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See detailLes périodes du Paléolithique supérieur
Flas, Damien ULg

in Toussaint, Michel; Pirson, Stéphane (Eds.) Le patrimoine archéologique de Wallonie. Les chasseurs-cueilleurs du Paléolithique et du Mésolithique (2014)

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See detailAtlantic-Pacific seesaw and its role in outgassing CO2 during Heinrich events
Menviel, L.; England, M.H.; Meissner, K.J. et al

in Paleoceanography (2014), 29

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See detailLa mise en liberté avant jugement dans la pratique de la Cour pénale internationale : une rupture avec l’héritage des tribunaux ad hoc ?
Deprez, Christophe ULg

in Bernard, Diane; Scalia, Damien (Eds.) Vingt ans de justice internationale pénale (2014)

La libération du suspect ou de l’accusé en attente d’être jugé représente l’un des défis majeurs de la justice pénale internationale. L’expérience des tribunaux pénaux internationaux pour l’ex-Yougoslavie ... [more ▼]

La libération du suspect ou de l’accusé en attente d’être jugé représente l’un des défis majeurs de la justice pénale internationale. L’expérience des tribunaux pénaux internationaux pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et pour le Rwanda a fait et fait encore en la matière l’objet de vives critiques. Malgré plusieurs ajustements de leur Règlement de procédure respectif, le régime de libération au cours de la procédure n’aura jamais été convaincant et – à la lumière des droits fondamentaux de la personne mise en cause – demeure à ce jour l’une des principales faiblesses du cadre procédural de ces juridictions. En apparence, la Cour pénale internationale semble à cet égard proposer une meilleure solution. La possibilité de libérer un suspect/accusé n’est plus abandonnée au seul Règlement de procédure et de preuve, mais est soutenue par le Statut de la Cour en son article 60. Le libellé de ce dernier reflète du reste la prise en considération soigneuse des insuffisances propres aux tribunaux ad hoc, et paraît témoigner d’une nette évolution quant au niveau de protection des droits individuels pertinents. Pour autant, la qualité du système ne peut se déduire de la simple lecture du Statut. Aussi, la présente contribution propose d’examiner le régime de mise en liberté avant-jugement à travers une analyse de la pratique concrète de la Cour dans le cadre des quatre affaires qui, à ce stade, présentent les développements les plus pertinents en la matière : Lubanga, Katanga & Ngudjolo, Bemba et Gbagbo. Pour ce faire, la contribution se décline en trois sections. La première est l’occasion de retracer l’expérience des tribunaux ad hoc et d’en isoler deux faiblesses essentielles : le pouvoir discrétionnaire accordé aux juges quant à l’octroi d’une mesure de mise en liberté, et l’attribution à la défense de la charge de prouver qu’une telle mesure se justifie. La deuxième section fait succinctement le point sur le régime de libération avant-jugement devant la Cour pénale internationale, en regard des textes fondateurs de la juridiction, mais surtout à l’aune des développements jurisprudentiels essentiels issus des quatre affaires susmentionnées. Enfin, dans la troisième section, l’article revient sur les deux faiblesses isolées au sein de la pratique des tribunaux ad hoc, et tente d’en déterminer la portée dans le contexte de la Cour pénale internationale. Il y est avancé que – en dépit des mutations textuelles – la pratique de la Cour ne révèle pas d’évolution notable par rapport à l’héritage des tribunaux pénaux internationaux. Dans les faits, l’application concrète du texte réduit à de simples fictions les principes – pourtant posés par la lettre du Statut – d’absence de pouvoir discrétionnaire dans le chef des juges et d’attribution de l’onus probandi à l’accusation. [less ▲]

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See detailÉthologie et psychiatrie - Albert Demaret
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

Book published by Mardaga - Réédition et mise à jour commentée (2014)

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See detailEssai de psychopathologie éthologique
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Follet, Valérie

in Demaret, Albert (Ed.) Éthologie et psychiatrie : réédition et mise à jour commentée (2014)

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See detailDevice-based controlled local delivery of anastrozol into peritoneal cavity: in vitro and in vivo evaluation
Krier, Fabrice ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Defrère, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology [=JDDST] (2014), 24(2), 198-204

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some ... [more ▼]

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some diseases are already treated with implants, but generally, by subcutaneous or intra vaginal implantation. In this work, a new implant device dedicated to the intra-peritoneal cavity was developed. For this purpose, a core-membrane polymer implant was selected. We propose an original method to determine the most appropriate membrane to control the release based on the use of Franz cells. The ability of the implant to release a constant quantity of an active ingredient will be assessed by testing implants in vitro. Finally, intra peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous in vivo implantation has been achieved in order to confirm the controlled and local release of the active ingredient. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of land use on pollution status and risk of fish endocrine disruption in small farmland ponds
Mandiki; Gillardin; Martens et al

in Hydrobiologia (2014), 723

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See detailIn silico biology of bone regeneration inside calcium phosphate scaffolds
Carlier, Aurélie ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Geris, Liesbet ULg

in Tissue Engineering: Computer Modeling, Biofabrication and Cell Behavior (2014)

