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See detailDouble hydrophilic polyphosphoester containing copolymers as efficient templating agents for calcium carbonate microparticles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Calvignac, Brice et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(36), 7227-7236

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and ... [more ▼]

The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and crystalline form of the CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of novel well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and a polyphosphoester segment with an affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendent carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. These copolymers were synthesized by a combination of organocatalyzed ring opening polymerization, thiol–yne click chemistry and protection/deprotection methods. The formulation of CaCO3 particles was then performed in the presence of these block copolymers (i) by the classical chemical pathway involving CaCl2 and Na2CO3 and (ii) by a process based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) technology in which CO32− ions are generated in aqueous media and react with Ca2+ ions. Porous CaCO3 microspheres composed of vaterite nanocrystals were obtained. Moreover, a clear dependence of the particle size on the structure of the templating agent was emphasized. In this work, we show that the use of the supercritical process and the substitution of hyaluronic acid for a carboxylic acid containing copolymer decreases the size of the CaCO3 particles by a factor of 6 (∼1.5 μm) while preventing their aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological benefits of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program after breast cancer
Leclerc, Anne-France ULg; FOIDART-DESSALLE, Marguerite ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2015, September 27)

Background : Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, affecting 8 women out of 100. With early detection and improved treatments, the number of deaths linked to this disease has declined ... [more ▼]

Background : Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, affecting 8 women out of 100. With early detection and improved treatments, the number of deaths linked to this disease has declined. However, the disease and its treatments are at the origin of many undesirable side effects such as fatigue, anxiety, weight gain and sleep disorders. The objective of this study is to determine the psychological benefits of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program among women treated for breast cancer (on average six months after the end of the adjuvant radiotherapy or chimiotherapy). Material and methods : 122 patients were included into a control group (n = 61) and a treated group (n = 61). All participants were submitted to evaluations before the beginning of the trial and after three months. These evaluations included different questionnaires exploring the quality of life, anxiety, depression and various functions and other symptoms related to cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30, EQ-5D, STAI, HADS) and functional assessments. The control group has received no intervention unlike the treated group that received a three-month rehabilitation including supervised physical training (90 min) with three times a week and various psycho-educational sessions (120 min) once a week. Results : After three months, the health status (quality of life) (p < 0,0001), the functional role (p = 0,031), emotional state (p < 0,0001) and physical (p = 0,0045), cognitive (p = 0,0027) and social functions (p = 0,0018) improve significantly in the treated group. This observation also applies to symptoms of fatigue (p < 0,0001), insomnia (p < 0,0001), pain (p = 0,002), dyspnea (p = 0,009), loss of appetite (p = 0,04), anxiety (p < 0,0001) and depression (p < 0,0001) as well as physical parameters obtained through functional assessments. In the control group, these improvements do not appear. Conclusions : This study shows the feasibility and psychological benefits of such a multidisciplinary oncological rehabilitation program in women after their treatments for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to know the optimal time of beginning (during treatments or after them) and the optimal management time for this support. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses Online. Un outil pour aider à l'édition de textes hiératiques
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 27)

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de ... [more ▼]

Après une présentation générale des fonctionnalités de Ramses Online (http://ramses.ulg.ac.be), cette intervention vise à montrer comment l'outil en question peut être utilisé pour l'identification de textes littéraires inédits et, plus largement, l'aide à la lecture d'originaux rédigés en hiératique. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical benefits of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program after breast cancer
Leclerc, Anne-France ULg; FOIDART-DESSALLE, Marguerite ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2015, September 26)

Background : Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, affecting 8 women out of 100. With early detection and improved treatments, the number of deaths linked to this disease has declined ... [more ▼]

