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See detailEtude de dermatophytes isolés dans les services de revalidation et physiothérapie d’une structure hospitalière en région Liégeoise (Belgique)
SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; Utri, Tania ULg; Abdel-Sadick, Hidjab Abdoulaye ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 23)

Objectifs : Les dermatophytes sont responsables d’infections de la peau, des ongles et du cuir chevelu. Les espèces anthropophiles peuvent se transmettre d’une personne à une autre par un simple contact ... [more ▼]

Objectifs : Les dermatophytes sont responsables d’infections de la peau, des ongles et du cuir chevelu. Les espèces anthropophiles peuvent se transmettre d’une personne à une autre par un simple contact. Leur présence en milieu sportif (salles de sport, piscine, tatamis), douches collectives, vestiaires des écoles, a été largement décrite. Par contre il existe peu de littérature concernant les établissements de soins. C’est pourquoi, nous nous sommes intéressés au risque potentiel d’infection par des dermatophytes en milieu hospitalier et particulièrement dans les salles de kinésithérapie et de revalidation ainsi que dans une piscine du CHU de Liège. Matériel et méthodes : Trois sites du CHU de Liège ont été investigués: le site du Sart Tilman (ST), le site Ourthe Amblève (OA) et le site Notre-Dame des Bruyères (NDB). Les prélèvements ont été effectués en salle de revalidation et kinésithérapie ainsi qu’à la piscine de revalidation. Ces prélèvements ont été réalisés sur les surfaces à l’aide de géloses de contact (milieu de Sabouraud/chloramphénicol/actidione/gentamicine, Tritium Microbiologie, Pays-bas). L’identification des espèces fongiques a été réalisée par observation macro-microscopique des cultures, spectrométrie de masse (Maldi-Tof) et séquençage moléculaire. Résultats : Au total, 552 prélèvements ont été réalisés parmi lesquels 15 dermatophytes ont été recensés (2,72%). On retrouve: 7 T. rubrum, 7 T. interdigitale, 1 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes. Sur le site ST, 207 prélèvements ont été effectués parmi lesquels 4 T. rubrum, 1 T. interdigitale et 1 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (zoophile). Sur le site OA, parmi les 226 prélèvements effectués, 4 Trichophyton interdigitale et 3 Trichophyton rubrum ont été retrouvés. Aucun dermatophyte n’a été isolé de l’eau de piscine ou pédiluve. Sur le site de NDB, sur 119 prélèvements, seuls 2 isolats de Trichophyton interdigitale ont été identifiés. Les prélèvements positifs pour les dermatophytes concernent des tapis de gymnastique, vélos, rameurs, balances, trampolines, demi-sphères d’équilibre, table de kinésithérapie, sols de douches et vestiaires de la piscine. Conclusion Grâce à ces investigations, nous avons pu mettre en évidence sur le matériel de revalidation et les sols des vestiaires, la présence de deux espèces anthropophiles, T. rubrum et T. interdigitale fréquemment impliquées dans les cas d’onychomycoses et atteintes cutanées. Une souche zoophile de T. mentagrophytes a également été mise en évidence. Cette étude démontre qu’un renforcement de la fréquence de nettoyage des sols et des instruments utilisés dans les salles de sport du CHU de Liège est nécessaire de façon à minimaliser les risques de contamination de patients et du personnel médical. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Based Prediction of the Response to Vascular Filling Therapy
Pironet, Antoine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Vascular filling is one of the most frequent interventions in intensive care units. Its expected effect is to increase cardiac output. However, this increase is only observed in approximately 50 % of ... [more ▼]