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See detailFinal Overall Survival: Fulvestrant 500 mg vs 250 mg in the Randomized CONFIRM Trial.
Leo, Angelo Di; Leo, Angelo Di; Jerusalem, Guy ULg et al

in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2014), 106(1), 337

BACKGROUND: At the time of the initial analysis of overall survival (OS) for the Comparison of Faslodex in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer (CONFIRM) randomized, double-blind, phase III trial ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: At the time of the initial analysis of overall survival (OS) for the Comparison of Faslodex in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer (CONFIRM) randomized, double-blind, phase III trial, approximately 50% of patients had died. A final analysis of OS was subsequently planned for when 75% of patients had died. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to fulvestrant 500 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections on days 0, 14, and 28 and every 28 (+/-3) days thereafter or fulvestrant 250 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections (one fulvestrant and one placebo [identical in appearance to study drug]) on days 0, 14 (two placebo injections only), and 28 and every 28 (+/-3) days thereafter. OS was analyzed using an unadjusted log-rank test. No adjustments were made for multiplicity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and best response to subsequent therapy were also reported. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: In total, 736 women (median age = 61.0 years) were randomly assigned to fulvestrant 500mg (n = 362) or 250mg (n = 374). At the final survival analysis, 554 of 736 (75.3%) patients had died. Median OS was 26.4 months for fulvestrant 500mg and 22.3 months for 250mg (hazard ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.96; nominal P = .02). There were no clinically important differences in SAE profiles between the treatment groups; no clustering of SAEs could be detected in either treatment group. Type of first subsequent therapy and objective responses to first subsequent therapy were well balanced between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with locally advanced or metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, fulvestrant 500mg is associated with a 19% reduction in risk of death and a 4.1-month difference in median OS compared with fulvestrant 250mg. Fulvestrant 500mg was well tolerated, and no new safety concerns were identified. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant capacity of hydrophilic food matrices: optimization and validation of ORAC assay.
Kevers, Claire ULg; Sipel, Arnaud; PINCEMAIL, Joël ULg et al

in Food Analytical Methods (2014), 7

It is widely accepted that ORAC is a useful method for assessing food extracts that contain various antioxidants. The principal aim of this study was to validate the ORAC assay. We first identified ... [more ▼]

It is widely accepted that ORAC is a useful method for assessing food extracts that contain various antioxidants. The principal aim of this study was to validate the ORAC assay. We first identified parameters that can interfere with the ORAC assay and we optimized it. Then, experiments were conducted to determine the limits of linearity and response function, to determine the accuracy profiles to circumvent some of the drawbacks of traditional validation procedures. Trueness, selectivity and limits of quantification of the method were also determined. Our objective of ORAC method validation is thus to give guarantees that most of the results generated during use of this method will be close enough to unknown true value of antioxidant capacity of food matrices. The validation results indicate that the described method will give accurate and reliable results for Trolox equivalent values ranging from 50 to 200 µmol/L. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of stress on singing voice accuracy
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

in Journal of Voice (2014), 28(1), 52-58

Objective: The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the ... [more ▼]

Objective: The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the fundamental frequency of the voice, which is particularly sensitive to stress. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. Methods: Thirty-one music students were recorded in a stressful condition (i.e., a music examination) and a non-stressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances was objectively analyzed. Results: As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the non-stressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. Discussion: This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy but also the need to consider the challenge level and perception of the symptoms in experimental and pedagogical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailEvent-driven integration of linear structural dynamics models under unilateral elastic constraints
Depouhon, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

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See detailDer theatrale „Korridor“. E.T.A. Hoffmanns Poetik der Inszenierung: Vom textuellen Metadrama zur theatralen Narration
Küpper, Achim ULg

in Küpper, Achim; Ulbrecht, Siegfried (Eds.) Theatralität in Literatur, Kunst und Kultur (= Germanoslavica, num. thém. spécial 25.2) (2014)

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See detailDevelopment of new strategies against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick
De Backer, Lara ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a Lepidoptera considered as one of the major pest of Solanaceae. It causes important yield loss in South America, where it is originated, and in the West ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a Lepidoptera considered as one of the major pest of Solanaceae. It causes important yield loss in South America, where it is originated, and in the West Palearctic region, where it was introduced in 2006. Insecticide applications and the use of the sexual pheromone have been the main control method used against T. absoluta. Insecticides are inefficient because of the endophytic habit of larvae, which are protected in the leaf mesophyll or inside fruits. Moreover, resistances against various insecticides have been reported. The sexual pheromone based strategies also provide poor results. One explanation has been recently provided by the demonstration of a parthenogenetic reproduction in T. absoluta, from the research group in Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg). Because there is a real need to improve crop protection against T. absoluta and in the meanwhile reducing the use of synthetic insecticidal compounds, researches aim at providing new perspectives to further biocontrol strategies against T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailDisorders of consciousness after acquired brain injury: the state of the science
Giacino, Joseph T; Fins, Joseph J; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Nature Reviews Neurology (2014)

