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See detailTwo new species in the Micarea prasina group from Western Europe
van den Boom, Pieter P. G.; Brand, A. Maarten; Coppins, Brian J. et al

in Lichenologist (2017), 49(1), 13-25

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See detailShip collision analysis on Offshore Wind Turbine monopile foundations
Bela, Andreea ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

in Marine Structures (2017), 51

An offshore wind farm covers a large maritime area and the site can be located close to traffic lanes of commercial and passenger ships, which may lead to possible collision events. The work presented in ... [more ▼]

An offshore wind farm covers a large maritime area and the site can be located close to traffic lanes of commercial and passenger ships, which may lead to possible collision events. The work presented in this paper aimed to understand both the crushing behavior and the nacelle dynamics of a predefined monopile offshore wind turbine when impacted by a ship. Another objective was to deeply investigate the influence of various parameters like ship impact velocity and location, wind direction, soil stiffness and deformability of the striking ship. First, nonlinear numerical simulations of ship - Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) collisions have been carried out with a rigid striking ship for a better understanding of the OWT’s structural behaviour during collision. Different configurations for the wind turbine’s structure have been used in order to highlight the modifications in behaviour induced by changing the soil conditions or the loading scenario. The resulting resistant force and internal energies have been compared as well as the tower top (nacelle) displacements and accelerations. Then, another series of simulations have been performed with a deformable ship in order to investigate the influence of the deformability of the striking ship on the OWT’s behaviour. It is worth noting that all these numerical results will further serve to fix the hypotheses for the development of a simplified tool based on analytical formulations. [less ▲]

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See detailCXCL12 mediates glioblastoma resistance to radiotherapy in the subventricular zone.
Goffart, Nicolas ULg; Lombard, Arnaud; Lallemand, François ULg et al

in Neuro-Oncology (2017), 19(1), 66-77

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that might arise from remaining glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) left behind after surgery. In this line, it has recently been demonstrated that GSCs are able to escape the tumor mass and preferentially colonize the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). At a distance from the initial tumor site, these GSCs might therefore represent a high-quality model of clinical resilience to therapy and cancer relapses as they specifically retain tumor-initiating abilities. METHOD: While relying on recent findings that have validated the existence of GSCs in the human SVZ, we questioned the role of the SVZ niche as a potential GSC reservoir involved in therapeutic failure. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that (i) GSCs located in the SVZ are specifically resistant to radiation in vivo, (ii) these cells display enhanced mesenchymal roots that are known to be associated with cancer radioresistance, (iii) these mesenchymal traits are specifically upregulated by CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1) both in vitro and in the SVZ environment, (iv) the amount of SVZ-released CXCL12 mediates GBM resistance to radiation in vitro, and (v) interferes with the CXCL12/CXCR4 signalling system, allowing weakening of the tumor mesenchymal roots and radiosensitizing SVZ-nested GBM cells. CONCLUSION: Together, these data provide evidence on how the adult SVZ environment, through the release of CXCL12, supports GBM therapeutic failure and potential tumor relapse. [less ▲]

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See detailThe somatotrope Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/Growth Hormone/Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 axis in immunoregulation and immunosenescence
Bodart, Gwennaëlle ULg; Farhat, Khalil; RENARD, Jeanne de Chantal ULg et al

in Savino, Wilson; Guaraldi, Federica (Eds.) Endocrine Immunology (2017)

Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somato- trope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis ... [more ▼]

Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somato- trope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somato- trope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. It will also summarize some clinical studies suggesting a benefit for a short-term GH treat- ment in acute immunodeficiencies, and the importance of GH supplementation in adult GH defi- ciency. A new transgenic mouse model, the hypothalamic GHRH-deficient (Ghrh–/–) mouse, which exhibits a severe deficiency of the somatotrope axis, will be presented since it will be of great help in further deciphering the regulation by the GHRH/GH/IGF-1 axis on both immune development and function. Finally, we will discuss the implication of aging-related somatopause in relation to the general context of Immunosenescence. [less ▲]

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See detailLe choix du liégeois. Dîmègne de Louis Remacle
Baiwir, Esther ULg; Biquet, Stéphanie ULg

in Baiwir, Esther; Biquet, Stéphanie (Eds.) Petite anthologie subjective de littérature wallonne (2017)

Lecture et commentaire du seul poème en liégeois de Louis Remacle, "Dîmègne".

