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See detailDie Geheimnisse der Natur
Haler, Jean ULiege; Schülke, Sophia; De Pauw, Edwin ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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See detailTo be plastic is fantastic: delineate coral species niches for assessing their tolerance to changes
Denis, Vianney; Sturaro, Nicolas ULiege; Yang, Shan-Hua et al

Conference (2017, May 05)

Climatic and anthropogenic disturbances alter coral reefs by reconfiguring existing coral assemblages. Surviving species are selected by the new environment based on particular traits that they may ... [more ▼]

Climatic and anthropogenic disturbances alter coral reefs by reconfiguring existing coral assemblages. Surviving species are selected by the new environment based on particular traits that they may exhibit, with the plasticity in traits defining ecological strategies associated with contrasting degrees of tolerance to changes. In this process, specialists are expected to tolerate few changes to the environmental conditions and are restricted to specific habitat, while generalists can cope with a wider range of environmental conditions by readjusting traits according to the habitat’s features. Ecological strategies in corals have been exclusively defined according to species’ trait averages, irrespective of individual variations. Challenges representing the acquisition and use of energy have also tended to be oversimplified, specifically by the choice of easy traits in the absence of strong scientific evidence. In this study, we propose a re-examination of strategies in scleractinian corals by focusing on the intraspecific variation of traits. We will investigate how the characteristics of a given species niche can help coral species to tolerate changes. Our multidisciplinary approach will focus on three major characteristics of the coral holobiont (its physiology, trophic ecology, and associated microbiome) which together can define the ecological plasticity of species. This work is of tremendous importance for enhancing the understanding of coral response to environmental changes and for ensuring functions as well as the services of this ecosystem to future generations. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusually high sea ice cover influences resource use by benthic invertebrates in coastal Antarctica
Michel, Loïc ULiege; Dubois, Philippe; Eleaume, Marc et al

Conference (2017, May 04)

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice ... [more ▼]

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice cover decrease, the sea ice cover of East Antarctica unexpectedly tends to increase, possibly in relation with changes in atmospheric circulation. Changes in sea ice cover are likely to influence benthic food web structure through modifications of benthic-pelagic coupling, disruption of benthic production and/or modifications of benthic community structure (i.e. resource availability for benthic consumers). Here, we studied shallow (0-20 m) benthic food web structure on the coasts of Petrels Island (Adélie Land, East Antarctica) during an event of unusually high spatial and temporal (two successive austral summers without seasonal break-up) sea ice cover. Using stable isotope ratios of C and N and the SIAR mixing model, we examined importance of 4 organic matter sources (benthic macroalgae, benthic biofilm, sympagic algae, suspended particulate organic matter) for nutrition of dominant primary consumers and omnivores. 14 invertebrate taxa including sessile and mobile polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, sea stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers were studied. Our results indicate that most benthic invertebrates predominantly relied on sympagic algae. Despite its very high abundance, trophic role of benthic biofilm seemed limited. However, interpretation of data was complicated by the peculiar ecophysiological features of Antarctic invertebrates, whose very low metabolic rates could be associated to low isotopic turnover and long time to reach isotopic equilibrium with their food items. Resource use by consumers from Adélie Land markedly differed from literature data about invertebrate diet in coastal Antarctica, suggesting 1) important influence of increased sea ice cover on benthic food web structure and 2) high spatial and/or temporal variation in the feeding habits of studied organisms, likely linked with a high degree of trophic plasticity. Our results provide insights about how Antarctic benthic consumers, which have evolved in an extremely stable environment, might adapt their feeding habits in response to sudden man-driven changes in environmental conditions and trophic resource availability. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of α-olefins-based copolymers by organocobalt(III) complexes
Demarteau, Jérémy ULiege; Debuigne, Antoine ULiege; Detrembleur, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2017, May 04)

Polyolefins, and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers in particular, are highly attractive materials that are industrially synthesized by a free radical process for large range of applications from ... [more ▼]