The concept of consciousness continues to defy definition and elude the grasp of philosophical and scientific efforts to formulate a testable construct that maps to human experience. Severe acquired brain ... [more ▼]

The concept of consciousness continues to defy definition and elude the grasp of philosophical and scientific efforts to formulate a testable construct that maps to human experience. Severe acquired brain injury results in the dissolution of consciousness, providing a natural model from which key insights about consciousness may be drawn. In the clinical setting, neurologists and neurorehabilitation specialists are called on to discern the level of consciousness in patients who are unable to communicate through word or gesture, and to project outcomes and recommend approaches to treatment. Standards of care are not available to guide clinical decision-making for this population, often leading to inconsistent, inaccurate and inappropriate care. In this Review, we describe the state of the science with regard to clinical management of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness. We review consciousness-altering pathophysiological mechanisms, specific clinical syndromes, and novel diagnostic and prognostic applications of advanced neuroimaging and electrophysiological procedures. We conclude with a provocative discussion of bioethical and medicolegal issues that are unique to this population and have a profound impact on care, as well as raising questions of broad societal interest. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian methods for predicting LAI and soil water content
Mansouri, Majdi ULg; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014), 15(2), 184-201

LAI of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil water content of the topsoil (200 mm) and of the subsoil (500 mm) were considered as state variables of a dynamic soil-crop system. This system was ... [more ▼]

LAI of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil water content of the topsoil (200 mm) and of the subsoil (500 mm) were considered as state variables of a dynamic soil-crop system. This system was assumed to progress according to a Bayesian probabilistic state space model, in which real values of LAI and soil water content were daily introduced in order to correct the model trajectory and reach better future evolution. The chosen crop model was mini STICS which can reduce the computing and execution times while ensuring the robustness of data processing and estimation. To predict simultaneously state variables and model parameters in this non-linear environment, three techniques were used: Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF), Particle Filtering (PF), and Variational Filtering (VF). The significantly improved performance of the VF method when compared to EKF and PF is demonstrated. The variational filter has a low computational complexity and the convergence speed of states and parameters estimation can be adjusted independently. Detailed case studies demonstrated that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the three estimated states (LAI and soil water content of two soil layers) was smaller and that the convergence of all considered parameters was ensured when using VF. Assimilating measurements in a crop model allows accurate prediction of LAI and soil water content at a local scale. As these biophysical properties are key parameters in the crop-plant system characterization, the system has the potential to be used in precision farming to aid farmers and decision makers in developing strategies for site-specific management of inputs, such as fertilizers and water irrigation. [less ▲]

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See detailEU Governance: Democracy as a mere Fragment of Political Discourse
Esposito, Giovanni ULg; FERRANDO, Tomaso

in DYMARSKI, Wlodeck; FRANGAKIS, Marika; LEAMAN, Jeremy (Eds.) The Deepening Crisis of the European Union: The Case for Radical Change (2014)

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See detailRaymond Lemaire et la rénovation urbaine dans les années 1960-1970: entre théorie et pratique de la conservation
Houbart, Claudine ULg

in Aveta, Aldo, Di Stefano, Maurizio (Ed.) Roberto Di Stefano. Filosofia della Conservazione e prassi del Restauro (2014)

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See detailGenetic basis of congenital erythrocytosis: mutation update and online databases.
Bento, Celeste; Percy, Melanie J.; Gardie, Betty et al

in Human mutation (2014), 35(1), 15-26

Congenital erythrocytosis (CE), or congenital polycythemia, represents a rare and heterogeneous clinical entity. It is caused by deregulated red blood cell production where erythrocyte overproduction ... [more ▼]

Congenital erythrocytosis (CE), or congenital polycythemia, represents a rare and heterogeneous clinical entity. It is caused by deregulated red blood cell production where erythrocyte overproduction results in elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Primary congenital familial erythrocytosis is associated with low erythropoietin (Epo) levels and results from mutations in the Epo receptor gene (EPOR). Secondary CE arises from conditions causing tissue hypoxia and results in increased Epo production. These include hemoglobin variants with increased affinity for oxygen (HBB, HBA mutations), decreased production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate due to BPGM mutations, or mutations in the genes involved in the hypoxia sensing pathway (VHL, EPAS1, and EGLN1). Depending on the affected gene, CE can be inherited either in an autosomal dominant or recessive mode, with sporadic cases arising de novo. Despite recent important discoveries in the molecular pathogenesis of CE, the molecular causes remain to be identified in about 70% of the patients. With the objective of collecting all the published and unpublished cases of CE the COST action MPN&MPNr-Euronet developed a comprehensive Internet-based database focusing on the registration of clinical history, hematological, biochemical, and molecular data (http://www.erythrocytosis.org/). In addition, unreported mutations are also curated in the corresponding Leiden Open Variation Database. [less ▲]

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