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See detailSampling only ten microliters of whole blood for the quantification of poorly soluble drugs: Itraconazole as case study
Thiry, Justine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Nys, Gwenaël ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017), 1479

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to ... [more ▼]

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to collect small quantities (10 or 20 µL) of whole blood, thereby limiting the amount of animals needed. In this study, a quantitative method was developed and subsequently validated for the poorly soluble drug itraconazole (ITZ) using VAMS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS). A proof of concept study showed that the optimized method is applicable to test the bioavailability of drug formulations containing ITZ. Using VAMS, smaller blood volumes can be taken per sampling point (10-20 µL instead of the conventional 0.2-0.5 mL) avoiding the sacrifice of animals. Moreover, the same rats can be used to compare different drug formulations which strengthens the validity of the results. In long-term bioavailability studies, it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the tested drugs supported on VAMS devices. In this study, we show that ITZ was only stable for 24 hours after collection with VAMS, but for at least two weeks by the storage of extracted samples at -80°C. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive effects of ultraviolet radiation and thermal stress on two reef-building corals
Courtial, Lucile; Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Shick, Malcom et al

in Limnology and Oceanography (2017)

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See detailMolecular dynamics study of micelle proeprties according to their size
Lebecque, Simon ULg; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling (2017)

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have ... [more ▼]

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have notably several applications in many domains, such as drug delivery or membrane protein solubilization. In this context, the study of micelle formation in relation with the structural and physico-chemical properties of surfactants is of great interest to better control their use in the different application fields. In this work, we use the MD approach developed by Yoshii et al. and extend it to surfactants with different structures. We aim to systematically investigate different micellar properties as a function of the aggregates size by a molecular dynamics approach, to get an insight into the micellar organization and to collect some relevant descriptors about micelle formation. For this, we perform short MD simulations of preformed micelles of various sizes and analyze three parameters for each micelle size, namely the eccentricity of the micelles, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface ratio and the hydrophobic tails hydration. If these parameters are known descriptors of micelles, they were not yet studied in this way by MD. We show that eccentricity, used as “validator” parameter, exhibits minimal values when the aggregate size is close to the experimental aggregation number for surfactants that are known to form spherical micelles. This hence indicates that our methodology gives consistent results. The evolution of the two descriptors follows another scheme, with a sharp increase and decrease, respectively, followed by a leveling-off. The aggregate sizes at which this stabilization starts to occur are close to the respective aggregation number of each surfactant. In our approach, we validate the use of these descriptors to follow micelle formation by MD, from “simple” surfactants to more complex structures, like lipopeptides. Our calculations also suggest that some peculiar behavior, like that of TPC, can be highlighted by our approach. In the context of peptidic surfactants, our methodology could further help to improve computer simulations combined to molecular thermodynamic models to predict micellar properties of those more complex amphiphilic molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing inter- and intramolecular continuous-flow strategies towards methylphenidate (Ritalin) hydrochloride
Gerardy, Romaric ULg; Winter, Marc; Vizza, Alessandra et al

in Reaction Chemistry and Engineering (2017)

The batch-to-flow translation of inter- and intramolecular strategies for the diastereoselective preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride is presented. Both ... [more ▼]

The batch-to-flow translation of inter- and intramolecular strategies for the diastereoselective preparation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride is presented. Both inter- and intramolecular strategies imply the telescoping of multiple processing steps and the generation of unstable diazo species under continuous-flow conditions. The intermolecular strategy relies on an unprecedented continuous-flow Rh-catalyzed intermolecular C–H carbene insertion, providing enriched threo-N-Boc methylphenidate in 38% or 19% isolated yield according to sequential or fully telescoped processes, respectively. Quantitative Boc-deprotection is carried out off-line. The intramolecular strategy relies on a continuous-flow thermal intramolecular C–H carbene insertion, providing enriched threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride in 70% isolated yield. A continuous-flow photochemical alternative is also presented. The critical step of the most promising intramolecular strategy is implemented on the mesoscale in a pilot-scale continuous-flow reactor. [less ▲]

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See detailDon't judge a fish by its fins: species delineation of Congolese Labeo (Cyprinidae)
Van Steenberge, Maarten; Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Chilala, Alex et al

in Zoologica Scripta (2016)

Conspicuous characters are often useful in species identification. Yet, identification and delineation are two different processes, and such characters do not necessarily provide the best basis on which ... [more ▼]