Vascular filling is one of the most frequent interventions in intensive care units. Its expected effect is to increase cardiac output. However, this increase is only observed in approximately 50 % of cases. In addition, excessive vascular filling can lead to deleterious effects, such as pulmonary oedema, which increase length of ventilation, stay, mortality and cost. Clinicians are thus looking for indices to provide a priori knowledge of the effect of vascular filling. This thesis focuses on a mathematical model-based approach to predict the response to vascular filling. Mathematical models are sets of equations representing the behaviour of a given system as, for instance, the cardiovascular system. To understand the concept of vascular filling, basic elements of cardio-vascular anatomy and physiology are presented in the first part of this thesis. Then, fur- ther details about vascular filling therapy are given, as well as the current indices used by clinicians to predict its effects. The static indices are easy to obtain, but do not perform well. The dynamic indices, based on cardio-pulmonary interac- tions, perform better, but are difficult and highly invasive to implement clinically. A new index, total stressed blood volume, also seems to perform well, but is not easy to obtain clinically. This work develops and then uses models of the cardio- vascular system to make this parameter available to clinicians. Building on the elements of physiology provided in the first part, the second part of this thesis describes ways to model the components of the cardio-vascular system as lumped elements, such as chambers, valves and resistances. Two mod- els of the cardio-vascular system, comprising respectively three and six cham- bers, are built from such elements. These two models involve a small number of parameters, including the total stressed volume in the model. The third part of this thesis describes the potential and methods to identify the parameters of the two cardio-vascular system models. Parameter identifica- tion aims at finding the parameter values that make model simulations as close as possible to measured data. The available data is thus first described, accord- ing to whether it is collected in an experimental laboratory or an intensive care unit. Then, it is mathematically demonstrated that all model parameters can the- oretically be identified from data available in an intensive care unit. However, practically speaking, some parameters are difficult to identify, because they have little influence on the simulations, or have the same effect as other parameters. Fi- nally, computational methods to perform parameter identification are presented and compared. The last part of this thesis presents two applications of the cardio-vascular system models to experimental data. First, all parameters of the six-chamber cardio-vascular system model are identified from data recorded during a preload reduction experiment. This result provides the first quantitative validation of the six-chamber model in transient conditions. Second, all parameters of the three-chamber cardio-vascular system model, including total stressed volume, are identified from data recorded during vascular filling experiments. The total stressed volume parameter is shown to be systematically related to the change in cardiac output after vascular filling. This last index thus provides, for the first time, a model-based means of predicting the response to vascular filling. [less ▲]

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See detailCalendars and rituals at Mari during the šakkanakkū period (end of the 3rd millennium B.C. – beginning of the 2nd)
Colonna d'Istria, Laurent ULg

Conference (2016, March 23)

The order of the months in the calendar at the end of the šakkanakkū period (19th century B.C.) is now well established. This calendar is largely similar to the one in use during the amorite period. This ... [more ▼]

The order of the months in the calendar at the end of the šakkanakkū period (19th century B.C.) is now well established. This calendar is largely similar to the one in use during the amorite period. This paper will focus on the rituals and festivals at Mari during the end of the šakkanakkū period: expenditures for temples, deities and rituals are mentioned in many administrative texts dated to the mid-19th century. Nevertheless, these texts are very patchy and the festivals are not clearly named. The latest excavation archaeological excavations at the site of Tell Hariri-Mari provided us with eleven administrative texts dated to the middle of the šakkanakkū period (i.e. UrIII period or slightly earlier). These texts reveal a calendar which is partly similar to the late šakkanakkū one. [less ▲]

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See detailWavelet-based Methods to Study the Regularity of a Signal: from Theory to Practice
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2016, March 23)

In this talk, I use the notion of wavelet to design multifractal formalisms. I present the theoritical results obtained on the generalized Snu spaces and I show the utility of these generalization ... [more ▼]

In this talk, I use the notion of wavelet to design multifractal formalisms. I present the theoritical results obtained on the generalized Snu spaces and I show the utility of these generalization. Besides, I also apply these formalisms on a practical example: the Mars topography. [less ▲]

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See detailRefractory ceramic molds fabrication by additive methods for low and high melting point metal alloys casting
Bister, Geoffroy; Deschuyteneer, Dorian; Hautcoeur, Dominique et al

Conference (2016, March 23)

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See detailUne histoire de la bande dessinée par ses auteurs ? Notes sur l'historiographie de la bande dessinée
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 23)

Cette présentation aura pour but de proposer quelques pistes de réflexion autour de l’historiographie de la bande dessinée, que l’on envisagera de facto comme plurielle. Plus particulièrement, il s’agira ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation aura pour but de proposer quelques pistes de réflexion autour de l’historiographie de la bande dessinée, que l’on envisagera de facto comme plurielle. Plus particulièrement, il s’agira de se pencher sur les façons dont les auteurs eux-mêmes participent à l’écriture de cette histoire dans la diversité de leurs pratiques. Alors que la bande dessinée pourrait être décrite comme un « art sans mémoire » (Groensteen, 2006), les différentes modalités de son inscription dans le temps et de la transmission de son passé constituent aujourd’hui une des questions cruciales de la recheche en bande dessinée. Prolongeant cet intérêt et en le confrontant à la perspective littéraire de L’Histoire littéraire des écrivains (Debaene, et al., 2013), cette présentation suggère que regarder à l’histoire et la mémoire de la bande dessinée telle qu’elle est transmise, véhiculée, réinventée ou rejetée par ses auteurs constitue un changement de perspective qui nous invite à prendre acte de la pluralité des histoires du médium. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytoHealth : Des végétaux riches en phyto-œstrogènes pour redorer l'image des productions animales en terme de santé
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Tosar, Victoria ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 22)