Polyolefins, and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers in particular, are highly attractive materials that are industrially synthesized by a free radical process for large range of applications from food packaging to coatings. Their production requires drastic synthesis conditions (high pressure and high temperature) and the resulting polymers are generally ill-defined. Controlling the polymerization of these unconjugated monomers remains however extremely difficult because of the lack of stabilizing group on their double bond. Moreover, the preparation of chain-end functionalized polyolefins is actually impossible under these conditions. This communication aims at reporting an efficient platform for the precision design of alpha-olefin-based copolymers through a controlled radical polymerization technique called Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP). The latter is based on the reversible deactivation of the radical chains by a cobalt complex bearing acetylacetonate (acac) ligands, which is very efficient under mild experimental conditions. The presentation will focus on three main axes: (i) the synthesis of a novel organocobalt(III) complex useful for the functionalization of the polymer chains, (ii) the preparation of various EVA architectures, (iii) the controlled copolymerization of vinyl acetate with a perfluorinated alkene, i.e. perfluorohexylethylene. The hydrolysis of the pendent esters moieties of these fluorinated copolymers paved the way to their polyvinylalcohol counterparts with a marked amphiphilicity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 ULiège)
See detailAspects économiques de la traduction et circulation d'oeuvres philosophiques
Neelsen, Sarah ULiege

Speech/Talk (2017)

Dans un entretien croisé d'une heure et demie, le libraire liégeois Olivier Verschueren et la traductrice argentine Patricia Willson présenteront leur travail et leur contribution quotidienne à la ... [more ▼]

Dans un entretien croisé d'une heure et demie, le libraire liégeois Olivier Verschueren et la traductrice argentine Patricia Willson présenteront leur travail et leur contribution quotidienne à la circulation des œuvres philosophiques. Ils évoqueront le marché du livre, le profil des publics et le renouvellement du paysage éditorial, ainsi que la prise de risque qui préside à toute introduction d'une œuvre philosophique nouvelle, tout particulièrement quand elle provient d'un contexte culturel différent. L'accent sera également mis sur les conditions matérielles de la traduction. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailQualifier Trump de malade mental : un manque de respect pour les malades mentaux
Englebert, Jérôme ULiege

Article for general public (2017)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEnsuring consistency of tools dedicated to biodiversity and ecosystem services : case studies
Pécheur, Emilie ULiege; Maebe, Laura ULiege; Piqueray, Julien

Conference (2017, May 04)

Public awareness regarding key issues of biodiversity and ecosystem services gave rise to several policies aiming at their consideration in human activities. These policies led to a bunch of legal ... [more ▼]

Public awareness regarding key issues of biodiversity and ecosystem services gave rise to several policies aiming at their consideration in human activities. These policies led to a bunch of legal constraints and incentives that are as many tools to preserve and restore both biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, these tools are often activated in a punctual way, following private initiatives or opportunities and without much reflection about the stakes beyond the actors’ own interests. This results in scattered actions, a lack of cohesion in land planning and sometimes conflicts between stakeholders. Yet biodiversity and ecosystem services need a collaborative management, beyond the individualist approach, to ensure the success and continuity of launched projects. Two case studies illustrate the collaborative and structured application of diverse tools by and for a variety of stakeholders willing to respond to specific needs. The first case is biodiversity-oriented, as it concerns the conservation of Bromus grossus, a plant species listed in Annex II of the Natura 2000 “Habitat” directive, which only grows in agroecosystems. The second case study worked on land multi-functionality in three Walloon municipalities, using ecosystem services as a tool for a land consolidation plan. These two examples highlight: 1° the key actors for the launching and cohesion of the projects, 2° the strengthening steps for short and mid-term success and 3° some conflicting elements interfering with coherent development plans. [less ▲]

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See detailL’avatar de jeu vidéo. De la composante ludique à l’opérateur de réflexivité
Delbouille, Julie ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, May 04)

