are involved in the monitoring. This proportion varies from 7% to 91%. However, insufficient diagnostic capacity of laboratories and inadequate operational steering committees are the two main weaknesses of the networks concerned with this survey. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad The comparison between active and passive surveillance involved 106 REPIMAT surveillance stations randomly divided into 52 active surveillance stations and 54 passive surveillance stations. Vaccination status of nine diseases and their respective prevalence levels are monitored by the network. A work plan was developed for each station. The stations of active surveillance make monthly visits to four herds (villages) to look for monitored diseases and also organise four information meetings with farmers how to react in case of suspicion of the monitored diseases. Passive surveillance stations only organise, monthly, four information meetings with farmers. Suspicions in each station are recorded on a specific form developed for each disease. The agent mentions if the suspicion is performed following a breeder call, a visit from herds or a sensitization meeting. Monitoring lasted 24 months. The results of this study showed that regardless of the type of surveillance, diseases monitored with the exception of rare diseases (Rinderpest, and Rift Valley fever) are reported by the monitoring agents. However, we note that the number of calls recorded following suspicions of farmers (41%) was significantly higher (p <0.05) than suspicions made during visits to herds (30%) or in meetings (29%). For moderately prevalent diseases, the suspicions are mainly calls farmers (77%) and regardless of the type of monitoring (73% for active surveillance and 84% for passive surveillance). On the other hand, for FMD, a disease with high prevalence, 37% of suspicions are recorded by visiting farms. Overall, no significant difference was observed between the types of surveillance because of a low rate of disease onset during sensitization meetings by the active surveillance stations. Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness meetings appears to be a mode for surveillance in the conditions of Chad and cheaper. However, for rare diseases, the specific methods of active surveillance (such as, for example, sentinel flocks) seems preferable. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network for Foot and Mouth Disease in Chad Evaluation of the sensitivity of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network for Foot and Mouth Disease in Chad The study on the network sensitivity was carried out in REPIMAT by taking the surveillance of FMD as an example. FMD is the disease most frequently suspected by REPIMAT. However, the reporting of cases is limited to clinical suspicion. The samples for the purpose of laboratory diagnostic for confirmation of these suspicions are not made. In order to assess the sensitivity of REPIMAT for this disease, a serological survey was conducted in eight of the nine regional delegations with the highest cattle population of the country. The samples were analyzed by the National Reference Laboratory for FMD in Brescia (Italy) with the support of the European Commission action against FMD. The 3ABC and SP-ELISA tests were used for the detection of antibodies and the serotype of the virus. The number of FMD suspicions reported within the network was compared with the seroprevalence. Epidemiological information on the disease, including the circulating serotypes in Chad, was also provided. A total of 796 cattle sera were collected. The seroprevalence rate at individual level was 35.6% (95% CI: 32.2 to 39.0) and that at the herd level was 61.9% (95% CI: 51.9 to 71.2). A strong correlation was observed between the estimated prevalence and number of clinical suspicions reported within REPIMAT. The disease is present in all livestock regional delegations surveyed with a high prevalence in the delegations located in the south, the wettest area, and where cross-border movements are the most important. Serotypes A, O, SAT1and SAT2 were identified. Development of operating performance indicators of Chad epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases: REPIMAT The maintenance and effectiveness of a disease monitoring system requires regular evaluation to identify timely deficiencies that may occur. For this purpose, the performance indicators are essential tools. One approach for developing performance indicators as well as their application in the operation of 43 monitoring stations REPIMAT was carried out. An analysis of the objectives and operation mechanism of REPIMAT allowed retaining three main components, namely the field workers, the animation cell and the laboratory. The activities of each of these components were listed. The analysis of the outcomes of these activities resulted in the development of the performance indicators that can be used in the operation of REPIMAT. The application of these indicators has highlighted the weaknesses of each component. Estimated cost of a network for animal diseases epidemiological surveillance in Central Africa: the case of Chad network In sub-Saharan Africa, most of the networks for epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases were temporarily financed by external aid. The sustainability of such decision support tools should have been insured by national public funds. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs involved in running an animal disease epidemiological surveillance network by taking the example of such network in Chad (REPIMAT) and its weight in the state budget. These costs were then compared to those of other epidemiological surveillance in West Africa networks. The results of this study showed that the total annual operating and implementing cost of REPIMAT is estimated at € 666 349 (437 096 291 FCFA) for the entire system comprising 106 monitoring stations constituting the local level, 26 livestock sectors, nine regional livestock delegations representing the intermediate level and an animation cell constituting the central level. This cost represents only 3% (2% of fixed costs and 1% of variable costs) of the budget allocated by the Chadian Ministry of Livestock. Fixed costs (72%) weighed more than variable costs (28%) regardless of the levels of intervention. This estimate is similar to the estimated costs of epidemiological surveillance networks in Benin, Ghana, Mauritania and Senegal. Considering only the variable costs (operation), the annual cost of operating a surveillance station, the most important entity in the system was only 932 € or 611 352 FCFA. The surveillance cost is mainly related at the local level (surveillance stations) and intermediate level (livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) to the cost involved in health surveillance as well as the equipment it requires. This thesis allowed to analyze some parameters of effectiveness of a surveillance network for animal diseases including general organization, type of surveillance, sensitivity, cost and to develop a tool for continuous monitoring of operating a network. It is difficult to meet all the efficiency criteria of an animal disease surveillance network, however, the few parameters studied which are interrelated will help if they are used properly to improve the efficiency of an epidemiological surveillance system of animal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailExercices pratiques de lois de base
Goblet, Cédric; Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2014)

