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See detailDomestic tools, hafting, and the evolution of technology: The Upper Palaeolithic of Hohle Fels as a case study
Taipale, Noora ULg; Conard, Nicholas J.; Rots, Veerle ULg

Poster (2016, September)

Innovations relevant to human evolution often involve subsistence technology, which can affect the success of individual groups, and Homo sapiens in general. However, Palaeolithic technologies include ... [more ▼]

Innovations relevant to human evolution often involve subsistence technology, which can affect the success of individual groups, and Homo sapiens in general. However, Palaeolithic technologies include more than just hunting tools, and a proper understanding of hunter-gatherer ways of living requires knowledge of the organisation of diverse tasks and activities, including the manufacture and maintenance of tools and other equipment. One central aspect of technological evolution is the development of tool hafting [1, 2], which is not only restricted to hunting and gathering implements, but also affects so-called domestic tool categories. We present the results of an on-going project that focuses on hafting and use of stone tools in the Upper Palaeolithic through detailed functional analysis of selected assemblages from European key sites (Hohle Fels, Abri Pataud, Maisières-Canal), which have yielded rich lithic and organic assemblages from secure chronological contexts. Here the focus is on classic Upper Palaeolithic tool categories, such as endscrapers and burins, from the Gravettian and Magdalenian levels of the cave site Hohle Fels (Germany) [3, 4]. We suggest that domestic tools can offer a valuable source material, since for most of them, hafting is not a necessity as it is for spear and arrow tips. An increase in hafting implies an increase in time investment, which has implications for task organisation and specialisation. The Hohle Fels assemblage offers an interesting case study for temporal changes (or continuity) in the frequency and techniques of tool hafting. The projectile technology shows a clear shift from the Gravettian to the Magadalenian, marked by the introduction of a microlithic technology (backed bladelets). For other tool categories, the changes seem more subtle. Our goal is to characterise the tools used in manufacture and maintenance tasks, and to evaluate whether the Gravettian to Magdalenian transition witnesses changes in tool design and use that go beyond hunting equipment. The observed differences between tool classes and time periods are explained with a reference to details of tool use, such as the rate of edge wear development and stone tool exhaustion, as well as shifts in treatment of organic raw materials. The results suggest that domestic tools can aid in understanding long-term technological evolution, and create a baseline against which we can (re)assess the role of shifts observed in technologies that are more susceptible to morphological change, such as projectiles. References: [1] Rots, V., 2013. Insights into early Middle Palaeolithic tool use and hafting in Western Europe: The functional analysis of level IIa of the early Middle Palaeolithic site of Biache-Saint-Vaast (France). J. Archaeol. Sci. 40, 497–506. [2] Barham, L., 2013. From Hand to Handle: The First Industrial Revolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [3] Conard, N. J., Bolus, M., 2003. Radiocarbon dating the appearance of modern humans and timing of cultural innovations in Europe: New results and new challenges. J. Hum. Evol. 44, 331–371. [4] Taller, A., Bolus, M., Conard, N. J., 2014. The Magdalenian of Hohle Fels Cave and the Resettlement of the Swabian Jura after the LGM. In: Otte, M., Le Brun-Ricalens, F. (Eds.), Modes de contacts et de déplacements au Paléolithique eurasiatique: Actes du Colloque international de la commission 8 (Paléolithique supérieur) de l'UISPP, Université de Liège, 28–31 mai 2012. Centre National de Recherche Archéologique, Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailThere is more to life than subsistence: use-wear and residue analyses on pre-Still Bay stone tools at Sibudu
Rots, Veerle ULg; Lentfer, Carol ULg; Schmid, Viola et al

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailFiber technology, rope-making, textiles and the Lochstäbe from the Aurignacian of the Swabian Jura
Conard, Nicholas; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailPouvoir et action publique
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailBref compte rendu de l'Université d'été interne du Cifen du 27 mai 2016
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en pratique, n°2 (2016)

Ce texte propose un compte rendu de l'Université d'interne réalisée par le Cifen le 27 mai 2016 et les grands axes qui y ont été débattus.