Le terme « avatar » a longtemps été employé, dans les études consacrées au jeu vidéo, pour désigner uniquement les personnages incarnés par le joueur dans les mondes numériques — et plus particulièrement ... [more ▼]

Le terme « avatar » a longtemps été employé, dans les études consacrées au jeu vidéo, pour désigner uniquement les personnages incarnés par le joueur dans les mondes numériques — et plus particulièrement dans les univers persistants des jeux massivement multijoueurs en ligne. Dans le courant des années 2000, son utilisation a subi un glissement majeur : initialement liée au jeu de rôle, l’expression « avatar » tend aujourd’hui à englober toute représentation du joueur à l’écran. Cet élargissement terminologique permet d’envisager l’avatar comme interface entre le jeu et le joueur, interrogeant le lieu où nous nous trouvons lorsque nous jouons, lorsque nous ne sommes « ni tout à fait en nous-mêmes, ni tout à fait à l’écran, mais dans une zone intermédiaire, un entre-deux » (Triclot, 2011). Cette séance de cours s’interrogera sur le rôle de ces avatars, composante récurrente des jeux vidéo. [less ▲]

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See detailStratégie Nationale de Protection Sociale de la RDC
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, May 04)

La stratégie de la Politique Nationale de Protection Sociale de la RDC comprend trois axes : (i) la promotion des mécanismes garantissant l’accès aux services sociaux de base et une sécurité élémentaire ... [more ▼]

La stratégie de la Politique Nationale de Protection Sociale de la RDC comprend trois axes : (i) la promotion des mécanismes garantissant l’accès aux services sociaux de base et une sécurité élémentaire de revenus pour les personnes vulnérables, (ii) renforcement et extension des systèmes d’assurance sociale fiable et économiquement viable, (iii) renforcement du cadre institutionnel, des capacités et le financement de la protection sociale. Le premier axe stratégique a été décliné en trois objectifs spécifiques : (i) promouvoir la couverture sanitaire universelle, (ii) assurer l’accès des enfants, garçons et filles, à l’alimentation saine et équilibrée, à l’éducation et aux soins de santé de qualité de proximité ainsi que (iii) garantir aux personnes en situation de précarité, y compris les personnes du troisième âge, l’accès à des services sociaux de base et un revenu minimum. Le deuxième axe stratégique comprend deux objectifs spécifiques : réformer et consolider le système d’assurance sociale ainsi que (ii) étendre la couverture de l’assurance sociale. Quant au troisième axe stratégique, il comprend trois objectifs spécifiques : (i) renforcement de la gouvernance du secteur de la protection sociale, (ii) renforcement du financement et des capacités du système de protection sociale ainsi que (iii) renforcement de l’éducation citoyenne et la recherche en matière de protection sociale. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of cross-linked poly(HEMA) microparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide for sustained delivery
Caprasse, Jérémie ULiege; Parilti, Rahmet ULiege; Riva, Raphaël ULiege et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Microgels are micro-sized polymer networks able to swell or shrink depending on the environment. They find applications in many fields such as for environmental purpose or especially in the biomedical ... [more ▼]