Background : Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, affecting 8 women out of 100. With early detection and improved treatments, the number of deaths linked to this disease has declined. However, the disease and its treatments are at the origin of many undesirable side effects such as fatigue, anxiety, weight gain and decreased physical fitness. The objective of this study is to determine the physical benefits of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program among women treated for breast cancer (on average six months after the end of the adjuvant radiotherapy or chimiotherapy). Material and methods : 122 patients were included into a control group (n = 61) and a treated group (n = 61). All participants were submitted to evaluations before the beginning of the trial and after three months. These evaluations included functional assessments (a maximal incremental exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer, flexibility by Sit and Reach Test and walking distance by Six-Minute Walk Test), anthropometric and body composition measurements (Body Mass Index and body fat percentage) and different questionnaires on quality of life, anxiety and other symptoms related to cancer. The control group has received no intervention unlike the treated group that received a three-month rehabilitation including supervised physical training (90 min) with three times a week and various psycho-educational sessions (120 min) once a week. Results : After three months, maximal oxygen consumption (p < 0,0001), maximal aerobic power (p < 0,0001), peak of ventilation (p < 0,0001) and time to exhaustion (p = 0,0055) during the maximal incremental exercise protocol improve significantly in the treated group. This observation also applies to flexibility (p < 0,0001), walking distance in six minutes (p < 0,0001) and different physical and psychological parameters obtained through questionnaires. In the control group, these improvements do not appear and a significant increase in body mass index (p = 0,032) and body fat percentage (p = 0,034) is observed while these data remain constant in the treated group. Conclusions : This study shows the feasibility and physical benefits of such a multidisciplinary oncological rehabilitation program in women after their treatments for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to know the optimal time of beginning (during treatments or after them) and the optimal management time for this support. [less ▲]

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See detailFormer aux compétences informationnelles à l'heure du Web 2.0 et des discovery tools - Actes du colloque du 18 mai 2015
Pochet, Bernard ULg; Blondeel, Sébastien; Collette, Caroline ULg et al

Book published by ARES/BICfB (2015)

Ce 18 mai, le colloque « Former aux compétences informationnelles à l'heure du Web 2.0 et des discovery tools » a rassemblé près de 250 personnes dans le cadre exceptionnel de la ferme abbatiale de ... [more ▼]

Ce 18 mai, le colloque « Former aux compétences informationnelles à l'heure du Web 2.0 et des discovery tools » a rassemblé près de 250 personnes dans le cadre exceptionnel de la ferme abbatiale de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, la faculté des sciences agronomiques de l'Université de Liège (Belgique). Le public était majoritairement belge, mais une trentaine de bibliothécaires français ont également participé à la journée. Deux orateurs québécois faisaient aussi partie du public. Le monde de l’information se transforme en profondeur au rythme des avancées technologiques, mais aussi des évolutions dans la façon de produire, diffuser, collecter, traiter l’information. On ne cherche plus, on ne s’approprie plus, on ne diffuse plus l’information aujourd’hui comme on le faisait il y a moins de 10 ans encore. Peut-on dès lors continuer à former aux compétences informationnelles comme auparavant ? C’est pour tenter de répondre à cette question que ce colloque a été organisé : faire un état de la question et dessiner les perspectives actuelles et futures de la formation aux compétences informationnelles à l’heure où le monde de l’information et celui des bibliothèques connaissent des évolutions majeures. [less ▲]

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See detailHypoxic ischemic encephalopathy : new insights in neuroprotection
VIELLEVOYE, Renaud ULg

Conference (2015, September 26)

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and is a common cause of disability with devastating impact on individuals and families. During the acute ... [more ▼]

