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See detailContribution à l'amélioration de la production laitière et de la reproduction des vaches Ankole et croisées Ankole x Frisonne en territoire de Beni, République Démocratique du Congo
Katungu Kibwana, Denise ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially Kivu, is a large pastoral region but the cattle numbers of which considerably decreased following the conflicts that the country underwent over the ... [more ▼]

Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially Kivu, is a large pastoral region but the cattle numbers of which considerably decreased following the conflicts that the country underwent over the past two decades, with important losses in breeding skills. Cattle breeding currently practiced in Kivu may be described as "great unknown". Data available in literature relate to old studies and focuse on peripheral areas from Kivu. This study aimed, at first, to establish a diagnosis on dairy cattle breeding inhabits in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, especially in the provinces of North Kivu. This diagnosis based on the choices adopted by breeders according to animal genetic, constraints related to feeding, animal housing and the main reproductive characteristics of females. The other objective of the study was to test an improved farming method taking into account the perceived constraints highlighted with the diagnostic investigation. The proposal took into account the realities of the south, and thus was characterized by simplicity and speed of implementation, in the emergency context that the population lives daily in the region. 1. Breeding cattle and milk production in tropical environments: Case of eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Inventory and perspectives. In East of Democratic Republic of the Congo, cattle breeding is based on exploitation of non-selected dairy cattle raised in extensive unimproved rearing system. Extensive breeding of traditional type is the bulk of the pastoral activities in the region and the country. The main factors limiting cattle breeding in this area of D.R. of the Congo, as in most tropical environments, consist in: (i) low genetic potential of African cattle with low level of production and (ii) poor farming conditions due to low feed quality and health coverage, precarious livestock housing, poor management of reproduction and animal genetic resources, and low breeders’ technicity. These factors affect productive and reproductive performance of animals. Low milk production arising does not allow breeders to provide their needs and cover milk needs of the population, thus leading to importation of large amounts of milk and its derived products. 2. Extensive farming practices and cattle performances of the local breed and crossed with exotic dairy breeds in the Democratic Republic of the Congo The study was conducted in Beni, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It aimed to highlight the breeding cattle system and dairy production levels of both local cows and cows crossed with exotic dairy breeds raised in the environment, and reproductive parameters (age at first calving, interval calving and fertility) as well as mortality rate of animals. The data, obtained from 8464 animals, including 4805 cows (2309 local vs 2496 crossed with Sahiwal and exotic dairy breeds - Friesian, Brown Swiss and Jersey considered ameliorative) were analyzed by chi-square test for categorical data, by generalized linear model based on the genetic type, forage quality and type of supplementation for continuous data, and by Anova-One-way for to test the effect of the degree of specialization and professionalism of breeders. Non-parametric data were analyzed by Spearman correlation test. All factors studied had a significant influence on milk production (P <0.001); calving interval, meanwhile, was significantly influenced by breed (P <0.002) and the type of supplementation (P= 0.011), age at first calving was only influenced by the breed (P <0.001). Milk production, age at first calving, calving interval, fecundity rate and mortality rates of local cattle were respectively 2.6 ± 0.17 l/d, 41.1 ± 1.02 mo, 22.6 ± 0.73 mo, 53.0% and 4.8% between 0 and 1 