Microgels are micro-sized polymer networks able to swell or shrink depending on the environment. They find applications in many fields such as for environmental purpose or especially in the biomedical field for tissue engineering or controlled drug-delivery applications. Indeed, the use of microgels allows a controlled and sustained release of an encapsulated active ingredient (AI), avoiding Burst release. This work aims at reporting on the solvent-free synthesis of well-defined hydrogel microparticles according to a free radical dispersion polymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) which confers environmentally benign features to the process2. For that purpose, a dedicated polymer surfactant has been designed by RAFT polymerization, i.e. poly(ethylene oxide-b-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) diblock copolymer with a photocleavable group at the junction of both blocks and used as stabilizer for the HEMA dispersion polymerization in scCO2. The synthesis conditions (stabilizer concentration, temperature and CO2 pressure,…) adapted for the in situ encapsulation of an active ingredient have been studied. Then, the photocleavage of the fluorinated block of the polymer stabilizer allows the further swelling of the polyHEMA particles in water and the sustained release of the encapsulated active ingredient through the microgels. This eco-friendly process allowing the formation of well-defined hydrogel particles, showing a sustain release of their content is quite promising for a high scale microparticles production. Microgels are micro-sized polymer networks able to swell or shrink depending on the environment. They find applications in many fields such as for environmental purpose or especially in the biomedical field for tissue engineering or controlled drug-delivery applications. Indeed, the use of microgels allows a controlled and sustained release of an encapsulated active ingredient (AI), avoiding Burst release. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (2 ULiège)
See detailHow to exploit bio- and CO2-based isocyanates-free polyurethanes for environmental and biomedical applications?
Gennen, Sandro ULiege; Grignard, Bruno ULiege; Alves, Margot et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important family of polymers that is largely used in coatings, foams, elastomers, sealants/adhesives in the building, automotive, household and biomedical sectors ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important family of polymers that is largely used in coatings, foams, elastomers, sealants/adhesives in the building, automotive, household and biomedical sectors. Classically, PU is produced by a step-growth polymerization between di- or polyols and di- or polyisocyanates. However, isocyanates are toxic and produced from even more toxic phosgene. To avoid the use of isocyanates, different synthetic alternatives for PUs have been developed. One of the most studied approaches relies on the step-growth polymerization between di- or polyamines and CO2-sourced di- or polycyclic carbonates, affording poly(β-hydroxyurethane)s (PHUs) that showed improved thermal, chemical and mechanical properties compared to conventional PUs. In this study, we would like to show how PHUs can be exploited to design (bio- and) CO2-based foams for thermal insulation as well as novel reinforced hydrogels for potential biomedical applications. First, we developed a highly efficient binary organocatalyst for the fast and selective synthesis of cyclic carbonates under very mild conditions from CO2 and various epoxides, including bio-based ones. Secondly, these cyclic carbonates were valorised as monomers for the preparation of foams and hydrogels based on PHUs. In this poster, we will describe the preparation and characterization of these PHU foams and hydrogels, and highlight their huge potential as thermal insulating materials (PHU foams) or as biomaterials for shock absorption properties (PHU hydrogels). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (1 ULiège)
See detailThiol-ene reaction: an efficient tool to design polyphosphoester-based drug delivery systems
Riva, Raphaël ULiege; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Ergül, Zeynep ULiege et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromolecules, polyphosphoesters (PPE) are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromolecules, polyphosphoesters (PPE) are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to polyesters, PPE properties and functionality are easily tuned via the chemical nature of the lateral chains. To enhance the drug loading capacity of PPE-based micelles used as carriers for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs, an efficient strategy to increase the lipophilicity of the PPE block of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-b-PPE amphiphilic copolymers has been investigated. A PEO-b-PPE copolymer bearing pendant vinyl groups along the PPE block was synthesized and then modified by thiol-ene click reaction with thiols bearing either a long linear alkyl chain (dodecyl) or a tocopherol moiety. Ketoconazole was used as model for hydrophobic drugs. Comparison of the loading contents and release profiles with PEO-b-PPE bearing shorter pendant groups is presented evidencing the key role of the structure of the pendant group on the PPE backbone. Finally, the low cytotoxicity of these novel PEO-b-PPE copolymers was also demonstrated. The tocopherol derivative was evidenced as particularly promising for drug delivery systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULiège)
See detailDesign of polyphosphoester coplymers as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications
Shah, Urmil ULiege; Ergül, Zeynep ULiege; Jérôme, Christine ULiege

Poster (2017, May 04)

Polymers with repeating phosphoester linkages in the backbone are biodegradable and emerged as a promising class of novel biomaterials. In contrast to polyesters, the pentavalency of the phosphorus atom ... [more ▼]