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and is a common cause of disability with devastating impact on individuals and families. During the acute phase, HIE is initially characterized by an excitotoxic cascade with hypoxic membrane depolarization, cytotoxic edema, glutamate release and intracellular accumulation of calcium leading to necrotic cell death and production of proinflammatory cytokines through the NF-κB pathway. In a second phase, reperfusion leads to production of free radicals, activation of proteases and phospholipases, exacerbing the damage to cell membrane and DNA and mitochondrial dysfunction causing caspase mediated apoptotic cell death. In a third phase, growth factors and inflammatory cytokines produced during the early phase of HIE attempt to repair damage induced by hypoxia–ischemia. Although the utility of therapeutic hypothermia induced in the 6 hours following HIE in the reduction of death or major neurodevelopmental disability is now well established in the neonate with moderate or severe encephalopathy, almost half of these children still die or have abnormal outcomes [1]. Protocols attempting to optimize cooling with deeper hypothermia (33.5°C vs 32.0°C) and/or longer duration (72h vs 120h), as well protocols studying neuroprotective effect of late hypothermia (6-24h) or hypothermia for 33-35 week GA preterm babies are currently performed. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that hypothermia extends the duration of the therapeutic window [2] and that certain drugs given during this time may improve neuroprotection either additively or synergistically. Xenon is a noble gas with anaesthetic and neuroprotective properties. It inhibits NMDA receptor, promotes cell survival and induces the production of erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor through the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) pathway. Data from experimental piglet models of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) demonstrate a synergy when Xenon is administered in combination with mild therapeutic hypothermia [3]. In the human newborn, a phase-1 trial recently established that breathing 50% Xenon for up to 18 hours with 72 hours of cooling was feasible, with no adverse effects seen with 18 months’ follow-up [4]. A monocentric phase-3 trial is currently under process in England. Melatonin is a remarkable natural antioxidant but also exhibits antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. In animal models, melatonin administration prior or after the onset of HI significantly reduced infarct volume demonstrating both prophylactic and therapeutic effect [5-6]. When combined with hypothermia, melatonin enhances neuroprotection by reduction of the H–I-induced increase in clinically relevant biomarkers in the deep grey matter of newborn piglets [7]. Clinical studies confirmed its safety profile and its ability to reduce biomarkers level of HI in the human newborn [8]. Recently, a randomized controlled trial showed that the combination of melatonin and hypothermia administered to infants with moderate-to-severe H–I brain injury was efficacious in reducing oxidative stress, neonatal seizures and MRI brain lesions as well as in improving neurological outcomes at 6 months of age [9]. Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor are expressed in the developing central nervous system and are required for normal brain development. EPO is up-regulated in umbilical cord blood from babies who have suffered HI, which may be an endogenous repair mechanism. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotection induced by EPO is achieved by several mechanisms such as direct neurotrophic effect, direct antioxidant effects, decreased inflammation or regulation between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors. Safety profile of EPO administration during hypothermia for newborns with HIE has been established in Phase I trials [10]. In a randomized prospective pase-2 trial, repeated low-dose rEPO reduced the risk of disability for infants with moderate but not severe HIE at 18 months, without apparent side effects [11]. A double-blind randomized controlled phase-3 trial is currently performed in France. Allopurinol is a xantine-oxidase inhibitor. In high concentrations it also scavenges hydroxyl radicals and prevents free radical formation. Allopurinol provides neuroprotection in rat and piglets models of HIE. In the human, a systematic review and meta-analysis of three studies on 114 newborns did not reveal statistically difference in the risk of death or a composite of death or severe neurodevelopmental disability between groups [12]. It was hypothesized that postnatal allopurinol treatment started too late to reduce reperfusion-induced free radical surge. However, in a recent study, allopurinol given to mothers during labor with fetal hypoxia did not significantly lower neuronal damage markers in cord blood even if post hoc analysis revealed a potential beneficial treatment effect in girls [13]. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is a naturally occurring NMDA receptor antagonist. MgSO4 given to mothers at risk for preterm birth is associated with a reduced risk of cerebral palsy and gross motor dysfunction in their children. Its role as an adjuvant to therapeutic hypothermia in the asphyxiated term infant remains unclear. A recent review of preclinical studies using MgSO4 in HIE highlights the inconsistent impact between studies related to a lack of temperature control during and after HI, along with variability in the dose, timing of treatment [14]. A metaanalysis of five randomized controlled trials that compared magnesium to control in newborns with HIE showed a significant improvement in short term outcomes but no difference in the composite outcome of death or moderate to severe disability at 18 months [15]. Other NMDA and AMPA antagonist such as topiramate and memantine also exhibited neuroprotective properties in animal models but safety and efficacy in the human newborn with HIE still needs to be clarified [16]. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) acts as a glutathione precursor with antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In a piglet model of HIE, NAC reduced cerebral oxidative stress, reduced cerebral lactate accumulation and improved cerebral perfusion. When combined with hypothermia in the asphyxiated rodent, NAC decreased infarct volume, improved myelin expression and functional outcomes on a synergistic pattern. NF-κB inhibitors and NO synthase inhibitors are other therapeutic options currently under investigation in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Moreover, recent research performed at the University of Liege also suggests that Estetrol (E4), an estrogen synthetized exclusively by the human foetus, has neuroprotective properties in a rat model of HIE. Translation to clinical use in humans still needs to be studied [17]. Several therapies have also been suggested in order to improve mechanisms of repair and regeneration observed after the HI insult. Growth factors such as BDNF, IGF-1, EGF or bFGF can improve cell viability, stimulate the growth of new neurons or promotes oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination. Recent advances in regenerative medicine suggest that stem cell transplantation may improve repair of the damaged brain after HIE through the replacement of dead cells as well as through the release of trophic factors [18]. Animal preclinical data are promising. However many questions need to be answered with well-designed controlled trials before clinical application in daily practice. References [1] Edwards AD et al. (2010) Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data. BMJ. 340:c363. [2] O'Brien F et al. (2006) Delayed whole-body cooling to 33 or 35 degrees c and the development of impaired energy generation consequential to transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in the newborn piglet. Pediatrics 117:1549–59. [3] Chakkarapani, E. et al. (2010) Xenon enhances hypothermic neuroprotection in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Ann. Neurol. 68, 330–341 [4] Dingley, J. et al. (2014) Xenon ventilation during therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: a feasibility study. Pediatrics 133, 809–818 [5] Carloni, S. et al. (2008) Melatonin protects from the long-term consequences of a neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in rats. J. Pineal. Res. 44, 157–164 [6] Hutton, L.C. et al. (2009) Neuroprotective properties of melatonin in a model of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse (Acomyscahirinus). Dev. Neurosci. 31, 437–451 [7] Robertson, N.J. et al. (2013) Melatonin augments hypothermic neuroprotection in a perinatal asphyxia model. Brain 136, 90–105 [8] Fulia, G. et al. (2001) Increased levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate in the blood of asphyxiated newborns: reduction by melatonin. Journal of Pineal Research; 31(4):343–349. [9] Aly, H. et al. (2015) Melatonin use for neuroprotection in perinatal asphyxia: a randomized controlled pilot study. J. Perinatol. 35, 186–191 [10] Wu, Y.W. et al. (2012) Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics. Pediatrics 130, 683–691 [11] Zhu, C. et al. (2009) Erythropoietin improved neurologic outcomes in newborns with hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatrics 124, 218–226 [12] Chaudhari, T. and McGuire, W. (2012) Allopurinol for preventing mortality and morbidity in newborn infants with hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 7, Cd006817 [13] Kaandorp, J.J. et al. (2015) Maternal allopurinol administration during suspected fetal hypoxia: a novel neuroprotective intervention? A multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial. Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 100, F216–F223 [14] Galinsky, R. et al. (2014) Magnesium is not consistently neuroprotective for perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in term-equivalent models in preclinical studies: a systematic review. Dev. Neurosci. 36, 73–82 [15] Tagin, M. et al. (2013) Magnesium for newborns with hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Perinatol. 33, 663–669 [16] Wu, Q et al. (2015) Neuroprotective agents for neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. Drug Discovery Today. [17] Tskitishvili, E et al. (2014). Estetrol attenuates neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury. Experimental Neurology, 261, 298-307. [18] Kelen, D and Robertson, NJ. (2010) Experimental treatments for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Early Human Development 86; 369–377. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustrial Landscape between Modernity and Tradiion: What Meaning to Accompany Change by the Project?
Occhiuto, Rita ULg; Hautecler, Paul-Christian ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 26)