Présentation du projet PhytoHealth

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See detailApplication de l’échographie à l’étude de la dynamique folliculaire lors de l’oestrus induit chez la vache Azawak au Niger
Moussa Garba, Mahamadou ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Le Niger dispose d’énormes potentialités en matière d’élevage bovin notamment. Mieux exploitées et gérées, elles pourraient améliorer de manière très significative les performances des races locales. Les ... [more ▼]

Le Niger dispose d’énormes potentialités en matière d’élevage bovin notamment. Mieux exploitées et gérées, elles pourraient améliorer de manière très significative les performances des races locales. Les faibles performances de production et de reproduction qui caractérisent le bétail nigérien sont imputables à plusieurs facteurs, notamment les déficiences alimentaires, le mauvais état sanitaire et le faible potentiel génétique des races locales. L’alimentation du cheptel dont dépendent les productions, reste largement tributaire du régime des pluies dont les faibles quantités généralement enregistrées rendent aléatoire la production fourragère. De même, le faible taux de couverture sanitaire entraine la persistance de certaines maladies (PPCB, pasteurellose, tuberculose, parasitoses, mammites..) contribuant ainsi à la baisse des performances de production et de reproduction. La race bovine Azawak, la meilleure laitière produit à peine 7 à 8 litres de lait par jour. Au cours de ces dernières décennies, plusieurs stratégies et programmes de développement ont été élaborés et mis en oeuvre en vue de valoriser les productions animales. Cependant, la mise en oeuvre de ces stratégies et programmes de développement n’a pas permis d’améliorer la performance du secteur de l’élevage et certains indicateurs comme la consommation de viande et de lait par habitant ont diminué de manière drastique. En dépit d’un cheptel bovin numériquement important (+ de 11 millions de têtes), le Niger enregistre un déficit laitier important. La production locale est loin de couvrir les besoins de la population. La présente étude est une contribution visant à terme à augmenter la production laitière par le recours à l’insémination artificielle dont il restait cependant à : - faire le point sur les caractéristiques et performances de reproduction de Bos indicus ; - évaluer les caractéristiques physiologiques et pathologiques du tractus génital de la femelle Bos indicus ; - décrire par échographie les caractéristiques de la croissance folliculaire et de l’ovulation chez des femelles Azawak dont l’oestrus a été induit par une PGF2α ou par des progestagènes. La documentation sur les caractéristiques et performances de reproduction des zébus africains est peu nombreuse. Ainsi, une synthèse a été réalisée pour dresser l’état des lieux des connaissances dans le domaine de la reproduction de Bos indicus. Compte tenu des faibles performances de reproduction de Bos indicus, et pour recourir à l’insémination artificielle, divers traitements hormonaux sont envisagés. Ce travail a également actualisé les résultats potentiels offerts par l’insémination artificielle réalisée sur chaleurs naturelles ou induites. L’infécondité est une des caractéristiques de l’élevage bovin en Afrique se traduisant par un allongement de l’âge du premier vêlage et de l’intervalle entre vêlage. Elle limite le progrès génétique et la rentabilité des élevages de Bos indicus. Pour comprendre si les pathologies du tractus reproducteur constituent un facteur de risque d’infécondité dans le bétail nigérien, une étude a été conduite à l’abattoir de Niamey au Niger. Elle a concerné 500 tractus génitaux de 500 femelles zébus (Bos indicus) appartenant à quatre races bovines (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali). Ces vaches et génisses, âgées en moyenne de 8 ± 2,5 ans, ont eu une note d’état corporel moyenne de 1,6 ± 0,6 et un poids moyen de carcasse de 113 ± 21 kg. Aucune différence significative n’a été observée entre les races étudiées en ce qui concerne le diamètre du col (3,4 ± 1,1 cm), la longueur du col (8,1 ±2,5 cm) et des cornes (21,6 ± 5,2 cm), le diamètre des cornes (1,6 ± 0,5 cm), la longueur et la largeur de l’ovaire droit (19,8 ± 4,4 mm et 11,2 ± 3,8 mm) et de l’ovaire gauche (18,8 ± 4,5 mm et 10,2 ± 3,3mm) et le poids des ovaires gauche et droit (2,5 ± 1,6 et 2,9 g ± 1,8 g respectivement). Ces données sont d’une manière générale, inférieures à celles classiquement rapportées pour le genre Bos taurus. Diverses pathologies de l’appareil génital (kystes, infections utérines, free-martinisme, pyomètre) ont été observées sur 10,4 % des tractus génitaux. La fréquence observée des pathologies donne à penser qu’elles ne constituent pas un facteur de risque majeur de l’infécondité. Ce résultat à amener à étudier l’effet des traitements hormonaux sur la croissance folliculaire et l’ovulation. En effet, la croissance folliculaire jusqu’à l’ovulation après synchronisation et induction des chaleurs au moyen de PGF2α et de progestagènes a été appréciée par échographie chez 42 vaches en lactation de race Azawak. Ces animaux issus de la station de Toukounous ont été ensuite inséminés deux fois (à 12 heures et à 24 heures) 5 après la détection de l’oestrus sur respectivement 16 et 11 femelles traitées à la PGF2α et aux progestagènes. Cette investigation à permis de noter les constats suivants : Les taux moyens d’induction ont été de 81 % dans les deux traitements. Le délai moyen d’apparition de l’oestrus est apparu significativement plus long après injection d’une PGF2α (84,8 ± 26,0 heures) qu’après retrait du PRID (59,2 ± 5,8 heures). La durée moyenne de l’oestrus a été plus courte après son induction au moyen de la PGF2α (12,6 ± 2,6 heures) que du progestagène (22,9 ± 2,7 heures) ; Le délai d’ovulation à partir des chaleurs n’a pas été significativement différent chez les animaux traités à la PGF2α (30,3 heures) et aux progestagènes (28,4 heures) ; Le taux de gestation après une injection de PGF2α (31,2 %) a été inférieur à celui obtenu après utilisation du protocole à base de progestagènes associé à une injection de PGF2α et d’eCG (54,5 %). Les intervalles observés entre les traitements et l’oestrus et l’ovulation permettent de préconiser une insémination plus précoce des animaux traités au moyen de progestagènes qu’avec une PGF2α. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport au passé en France au XVIIe siècle : appréhender la complexité en Histoire
Saal, Caroline ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 22)