Polymers with repeating phosphoester linkages in the backbone are biodegradable and emerged as a promising class of novel biomaterials. In contrast to polyesters, the pentavalency of the phosphorus atom offers a large diversity of structures and as a consequence a wide range of properties for these materials. This study aims at taking profit of this easy functionalization to synthesize a series of degradable polymers of precisely tailored properties especially elasticity, hydrophilicity and functionality. We aim at developing a set of degradable materials in which only elasticity is varied keeping unchanged other parameters such as hydrophilicity, which remains quite a challenge. For that purpose, we have synthesized by organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization,random di- and terpolymers between various cyclic phosphoesters bearing a short side-chain (hydrophilic), a longer side-chain (hydrophobic) and an unsaturated side-chain (butenyl)able to cross-link under UV irradiation. Playing on the composition of these copolymers, the cross-linking density and the hydrophilicity can be tuned quite independently. In the future, these materials will be used as model scaffolds to study the growth and differentiation of stem cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (6 ULiège)
See detailAll poly(ionic) liquid-based block copolymers incorporating fluorinated and triethyleneglycol units: direct synthesis in water and investigation as single-ion conductive solids
Ouhib, Farid ULiege; Cordella, Daniela; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULiege et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) have attracted a considerable attention as innovative single-ion solid polyelectrolytes (SPEs) in substitution to the more conventional electrolytes for a variety of ... [more ▼]

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) have attracted a considerable attention as innovative single-ion solid polyelectrolytes (SPEs) in substitution to the more conventional electrolytes for a variety of electrochemical devices. Imidazolium-based PILs are amongst the most investigated, because they are easy to synthesize and some of them have shown a good combination between high ionic conductivity, wide chemical and electrochemical stability, and good mechanical properties. Herein, we report the precise synthesis, characterization, and use as single-ion SPE of a novel double PIL-based amphiphilic diblock copolymer (BCP), i.e. where all monomer units are of N-vinyl-imidazolium-type, with triethylene glycol pendant groups in the first block, and a statistical distribution of N-vinyl-3-ethyl- and N-vinyl-3-perfluorooctyl-imidazolium bromides in the second block. BCP synthesis is achieved directly in water by a one-pot process, following the principle of the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization-induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA). A subsequent anion exchange reaction substituting bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) for bromide (Br-) counter-anions leads to the targeted PIL BCPs with two different lengths of the first block. They demonstrate ionic conductivity σDC = 1-3 10-7 S cm-1, as determined by broadband dielectric spectroscopy at 30 °C (under anhydrous conditions), and form free standing films with mechanical properties suited for SPE applications with Young’s modulus of 3.8 MPa and elongation at break of 250 % as determined by stress/strain experiments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (2 ULiège)
See detailReinforced poly(hydroxyurethane) coatings and high performance adhesive
Panchireddy, Satyannarayana ULiege; Grignard, Bruno ULiege; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULiege et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most widely used polymeric materials and largely valorised in coating applications as paints or as adhesives. Because toxicity issues of isocyanates and changes in the ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most widely used polymeric materials and largely valorised in coating applications as paints or as adhesives. Because toxicity issues of isocyanates and changes in the environmental and REACH regulations, there is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. One of the most promising way relies on the synthesis of polyurethane by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) by copolymerization between a bicyclic carbonate monomers and a diamine. This study reports on the synthesis of new sustainable NIPU coatings for Al anti-corrosion protection and for metal adhesion. In a first step, (bio- and) CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates will be synthesized by coupling of multifunctional epoxides with CO2 using a new efficient bicomponent organocatalyst. In a second step, various cyclic carbonates/amines formulations were developed and cured in presence of fillers to produce reinforced NIPUs thermosets which anti-corrosion and adhesive properties are evaluated and benchmarked with existing formulations. Some formulations present outstanding adhesions to various substrates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (5 ULiège)