The metaphor of the city as an organism, while referring to renowned and common urban interpretations, has produced a very diverse level of knowledge of the territory. The reading of tissues brought about ... [more ▼]

The metaphor of the city as an organism, while referring to renowned and common urban interpretations, has produced a very diverse level of knowledge of the territory. The reading of tissues brought about by the anthropization often seems outdated, or even inefficient by virtue of the complexity of materials which characterize the various spheres that nowadays escape us to the point that they become extraneous. Nebulae, emergences (R. Koolhaas), places of anthroposages (A. Corboz), sprawl or diffuse cities (B. Secchi), are the denominations given to the territories which have neither body nor time. These places are nothing more than the cumulative amounts of corporeality reduced to the status of the plan. This reduction of substance, in correlation with the condition of otherness which provokes a distancing of the contexts we have nonetheless had a part in creating intrigues us and constitutes the triggering event of our approach. Thus, the attention paid to what has emerged is too often limited to the simple description of the situational analysis. Based on this observation, we were interested in the case of the city of Liege, and more particularly in the dynamics between the city´s growth and the mutations of the geomorphologic characters of its location. The observation was primarily aimed at those parts of the territory that are nowadays rejected, also known as «junkspace» (R. Koolhaas). In reality, the research covers vast hybrid areas affected by the industrial decline, leaving them between a state of abandon and a state of future expectations at the same time. This situation today characterises the landscape of the Meuse Valley, upstream and downstream of the city of Liege (BE). Since the XVIIIth century, the human being has, in these places, accumulated materials, machines, different products, production surplus and waste as if he were seized with a fever of change or carried away on a path leading towards an ideal of modernity which becomes more and more elusive. The territory drawn by the rural patterns disappeared in line with the advancement of the industrial tissues which for a very long time represented an entire region´s pride over its economic prowess. However, when the production fever started fading away, and then vanished altogether, the loss of activity gave the landscape the appearance of an injured body, with certain parts amputated. It was soon filled with scattered objects, as ignorant witnesses of new incongruous spatial organisations. The diversity of theses tissues and their abundance of fragments, carrying past and forgotten logics, forced us to reinterpret the process of formation simply to understand what has happened. And hence, maybe also to understand the roots for the forgetfulness and the current lack of interest. This way of acquiring knowledge has helped us re-establish a narrative which nobody keeps the memory. It has also highlighted both the lack and the need for more open means of interpretation of urban and landscape materials. All this is done so as to stimulate reinvention which is essential to re-launch and nurture a transformation process which contains a plethora of new acceptable, distinctive and sustainable solutions for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2
Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(18), 26025--26065

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential mean to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at three selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The OCS simulations are driven by different land biospheric fluxes to reproduce the seasonality of the measurements. Increasing the plant uptake of Kettle et al. (2002a) by a factor of three resulted in the best comparison with FTIR measurements. However, there are still discrepancies in the latitudinal distribution when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study and compared to measurements. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysicochimie de la pollution atmosphérique
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg

Conference (2015, September 25)

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See detailLa terminologie de la traduction en latin
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Scientific conference (2015, September 25)

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See detailEn tous quartiers ou j’ay esté. Le récit de pèlerinage de Georges Lengherand, mayeur de Mons (1486–1487)
Bruwier, Marie-Cécile; Docquier, Gilles; Marchandisse, Alain ULg

Conference (2015, September 25)

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See detailTools for Measuring a City’s Resilience in a Fire Following Earthquake Scenario
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

in Proceedings of IABSE Conference - Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges (2015, September 25)

The paper provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community subject to fire following earthquake. First, a model is developed to determine the probability of ignition in buildings ... [more ▼]

The paper provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community subject to fire following earthquake. First, a model is developed to determine the probability of ignition in buildings of a community due to an earthquake. Second, fragility functions are developed for buildings subject to fire, to quantify the structural damage and the expected losses. The ignition model, combined with the fragility functions, can be implemented in a GIS based risk management platform to evaluate economical losses in a region from fire following an earthquake. [less ▲]