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See detailRégulation de la transcription du virus T-lymphotrope humain de type I (HTLV-1) par le complexe MiniChromosome Maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7)
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

First oncogenic retrovirus discovered, the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 5 to 10 millions of individuals worldwide. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell ... [more ▼]

First oncogenic retrovirus discovered, the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 5 to 10 millions of individuals worldwide. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia and a neurodegenerative disorder called HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis). The HTLV-1 Tax protein interacts with the minichromosome maintenance MCM2-7 helicase, through the amino-terminal part of MCM3. This interaction accelerates firing of late DNA replication origins (ORI) in infected cells. Since Tax acts on the long terminal repeat (LTR), we hypothesized that the MCM2-7 complex could also be recruited to the viral promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that MCM2-7 indeed interacts with LTR sequences. However, loading of the MCM complex does not fire DNA replication in an autonomous plasmid replication assay. In contrast, MCM2-7 activates viral transcription in luciferase reporter assays and in the context of a proviral clone. Short hairpin RNA interference of MCM2-7 inhibits LTR-driven Tax transactivation in lymphocytes. Finally, siRNAs targeting MCM3 reduce viral transcription in HTLV-1 infected cell lines. Together, our data thus indicate that the presence of the MCM2-7 complex on the HTLV-1 promoter is involved in viral transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailTherapy of Adult T-cell Leukemia by inhibition of the DNA repair mechanisms
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The Tax oncoprotein plays a central role in viral persistence and pathogenesis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Indeed, Tax transforms primary cells and induces tumors in transgenic mouse ... [more ▼]