year and 3.6% between 1 and 2 years vs 6.1 ± 0.21 l/d, 32.5 ± 1.21 mo, 19.1 ± 0.87 mo, 44.8%, 6.7% between 0 and 1 year and 4.4% between 1 and 2 years, respectively, in crossed type. Forage supplementation had a significant effect on milk production compared to the situation with natural forage (1.6 l/d more, P <0.001), and by-products supplementation associated or not to mineral permitted an increase of 0.9 liter of milk production compared to the situation without supplementation (P= 0.041). Increased supplementation with or without the mineral reduced calving interval by 3.6 mo compared to the situation without supplementation, and by 2.5 mo compared to the simple supplementation (P= 0.011). The type of forage had no significant effect on calving interval. The mortality rate was significantly influenced by breed (P= 0.017). A significant interaction between the genetic type and forage type was observed on milk production (P <0.001). Some parameters studied were also influenced by degree of specialization of the breeders - calving interval (P= 0.04 in crossbred type and P <0.001 in local bred) - age of first calving in local bred (P= 0.015); and by degree of professionalization - age of first calving in local bred (P= 0.04) - calving interval (P= 0.08) and milk production in crossbred type (P= 0.04). 3. Effect of improved feeding and housing, and of Friesian blood level on milk production of Ankole x Friesian crossbred cows The study was carried out at the Vitolu/Misugho farm extension, in Beni territory, Democratic Republic of Congo. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of rearing conditions (feeding and housing in stall of night), and of Friesian blood level on milk production of Ankole x Friesian crossbreds cows. Data were obtained from 30 cows. The birth weights of calves were compared between groups using a Student test. Using the SAS software (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.1.3), data on average daily milk production were analyzed using a mixed model (proc mixed), including the effects of treatment group, Friesian blood level, day in milk, and the simple interactions between these effects. Day in milk within animal was included as a repeated measurement, and a type 1 autoregressive covariance structure was associated to. Differences were considered significant at P <0.05. The indicators of variation were expressed as standard deviation. The experimental unit was the cow. All factors affected significantly daily milk production (P <0.001). The results of these analyzes show that average milk production was higher group offered the improved feed and housed in the stable (6.8 ± 0.31 l/d vs 5.2 ± 0.31 l/d in the control group cows housed in kraal at night, P <0.001). The pic of milk production was observed around the 79th and 96th days respectively in IG and CoG. In both groups, cows adapted their milk production for the rainfall regime and milk production was significantly higher during the rainy season. Lactation curve was very dependent on rainfall regime and did not follow the shape of a normal curve. Improved milk production and highest values were observed with >25% of Friesian blood level (5.3 ± 0.31 l/d to 6.6 ± 0.23 l/d, from 25 to 44%, P <0.001). Interactions between treatment (improved feed and housing) and Friesian blood level were also observed (P <0.001). The IG cows showed the highest milk production compared to the control group (milk productions of 5.8 ± 0.50; 7.0 ± 0.66 and 7.8 ± 0.70 l/d were obtained with 25, 38 and 44% of blood Friesian, respectively, in the treated group vs. 4.8 ± 0.23; 5.5 ± 0.23 and 5.4 ± 0.16 l/d in the control group, P <0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence des stéréotypes sur les performances cognitives des personnes âgées
Marquet, Manon ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailRéflexions à propos du projet de loi sur l'internement
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
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See detailDoping TiO2 films with carbon nanotubes to simultaneously optimise antistatic, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic properties
Léonard, Géraldine ULg; Remy, Simon; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2016)