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See detailLe créateur de carton de tapisserie au XVIe siècle. Remarques méthodologiques à partir de l’activité du peintre Michel Coxcie (1499-1592)
Laruelle, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2014, January 30)

Cette communication se propose de revoir, d’une manière large, les questions liées à « l’auteur » en tapisserie, en les envisageant dans le cadre de l’activité de Michel Coxcie. Artiste de cour et peintre ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se propose de revoir, d’une manière large, les questions liées à « l’auteur » en tapisserie, en les envisageant dans le cadre de l’activité de Michel Coxcie. Artiste de cour et peintre officiel de la Ville de Bruxelles, Coxcie est de loin le plus inventif et le plus productif dans le domaine de la conception de pièces tissées entre les années 1540 et 1563. Nous verrons que la contribution du « Raphaël flamand » à la tapisserie est délicate à appréhender et se présente certainement comme la plus problématique de l’ensemble de son activité (en raison des transformations dues au passage du patron vers le textile, des multiples intervenants au sein de l’atelier…). Enfin, considérer en parallèle l’activité des autres cartonniers romanistes flamands (Bernard Van Orley, Pieter Coecke, Pieter de Kempeneer) et des artistes présents en Italie (Johannes Stradanus) peut assurément contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de ces problèmes et fournir des indications sur la méthode à adopter. L’objectif est également de déterminer les limites de notre propre enquête. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la Chandeleur, la crêpe reprend vigueur
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg; Lempereur, Françoise ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Entretien avec Françoise Lempereur autour de l’origine de cette fête et des multiples coutumes qui y sont liées

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See detailRoberto Saviano et le mythe du héros. Les critiques de Gomorra et la criminalité organisée en Italie
De Biase, Marco ULg

in Zamora, Daniel (Ed.) Cinéma et politique (2014)

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See detailLa philosophie schizophrénique
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 30)

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See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2014, January 30)

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See detailTechniques additives vs techniques conventionnelles-les microstructures
Mertens, Anne ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Très flexibles et particulièrement bien adaptées à la production de petites séries, les techniques additives suscitent un intérêt croissant, notamment pour la mise en oeuvre de matériaux métalliques. Par ... [more ▼]

Très flexibles et particulièrement bien adaptées à la production de petites séries, les techniques additives suscitent un intérêt croissant, notamment pour la mise en oeuvre de matériaux métalliques. Par-delà la diversité des techniques que ce terme recouvre (laser beam melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding…) et par-delà la variété des alliages qu’elles permettent de mettre en oeuvre, quelques caractéristiques récurrentes se dessinent: 1) La nature fortement directionnelle des procédés additifs, lié au fait que la pièce est fabriquée “couche par couche” 2) Des cycles de chauffe et de refroidissement ultra-rapides, en fonction des déplacements du/des faisceau(x) La présente communication s’attache à illustrer ces deux caractéristiques essentielles des techniques additives au moyen d’exemples touchant aux principaux alliages métalliques (aciers, alliages d’aluminium ou de titane…), et à en dégager les risques et les opportunités qu’offrent les techniques additives du point vue du contrôle et de l’optimisation des microstructures et des propriétés d’usage qui en découlent… [less ▲]

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