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See detailClassics in political science
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailMethodik zur schnellen Bewertung von Syntheserouten auf Basis von Exergiebilanzen
Frenzel, Philipp; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2016, September), 88(9), 1381

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren ... [more ▼]

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren verstärkt die Nutzung alternativer Kohlenstoffquellen wie Biomasse oder CO2 erforscht. Die alternativen Kohlenstoffquellen unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich ihrer Zusammensetzung und Stoffeigenschaften teilweise deutlich von fossilen Rohstoffen. Aus diesem Grund müssen Syntheserouten und darauf aufbauende Prozesse neu entwickelt werden. Da zum einen sehr viele Syntheserouten prinzipiell denkbar sind und zum anderen die Entwicklung der entsprechenden Prozesse aufwendig ist, wird eine Möglichkeit benötigt, begrenzte Entwicklungsressourcen sinnvoll zu steuern. Dazu sollte bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium ein quantitativer Vergleich der Syntheserouten erfolgen, um diejenigen zu identifizieren, die das größte wirtschaftliche Potential versprechen. In diesem Vortrag wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, um eine schnelle erste, auf Exergie basierte Bewertung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials einer Syntheseroute bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium durchzuführen, in dem nur wenige Informationen vorliegen. Die Idee der Methodik ist, Syntheserouten in standardisierten Prozessen abzubilden, wodurch eine automatisierte Auswertung und somit ein schnelles Screening möglich wird. Die standardisierten Prozesse umfassen sowohl den Einfluss der Reaktion durch Abbildung der Reaktionsbedingungen, Stöchiometrie, Umsatz und Selektivität als auch die Auswirkungen der Trennaufgabe. Ebenso berücksichtigt wird die Rückführung von Lösungsmitteln und ggf. nicht umgesetzten Edukten. Als zentrale Bewertungsgröße zur Abschätzung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials wird eine Kombination aus Exergie- und Rohstoffeinsatz herangezogen. Der Vorteil von Exergiebilanzen gegenüber Energiebilanzen ist, dass die Produktion von Entropie berücksichtigt wird und so die Auswirkungen einzelner Prozessschritte untersucht und zwischen verschiedenen Energieformen unterschieden werden kann. Durch Berechnung der Exergieverluste, also der Verluste von Exergie aufgrund von Entropieerzeugung in den Prozessen, ergibt sich ein quantitativer Vergleich verschiedener Syntheserouten. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversité d'été du Cifen 2015 : insertion professionnelle et parcours enseignants. Mise en perspective et présentation du programme de la journée
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en Pratique (2016, September), 2

Cette communication ouvrait l'Université d'été 2015 du Cifen. La thématique du colloque : "insertion professionnelle et parcours enseignants" y fut brièvement présentée, de même que les questions qui ... [more ▼]

Cette communication ouvrait l'Université d'été 2015 du Cifen. La thématique du colloque : "insertion professionnelle et parcours enseignants" y fut brièvement présentée, de même que les questions qui allaient baliser cette journée d'études. Ensuite le programme de la journée fut rappelé aux participants. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant esterified oxylipins: structure – function relationship
Genva, Manon ULg; Andersson, Mats X.; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg et al

Poster (2016, September)

In the present work, high quantities of arabidopsides were extracted and purified from Arabidopsis thaliana L.

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See detailEspace de liberté, sécurité et justice. Les grandes décisions. Tome II
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detailEspace de liberté, sécurité et justice. Les grandes décisions. Tome I
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Learning material (2016)

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See detail« Oiseaux blessés. Avec les stagiaires d’Article 23 »
Melice, Anne ULg

in Centre Franco Basaglia – Liège, Mouvement pour une psychiatrie démocratique dans le milieu de vie. (2016)

Après une synthèse de récits de vie recueillis auprès de stagiaires rencontrés au sein des ateliers de l’Asbl Article 23 (Horeca et Bâtiment), ce texte décrit l’accueil qu’ils m’y ont réservé. Ce récit se ... [more ▼]

Après une synthèse de récits de vie recueillis auprès de stagiaires rencontrés au sein des ateliers de l’Asbl Article 23 (Horeca et Bâtiment), ce texte décrit l’accueil qu’ils m’y ont réservé. Ce récit se prolongera dans le texte suivant intitulé « ‘’Je te porte dans moi comme un oiseau blessé’’ (Aragon) », qui se fera l’écho de mon observation de l’hospitalité propre aux ateliers d’Article 23. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in crop yields, soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen content under climate change and variable management practices"
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Shcherbak, Iurii et al

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailA new method for identifying experimental and Palaeolithic hafting adhesives using GC×GC-HRTOFMS
Cnuts, Dries ULg; Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg et al

Poster (2016, September)

Hafting adhesives can be seen as an indication of the cognitive and technical capabilities of the manufacturers and therefore play a key role in the debate on human evolution [1], [2]. These adhesives are ... [more ▼]