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as ... [more ▼]

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as conductive, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic materials. While already crystallised in anatase structure at low temperature when synthesised in water, samples prepared in alcohol are amorphous. Their crystallisation in air has been studied at increasing temperatures. Effective incorporation of functionalised MWCNTs is confirmed in both aqueous and alcoholic samples with a closer interaction with TiO2 particles in the case of aqueous synthesis. In alcoholic samples, 400 C seems to be an optimised calcination temperature since 300 C does not allow crystallisation into anatase and 500 C removes MWCNTs through burning. The purpose of MWCNT doping is to obtain coatings that exhibit easy-toclean or self-cleaning properties. This can be achieved through an optimised combination of electrical conductivity (for antistatic property), photoactivity and superhydrophilicity. These three properties require the crystallisation of TiO2 into anatase. MWCNT doping dramatically increases both conductivity and photocatalytic activity, especially in alcoholic samples for the former and in aqueous samples for the latter. On the other hand, MWCNT introduction does not significantly affect the (super)hydrophilicity of films, which depends solely on the crystallinity of TiO2. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in diarrhoeic calves and comparative genomics of O5 bovine and human STEC
Fakih, Ibrahim; Thiry, Damien ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2016)

Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (Stx) and the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion (AE-STEC) are responsible for (bloody) diarrhoea in humans and calves while the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (Stx) and the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion (AE-STEC) are responsible for (bloody) diarrhoea in humans and calves while the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) producing the AE lesion only cause non-bloody diarrhoea in all mammals. The purpose of this study was (i) to identify the pathotypes of enterohaemolysin-producing E. coli isolated between 2009 and 2013 on EHLY agar from less than 2 month-old diarrhoeic calves with a triplex PCR targeting the stx1, stx2, eae virulence genes; (ii) to serotype the positive isolates with PCR targeting the genes coding for ten most frequent and pathogenic human and calf STEC O serogroups; and (iii) to compare the MLSTypes and virulotypes of calf and human O5 AE-STEC after Whole Genome Sequencing using two server databases (www.genomicepidemiology.org). Of 233 isolates, 206 were triplex PCR-positive: 119 AE-STEC (58%), 78 EPEC (38%) and 9 STEC (4%); and the stx1+eae+ AE-STEC (49.5%) were the most frequent. Of them, 120 isolates (84% of AE-STEC, 23% of EPEC, 22% of STEC) tested positive with one O serogroup PCR: 57 for O26 (47.5%), 36 for O111 (30%), 10 for O103 (8%) and 8 for O5 (7%) serogroups. The analysis of the draft sequences of 15 O5 AE-STEC could not identify any difference correlated to the host. As a conclusion, (i) the AE-STEC associated with diarrhoea in young calves still belong to the same serogroups as previously (O5, O26, O111) but the O103 serogroup may be emerging, (ii) the O5 AE-STEC from calves and humans are genetically similar [less ▲]

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See detailEsquisse d'une méthode et questions émotionnelles
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (5 ULg)
See detail"Témoigner-pour-mourir" : notes sur Sartre, Bourdieu et le passage par la biographie
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

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See detailDoes sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Jacqmin, Julien ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

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See detailUne nouvelle tarification des réseaux énergétiques
Gautier, Axel ULg

Article for general public (2016)

La transition énergétique est en marche. Nos manières de produire et de consommer de l'énergie sont en train de changer. Un des éléments les plus visible de cette transition est sans doute la production ... [more ▼]

La transition énergétique est en marche. Nos manières de produire et de consommer de l'énergie sont en train de changer. Un des éléments les plus visible de cette transition est sans doute la production décentralisée d'électricité au moyen de panneaux photovoltaïques. Partager sur Facebook Partager sur Twitter Partager sur Google+ Partager sur LinkedIn Envoyer par e-mail 132Fois partagé Axel Gautier Axel Gautier Professeur à l'Université de Liège Opinion 22/02/16 à 10:02 - Mise à jour à 10:08 Une nouvelle tarification des réseaux énergétiques La transition énergétique est en marche. Nos manières de produire et de consommer de l'énergie sont en train de changer. Un des éléments les plus visible de cette transition est sans doute la production décentralisée d'électricité au moyen de panneaux photovoltaïques. Nous pensons que la transition énergétique doit s'accompagner d'une transition tarifaire et que les relations financières entre consommateurs et réseaux doivent être repensées. [less ▲]

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See detailBouger plus: Retour vers le futur
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, February 22)

Bouger plus est un projet visant à encourager la pratique de l'activité physique chez les seniors. Il est né dans le cadre d'une collaboration entre le Service Intervention et Gestion en Activités ... [more ▼]

Bouger plus est un projet visant à encourager la pratique de l'activité physique chez les seniors. Il est né dans le cadre d'une collaboration entre le Service Intervention et Gestion en Activités physiques et sportives de l'Université de Liège, d'une part, la Commune d'Esneux, d'autre part. Après avoir analysé les caractéristiques des habitudes des habitants de la la commune en matière d'activité physique, des interventions ont été implantées auprès d'un public cible particulier: les seniors. Ceux-ci sont considérés comme des personnes de 50 ans et plus. L'exposé retracera les différentes étapes de cette collaboration fructueuse puisque, six ans après le lancement de cette initiative citoyenne, des cycles d'activités sont toujours proposés et rencontrent d'ailleurs toujours plus de succès. Une réflexion sera menée à propos de l'évolution en cours du concept et des options qui se présentent pour la pérennisation de ce projet. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations partielles – Actualités
Salvé, Arianne ULg; Lecocq, Pascale ULg

in Les copropriétés. Actualités jurisprudentielles et bilan de 5 années de pratique de la loi du 2 juin 2010, L. BARNICH et M. VAN MOLLE (coord.) (2016)