The Tax oncoprotein plays a central role in viral persistence and pathogenesis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Indeed, Tax transforms primary cells and induces tumors in transgenic mouse models. Mechanistically, Tax accelerates the S phase of the cell cycle by firing late replication origins. This modification of the replication timing program induces an oncogenic stress that generates DNA damage such as double-strand breaks. Tax thus provides a selective advantage that promotes proliferation but also exposes host cells to potentially harmful clastogenic damage. How Tax-expressing cells handle this oncogenic stress is currently unknown. In this thesis, we show that Tax-expressing cells activate the DNA Damage Response (DDR). We quantified the repair efficiencies of DNA double-strand breaks. We demonstrate that Tax induces the recruitment of DNA repair core proteins (Ku70, RAD51 and RAD52) on chromatin. We further show that the efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) is inhibited by Tax. In contrast, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA) are activated in the presence of Tax. Taking advantage of the addiction of Tax-expressing cells on improved DNA repair, we show that pharmacological inhibition of these pathways in HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes leads to an accumulation of DNA damage and apoptosis. We propose a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of ATL based on the use of inhibitors targeting DNA repair pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailCartographie de la bande dessinée numérique
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

in Lectures (2016)

Note critique de Pascal Robert (dir.), Bande dessinée et numérique, Paris, CNRS Éditions, coll. « Les essentiels d'Hermès », 2016, 252 p., ISBN : 9782271087591.

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See detailNon-isocyanate polyurethanes from carbonated soybean oil Using monomeric or oligomeric diamines To achieve thermosets or thermoplastics
Poussard, Loïc; Mariage, J.; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(6), 2162-2171

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived ... [more ▼]

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived from fatty acids to achieve respectively thermoset or thermoplastic NIPUs. Biobased carbonated vegetable oils were first obtained by metal-free coupling reactions of CO2 with epoxidized soybean oils under supercritical conditions (120 °C, 100 bar) before complete characterization by FTIR, 1H NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). In a second step, biobased NIPUs were produced by melt-blending of the so-produced cyclocarbonated oil with the biobased aminated derivatives. The thermal and mechanical properties of resulting polymers were found to be depending on the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil/amine ratio. More precisely, short diamines and CSBO led to the formation of cross-linked NIPUs, and the resulting tensile and thermal properties were poor. In contrast, elastomeric NIPUs derived from oligoamides and CSBO exhibited a better rigidity, an improved elongation at break (εr up to 400%), and a higher thermal stability (T95 wt% > 350 °C) than those of starting oligoamides. These results are impressive and highlight the potentiality of this environmental friendly approach to prepare renewable NIPU materials of high performances. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteopontin predicts radiotherapy response of glioblastoma patients : new role in DNA damage repair
Henry, Aurélie ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Leroi, Natacha ULg et al

Conference (2016, March 22)

- Introduction: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common solid human brain tumor. Because of GBM heterogeneity, location and aggressiveness, none of the available treatment is curative. These ... [more ▼]

- Introduction: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and common solid human brain tumor. Because of GBM heterogeneity, location and aggressiveness, none of the available treatment is curative. These treatments include maximal surgical resection, radiotherapy and concomitant or adjuvant chemotherapy with Temozolomide. However, the prognosis of adult patients with GBM remains poor and the survival outcome after treatment does not exceed 15 months. GBM-composing cells have developed many strategies to counteract these current therapies. Among the wide hallmarks acquired to survive, high osteopontin (OPN) expression correlates with lower overall and disease-free/relapse-free survival in all tumors combined, as well in brain cancer. Our recent study (Lamour V and Henry A, IJC 2015) has demonstrated the role of OPN in the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells and its importance in the maintenance of the stem characters. In the continuation of this work, our recent studies focused on the potential role of OPN in the resistance of GBM cells to radiotherapy and its potential implication in the initiation of Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) repair mechanisms. - Aims: In the context of this study, different GBM cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG and U87 Viii) were used to assess the role of OPN in the initiation of the DSBs repair mechanism after an exposure to gamma-irradiation. - Methods and results: We performed the transient transfection of different GBM cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG and U87-MG overexpressing EGFR VIII) with siRNAs specifically directed against OPN. After irradiation, all these OPN-depleted cells consistently showed a lower induction of γ–H2AX compared to control (irrelevant siRNA) as evidenced by western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. Thereafter, clonogenic assays allowed to prove that the survival of OPN-depleted cells was affected after an exposure to irradiation. To assess the importance of OPN expression in the response to radiotherapy, an heterotopic xenograft model was used. In brief, IPTG-inducible U87 shOPN clones were injected subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice and were allowed to form a tumor. When average tumor volume reached a predetermined size range, mice were treated (or not) with IPTG by intraperitoneal injection during five days. At the end of the treatment, tumors were selectively exposed to gamma-irradiation by using a small animal irradiator X-RAD 225Cx (Precision X-Ray Inc., North Branford, CT). One week later, mice were sacrificed and tumors were measured. In this pilot study, we observed that mice in which the tumor was depleted in OPN displayed a slight regression in the tumor growth compared to mice that received radiotherapy alone (no IPTG), where the tumor volume remained constant. - Conclusions: Taken together, these preliminary data meet the fact that OPN is important in the response of GBM to radiotherapy. The in vitro results converge to the fact that OPN might be implicated in the initiation of the DSBs repair following irradiation. Currently, we would like to investigate this hypothesis in vivo but also to check the effect of OPN depletion combined to radiotherapy on the survival of mice in an orthotopic xenograft model. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility study of repetitive diffusion MRI after Neoadjuvant radiotherapy for following tumor microenvironment.
LALLEMAND, François ULg; Leroi, Natacha ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