Hafting adhesives can be seen as an indication of the cognitive and technical capabilities of the manufacturers and therefore play a key role in the debate on human evolution [1], [2]. These adhesives are mainly from plant origin (resins, gums or tar) and are often mixed with beeswax and other additives in order to make them less brittle. Archaeological evidence indicates that these adhesives were already in use in the Paleolithic from at least 120.000 years ago [3]. Discoveries for this period are however very rare and only become abundant from the Neolithic onwards [4]. Their longer exposure to biochemical alteration processes limits the chance of survival in the archaeological record. If they are present on Paleolithic stone tools, they appear often in such small quantities that they are challenging to identify by traditional gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or even to remove them effectively from the stone tool. The destructive nature of traditional GC-MS analysis can damage these rare samples for other analyses. Our study aims to overcome this problem by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for sample extraction and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography –high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS), which has the benefit of analyzing the volatile organic compound (VOC)s from the substance and it does not destroy the complete matrix of the adhesive. We present the results of a pilot study intended to examine the potential of this technique for analyzing Palaeolithic adhesives. The study involved (1) an examination of experimental compound adhesives (containing pine and spruce resin, acacia gum and birch tar; beeswax and additives like charcoal, flax or ochre), (2) a blind test on experimental samples to test the reliability of the method and to determine the minimal quantity necessary for analysis, and (3) the analysis of different Palaeolithic adhesives and of experimental samples of at least 15 years old. The analysis was done on extracted and non-extracted adhesives. A unique chromatographic fingerprint was obtained for all experimental adhesive samples. The VOC profile of these adhesives proved to be extremely complex and therefore benefitted significantly from multidimensional separation techniques. GC×GC-HRTOFMS provided an optimal chromatographic separation of adhesive components. HRTOFMS data was used in order to obtain high-resolution mass spectral data to contribute to compound identification. Our study demonstrates that GC×GC-HRTOFMS is a well suited method for identifying small quantities of compound adhesives with significant potential for Palaeolithic contexts. The additional sensitivity afforded by this technique in comparison to traditional GC-MS is a substantial benefit for these quantities. Furthermore, by only analyzing the VOCs of the adhesives, these rare archeological samples are not destroyed and can still be used for other types of analysis. [1] L. Wadley, ‘Compound-Adhesive Manufacture as a Behavioral Proxy for Complex Cognition in the Middle Stone Age’, Curr. Anthropol., vol. 51, no. s1, pp. S111–S119, Jun. 2010. [2] L. Barham, From Hand to Handle: The First Industrial Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. [3] P. P. A. Mazza, F. Martini, B. Sala, M. Magi, M. P. Colombini, G. Giachi, F. Landucci, C. Lemorini, F. Modugno, and E. Ribechini, ‘A new Palaeolithic discovery: tar-hafted stone tools in a European Mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed’, J. Archaeol. Sci., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1310–1318, Sep. 2006. [4] M. Regert, ‘Investigating the history of prehistoric glues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.’, J. Sep. Sci., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 244–54, Feb. 2004. [less ▲]

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See detailSIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF RECEPTOR DYNAMICS IN A BMP REGULATORY NETWORK
Germain, Morgan ULg; Bolander, Johanna; Ji, Wei et al

Poster (2016, September)

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See detailSOLINDIC : Etude de l’activité biologique du système « Sol-Plante » en vue de préserver les fonctionnalités des sols agricoles
Blondel, Alodie; Durenne, B.; Mingeot, D. et al

Report (2016)

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See detailPar-delà les mots : les politiques d'activation face à leurs limites
Vrancken, Didier ULg

Article for general public (2016)

Au cours des dernières décennies, sur fond de crise économique, ont émergé des politiques sociales d' "activation" visant à mobiliser les individus les plus fragiles, à les autonomiser et les ... [more ▼]

Au cours des dernières décennies, sur fond de crise économique, ont émergé des politiques sociales d' "activation" visant à mobiliser les individus les plus fragiles, à les autonomiser et les responsabiliser davantage. Initialement déployées sur le terrain de la (re)mise à l'emploi, ces politiques se sont peu à peu étendues à d'autres champs comme la santé, les retraites, le socio-pénal, les politiques de la ville, le vieillissement actif, l'aide sociale... Un véritable projet anthropologique misant sur le travail sur Soi semble s'être dessiné... [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation of CO2 from an Industrial source for Methanol production
Font-Palma, Carolina; Douven, Sigrid ULg; Léonard, Grégoire ULg

Conference (2016, September)

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