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See detailL'alimentation pendant la Grande Guerre : les oeuvres de bienfaisance
Delhalle, Sophie ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Cette conférence portait sur la situation globale de l'alimentation des Belges (ravitaillement, CNSA, occupation allemande,...) avec une approche centrée sur le travail des œuvres de bienfaisance dans ce ... [more ▼]

Cette conférence portait sur la situation globale de l'alimentation des Belges (ravitaillement, CNSA, occupation allemande,...) avec une approche centrée sur le travail des œuvres de bienfaisance dans ce domaine. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailA typology of labour market intermediaries securing nonstandard career paths
Lorquet, Nadège ULg; Pichault, François ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, February 21)

In a context where the classical vision of organizational careers is eroded, this paper explores how Labour Market Intermediaries (LMIs) can secure nonstandard career paths. To characterize LMIs’ emerging ... [more ▼]

In a context where the classical vision of organizational careers is eroded, this paper explores how Labour Market Intermediaries (LMIs) can secure nonstandard career paths. To characterize LMIs’ emerging roles, we propose a multidimensional grid made up of 6 criteria likely to answer the following questions: 1) where do LMIs come from? 2) who is responsible for the matchmaking process? 3) when do LMIs secure career paths? 4) how do they support professional transitions? 5) what kind of information do they produce and diffuse on the labour market? 6) why do they intervene on the labour market? We validate this analytical framework through its application to five case studies selected to compare the roles LMIs can play in securing careers paths. Beyond the creation of an original grid, results outline two ideal-typical ways of securing transitions. On the one hand, some LMIs offer security by reconstructing internal labour markets and consider workers as ‘quasi-employees’. On the other hand, other LMIs suggest more disruptive solutions in which workers are supported in their job transitions ‘as if’ they were ‘quasi-self-employed’, i.e.: becoming fully responsible for their career. In the conclusion, we discuss societal challenges surrounding these two ideal-typical situations. [less ▲]

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See detailElp3 Lysine Acetyl-Transferase Controls Neuronal Survival in the Developing Inner Ear and is Crucial to Balance and Hearing
Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Mateo Sanchez, Susana ULg; Freeman, Stephen ULg et al

Conference (2016, February 20)

Elp3 lysine acetyl-transferase, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, has been assigned multiple roles in gene transcription, DNA methylation and protein translation efficiency. Given the ... [more ▼]

Elp3 lysine acetyl-transferase, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, has been assigned multiple roles in gene transcription, DNA methylation and protein translation efficiency. Given the importance of acetylation homeostasis in controlling developmental processes together with recent reports implicating Elp3 in cortical neurogenesis, we investigated its role during inner ear formation. In the inner ear, we detected Elp3 transcript in the sensory epithelia of the entire otic vesicle at embryonic day E11.5. At later stages, Elp3 mRNA is strongly expressed in the vestibular and spiral ganglion neurons. To investigate the role of Elp3 in vivo, we used a conditional knock-out mice (Foxg1Cre) in which the expression of the acetyl-transferase is lost in early otocyst. These mice show obvious vestibular defects as indicated by a stereotyped circling ambulation, head bobbing, retropulsion and the absence of a reaching response in the tail-hanging test. Furthermore, we identified a severe hearing loss in Elp3cKO mice through Auditory Brainstem Responses. We show that Elp3 enzyme is crucial for neuronal survival in the spiral ganglion and in the vestibule and that it ensures a correct innervation pattern in the developing inner ear. In the absence of Elp3, a drastic increase in the number of apoptotic neurons was detected by active Caspase-3 and pH2AX immunostainings, particularly during the early stages of development (between E12.5 and E14.5). Postnatally, the neurons remaining in Elp3cKO cochleae seem to establish synaptic contacts with the sensory cells but show obvious signs of cell damage as evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Taken together, these data support a role for Elp3 in hearing and balance and point out an important role for acetylation homeostasis during inner ear formation. We are currently investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying Elp3 effect on neuronal survival and pathfinding. [less ▲]

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See detailLes dysphasies : nouvelles conceptions théoriques et implications cliniques
Maillart, Christelle ULg

Conference (2016, February 20)

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See detailLa régionalisation de l'IPP
Bourgeois, Marc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailBlack British women filmmakers: towards a genderracial Cinema ?
Herbert, Emilie ULg

Conference (2016, February 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)