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See detailRetour en grâce du grisou
Bertrand, François ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2015)

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See detailBaltic seagrass meadows as a sediment carbon sink
Jankowska, Emilia; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Michel, Loïc ULg et al

Conference (2015, September 25)

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See detailHabitants des petites villes et des villages face à la nature dans les paysages ordinaires
Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg

Conference (2015, September 25)

La recherche sur les perceptions paysagères dénigre souvent les paysages ordinaires, ces paysages modifiés par l’homme qui n’appellent pas à la protection. Pourtant, dans les régions de forte densité de ... [more ▼]

La recherche sur les perceptions paysagères dénigre souvent les paysages ordinaires, ces paysages modifiés par l’homme qui n’appellent pas à la protection. Pourtant, dans les régions de forte densité de population comme la Belgique, les paysages naturels sont rares ou inexistants, sans pour autant que la nature ait disparu des paysages ordinaires. Il est donc intéressant de se poser la question de la nature dans de tels paysages : à partir de quand un paysage est-il perçu comme naturel par ceux qui l’observent ou y vivent ? Les critères dépendent-ils du mode d’habiter (petite ville, village périurbain ou village rural) ou d’autres facteurs liés à la trajectoire biographique des gens ? Trois terrains d’études ont été retenus pour la recherche : la Wallonie picarde, l’Entre-Sambre et Meuse et l’Ardenne. Ces terrains offrent des paysages ruraux assez typés et suffisamment différenciés et éloignés des grandes agglomérations urbaines, hormis Tournai, ville d’envergure régionale. La Wallonie picarde présente des paysages de vastes plateaux agricoles limoneux au relief plan et peu élevé, occasionnellement surplombé de petites collines. L’Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse offre des paysages mixtes, alternant cultures, prairies et boisement dans un relief plus accidenté d’altitude moyenne. Enfin, l’Ardenne, troisième terrain, montre des paysages de hauts plateaux disséqués, dominés par les massifs forestiers et les pâturages. Ces terrains offrent un bel aperçu du continuum urbain-rural belge : de la petite ville en milieu rural au semis d’habitat très lâche du village ardennais, loin de l’habituelle dichotomie ville - campagne. Dans ces terrains, une approche empirique a été privilégiée. Nous y avons interviewé trois groupes de neuf étudiants (18-25 ans) d’un niveau d’éducation moyen (Bac +1 à Bac +3), non spécialistes en analyse du paysage, habitant dans de petites villes ou villages et un de leurs parents. Durant l’enquête, les personnes devaient classer des photos de paysages ruraux belges plus ou moins impactés par la présence de l’homme (habitat, cultures, éoliennes, pylônes, zones périurbaines) puis devaient motiver leur classement. Les entretiens ont été enregistrés, retranscrits et codés à l’aide d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative. L’analyse de contenu montre des résultats contrastés. Un certain consensus indépendant du mode d’habiter semble se dégager concernant la présence d’éléments anthropiques récents, tels quel les éoliennes, les zones industrielles ou les pylônes électriques : cela participe à la dénaturation d’un paysage, avec une subtile nuance pour les éoliennes, où la symbolique positive écologique peut pour certains contrebalancer la perte de naturalité induite. Chez des personnes vivant dans un milieu plus urbanisé, le paysage naturel attire, car il change des habitudes de vie. Certains n’hésitent pas à qualifier un paysage de naturel pour peu qu’il contienne suffisamment de végétation, fusse une vaste étendue agricole dédiée à la monoculture. Chez des personnes vivant dans des milieux très ruraux par contre, on ne constate pas toujours la tendance inverse : même la petite ville voisine semble parfois trop urbanisée à leurs yeux pour y vivre. A leurs yeux, les paysages deviennent moins attractifs au fur et à mesure que la densité du bâti devient perceptible. Plus qu’une analyse du visuel, cette recherche montre également que les gens s’imaginent être dans le paysage, entendant les bruits ou ressentant une perte de convivialité à mesure que le paysage s’industrialise ou se remplit de maisons. [less ▲]

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