Conspicuous characters are often useful in species identification. Yet, identification and delineation are two different processes, and such characters do not necessarily provide the best basis on which species can be delineated. This is illustrated by the case of the Labeo with papillary lips from the Congo basin. Traditionally, species delineation in this group was based on a conspicuous trait: the shape of the dorsal fin, which shows a profound degree of differentiation. Morphometric analyses were performed on 185 specimens both with and without measurements taken on this fin. The groups obtained using these two approaches were compared with those obtained through DNA barcoding. For this, 24 sequences of the standard barcoding COI gene were obtained. Species delineations based on morphological and molecular results were in agreement when the shape of the dorsal fin was ignored. This suggested that of the five nominal species known from the Congo basin, L. altivelis, L. rosae, L. lineatus, L. weeksii and L. maleboensis, only the former three remain valid. Consequently, L. weeksii was synonymised with L. altivelis and L. maleboensis with L. lineatus. The sole Congo basin endemic is L. lineatus as L. altivelis and L. rosae also occur in more southern basins. The use of the shape of the dorsal fin in morphological studies has previously led to overestimates of species diversity in this group. This is due to the fact that L. altivelis shows a remarkable amount of geographical variation for this trait. The large amount of intra- and interspecific variation in this character was caused by differential allometric growth in different parts of the dorsal fin. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehension of an organosolv process for lignin extraction on Festuca arundinacea and monitoring of the cellulose degradation
Schmetz, Quentin ULg; Maniet, Guillaume ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2016), 94

It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving ... [more ▼]

It is commonly accepted that the current society needs to partially substitute fossil resources by renewable ones. Among many solutions, one approach consists in the development of biorefinery involving lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-based materials and fuels. This study focuses on the comprehension of an organosolv treatment designed to break the complex lignocellulosic structure for high purity lignin extraction from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). This grass benefits from an increasing interest in Western Europe and has been suggested as feedstock for biorefinery. However, its use as material for high purity lignin production has not been determined yet. Ethanol/water, 92/8% [v/v] with H2SO4 0.32 M was investigated at pilot scale under conventional heating (5 °C min−1 during 30 min and stabilized at 148 °C for 5 min). Precipitated lignin were analyzed as well as the composition of side-stream products (recovered cellulosic pulp and the aqueous hydrolysate). Lignin has been recovered at a purity level of 90% with a yield of 60%. The main contaminants were nitrogen containing compounds and degraded hemicelluloses. 2D-HSQC NMR (Two Dimension-Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) revealed a co-extraction of ferulates and coumarates function as well as arabinoxylan. Cellulose was recovered at 53% purity with 60% yield. The conditions appear to be too harsh for tall fescue and led to significant amount of cellulose degradation. A process using a lower alcohol concentration will be developed to provide better yields of both cellulose and lignin. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous Production of Itraconazole-based Solid Dispersions by Hot Melt Extrusion: Preformulation, Optimization and Design Space Determination.
Thiry, Justine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre; Vinassa, Chloé et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 515(1-2), 114-124

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See detailInterpellation du genre et sujets mélancoliques. Butler lectrice d’Althusser
Borotto, Jessica ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 8

Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose d’explorer la manière dont Judith Butler remobilise la thèse althussérienne de l’interpellation dans La Vie psychique du pouvoir . Nous essaierons de saisir les éléments qui nous paraissent enrichir la problématique althussérienne, suggérant que la compréhension de la dimension psychique du pouvoir qui ressort de sa lecture permet de complexifier la relation du sujet au pouvoir. Afin de tisser des liens précis entre l’interpellation chez Althusser et la subjectivation chez Butler, nous examinerons d’abord le rôle que Nietzsche et Foucault recouvrent dans la formulation de la théorie de la subjectivation chez Butler. Ensuite, il s’agit de comprendre en quoi la matérialité et l’ambiguïté des mécanismes de subjectivation, qui déjà caractérisent l’interpellation althussérienne, deviennent chez Butler les sources d’une relation critique aux conditions d’émergence du sujet. Enfin nous préciserons comment elle mobilise de telles sources pour élaborer cette figure de la psychanalyse qu’est la mélancolie et pour décrire sa transformation en deuil. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Competence a Holy Grail for Teaching? Reflections on Nursing Education
Dancot, Jacinthe ULg

in Nursing & Care Open Access Journal (2016), 1(4), 00021

The competence-based approach is largely widespread in the nursing schools and is viewed as a golden standard for professional teaching. But the practical use of the concept is varying among institutions ... [more ▼]

The competence-based approach is largely widespread in the nursing schools and is viewed as a golden standard for professional teaching. But the practical use of the concept is varying among institutions and even teachers. The goal of this narrative review is to clarify the conception of competence and its use in the fields of education and nursing. Regarding education, Gonczi, Tardif, Jonnaert and Beckers are the key authors referred to. A first apparent consensus over the holistic nature of the competence quickly gives place to the observation of important nuances in conceptions. Similarly, in the field of nursing, Benner is first discussed, and recent literature reviews and concept analyses are taken into account: similar nuances are detected, as well as difficulties in the practical implementation of the concept. Considering the lack of consensus and the paradigmaticalincoherences detected among the sources consulted for this review, we question the use of competence as single point of view for teaching and assessing, and we propose other avenues to be explored in order to recognize emergent professionality. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from Incidents and Incident Reporting: Safety Governance at a Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

in Science, Technology & Human Values (2016), Online First

This article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews ... [more ▼]