Conference (2016, March 22)

Purpose/Objective. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) improves tumor local control and tumor resection in many cancers. The timing between the end of the NeoRT and surgery is mostly driven by the occurrence ... [more ▼]

Purpose/Objective. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) improves tumor local control and tumor resection in many cancers. The timing between the end of the NeoRT and surgery is mostly driven by the occurrence of side effects or the tumor downsizing. We previously demonstrated in an in vivo model that the timing of surgery and the schedule of NeoRT influenced the tumor dissemination. Here, our aim is to evaluate with functional MRI (fMRI) the impact of the radiation treatment on the tumor microenvironment and subsequently to identify non-invasive markers helping to determine the best timing to perform surgery for avoiding tumor spreading. First, we needed to demonstrate the feasibility of repetitive MRI imaging after NeoRT in mice. Material/methods. We used two models of NeoRT we previously developed in mice: MDA-MB 231 and 4T1 cells implanted in the flank of mice. When tumors reached the planned volume, they are irradiated with 2x5 Gy and then surgically removed at different time points after RT. In the mean time between the end of RT and the surgical procedure, mice were imaged in a 9,4T Agilent® MRI. Diffusion Weighted (DW) -MRI was performed every 2 days between RT and surgery. For each tumors we acquired 8 slices of 1 mm thickness and 0.5 mm gap with an “in plane voxel resolution” of 0.5 mm. For DW-MRI, we performed FSEMS (Fast Spin Echo MultiSlice) sequences, with 9 different B-values (from 40 to 1000) and B0, in the 3 main directions. We also performed IVIM (IntraVoxel Incoherent Motion) analysis, in the aim to obtain information on intravascular diffusion, related to perfusion (F: perfusion factor) and subsequently tumor vessels perfusion. Results. As preliminary results, with the MBA-MB 231 we observed a significant increase of F at day 6 after irradiation than a decrease and stabilization until surgery. No other modifications of the MRI signal, ADC, D or D* were observed. We observed similar results with 4T1 cells, F increased at day 3 than returned to initial signal. The difference in the timing of the peak of F can be related to the difference in tumor growth between MBA-MB 231 and 4T1 (four weeks vs one week). Conclusion. For the first time, we demonstrate the feasibility of repetitive fMRI imaging in mice models after NeoRT. With these models, we show a significant peak of the perfusion factor (F) at day 6 or day 3. This change occurs between the two previous time points of surgery demonstrating a difference in the metastatic spreading. Indeed, after a NeoRT of 2X5Gy we observed more metastases in the lung when MDA-MB 231 tumor bearing mice are operated 4 days after RT compared to 11 days. These preliminary results are very promising for identifying noninvasive markers for determining the best timing for surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailGeophysical Investigation of the Pb-Zn deposit of Lontzen, Belgium
Evrard, Maxime ULg

Conference (2016, March 22)

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See detailLa culture industrielle de microalgues
Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailLectures phénoménologiques d'un corp(u)s littéraire. Merleau-Ponty et le Nouveau Roman
Franck, Thomas ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 22)

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See detailUne généralisation du triangle de Pascal
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2016, March 22)

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word ... [more ▼]

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpinski gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1]×[0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. [less ▲]

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