This article examines how incidents are governed in a Belgian Nuclear Research Center by way of an incident reporting system named REX. Drawing on a documentary analysis of incident reports, interviews and focus groups with personnel, it illustrates how REX enacts a safety governmentality centered on identifying incident causes and culprits. As this governmentality mode obscures the epistemic and political character of incidents, it closes down important opportunities for collective learning about safety and safety governance. It is argued that joint reflection about incidents and resistances towards incident reporting serve as fruitful starting points for a more reflexive safety governance that makes explicit how decisions are made in high-risk contexts. Social scientists can enhance governance of this kind by pointing to different perceptions and evaluations of incidents and by insisting that contending interpretations are confronted and accounted for. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening transplant donors for HTLV-1 and -2
Gallo, Robert; Willems, Luc ULg; Hasegawa, 4 Hideki et al

in Blood (2016), 128(26),

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See detailNeuromuscular blockade as part of an anaesthetic protocol for cataract surgery in an alpaca
Tutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ULg; Storms, Goedele ULg; Monclin, Sébastien ULg et al

in Journal of Camelid Science (2016), 9

A six-month-old alpaca was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of Liège (Belgium) with a bilateral cataract. A decision was made to perform bilateral cataract surgery after an ... [more ▼]

A six-month-old alpaca was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of Liège (Belgium) with a bilateral cataract. A decision was made to perform bilateral cataract surgery after an ocular ultrasound and electroretinogram were performed to assess the posterior segment and retinal function, respectively. As a premedication, the alpaca received xylazine, butorphanol and midazolam intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced subsequently with ketamine and midazolam intravenously and maintained with isoflurane on oxygen/air mixture. The alpaca was mechanically ventilated during surgery. Neuromuscular blockade was induced and maintained with cis-atracurium intravenously. The dose of cis-atracurium was permanently adapted using a peripheral nerve stimulator. This case report brings new knowledge regarding the use and dosage of cis-atracurium in alpacas. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Borotto, Jessica ULg; Petteni, Oriane ULg; Wustefeld, Sophie ULg et al

in Cahiers du GRM (2016), 10

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See detailEffect of the Extraction Technique, Heating Time and Cryogenic Grinding (N2 at -196°C) on the Composition of Cumin Seeds Volatile Oil
Mékaoui, R; Benkaci-Ali, Farid; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants [=JEOBP] (2016), 19(8), 1903-1919

Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and ... [more ▼]

Two techniques of extraction of essential oils (Steam distillation assisted by microwave (SDAM) and hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM)) are respectively advanced steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation techniques (HD), in which a microwave oven is used in the extraction process. They are considered as accelerated techniques extraction performed at atmospheric pressure. The cryogrinding (CG) showed a difference on the yields and aromatic profile comparing to the sample grinding. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of volatile oil from Algerian (Sahara) Cuminum cyminum seeds (CCS). The chemical composition of the essential oil of this plant as a function of extraction time was also studied. The major components and family classes showed a significant variation with the extraction time. Gas chromatography (GC), GCxGC-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS)] were utilised for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oils extracted by these two methods. The major compounds are cumin aldehyde (HDAM-CG: 20.50-53.35 %, SDAM-CG: 21.68 66.6 %), p-cymene (HDAM-CG: 14.1-37.54 %, SDAM-CG: 6.06-20.18 %), β-pinene (HDAM-CG: 4.53-14.74 %, SDAM-CG: 4.3-32.65 %) and γ-terpinene (HDAM-CG: 1.26-14.70 %, SDAM-CG: 5.13-18.23 %). [less ▲]

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See detailSU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in large $N_c$ excited baryons
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2016), 94

The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to ... [more ▼]

The $1/N_c$ expansion method for studying the mass spectrum of excited baryons is shortly reviewed together with applications to mixed symmetric states. The $[{\bf 70, \ell^+}]$ multiplet, belonging to the $N$ = 2 band, is reanalyzed, with emphasis on hyperons and the SU(3) symmetry breaking operators entering the mass formula to first order. An important result is that the hierarchy of masses as a function of strangeness is correctly reproduced for all multiplets. Predictions for unknown excited hyperons to SU(6) $\times$ O(3) multiplets are made. [less ▲]

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