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See detailElp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestine
LADANG, Aurélie ULg; Rapino, Francesca ULg; Heukamp, Lukas et al

in Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]

Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probes
Lemal, Sébastien ULg; Ngoc, Nguyen; de Boor, Johanens et al

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid ... [more ▼]

Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange-correlation. The ground state is determined to be anti-ferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 μB/Fe. The Néel temperature Tn is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV, also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 μV/K, slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing remote sensing (optical and radar) and modeling to support the irrigation management of cereals in a semi-arid region: a case study of the Tadla irrigated perimeter in Morocco
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

Summary Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in Morocco, it accounts for about 45%, on average, of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product, contributing thus to food security and ... [more ▼]

Summary Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in Morocco, it accounts for about 45%, on average, of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product, contributing thus to food security and employment. It occupies 15% (about 1.5 million ha) of the total cultivated area in the country. Irrigation scheme managers need to ensure that water is optimally used in the irrigated perimeters and that water shortages are avoided. For large areas under irrigation, this can be achieved through water monitoring at plot level using modeling and satellite-based methodologies. The main objective of this research was to assess the use of optical and radar remote sensing and of crop modeling in the irrigation monitoring and management of wheat in the irrigated perimeter of Tadla. The potential of spectral indices derived from SPOT-5 images was explored for comparing, quantifying and mapping surface water content changes at regional and local levels. Indices were computed using the reflectance in red, near infrared and shortwave infrared bands. Our findings show that the normalized difference water index (NDWIRog) could be used to estimate and map the surface water content of wheat plots, from bare soil to fully covered soil. Backscatter threshold values derived from SAR images were used to detect irrigation water supplies in wheat plots and the optimal acquisition frequency of SAR images was determined in order to ensure continuous monitoring. A field crop model (AquaCrop) was adjusted to simulate durum wheat yields and the temporal evolution of soil moisture status in order to manage and schedule irrigation water supplies and assess their impact on yield. Currently, the approaches described in this paper are being applied independently. This research was intended, therefore, to provide tools to help policy-makers and stakeholders improve irrigation monitoring and mitigate wheat water stress at the field and irrigation perimeter levels in semi-arid areas. Keywords: irrigation management, spectral index, wheat, backscattering, SAR, semi-arid, Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotion, violence, cohabitation. A propos de Vers la cohabitation de Judith Butler
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2015, November 16)

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See detailLes musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?
Desseilles, François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]

This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]

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See detailEntretien: "La déradicalisation, c'est une espèce de fantasme politique"
Demonty, Bernard; Garcet, Serge ULg

Article for general public (2015)

L'article propose un entretien dans lequel nous donnons notre point de vue d'expert sur la déradicalisation.

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See detailLa guerre comme modèle des rapports de pouvoir. Question à Judith Butler
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Conference (2015, November 16)

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See detailHydro-mechanical analysis of the fracturing induced by the excavation of nuclear waste repository galleries using shear banding
Pardoen, Benoît ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

The long-term management of high-level nuclear wastes is envisaged by deep geological repository. Due to the safety function of the host formation, the behaviour of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) that ... [more ▼]

The long-term management of high-level nuclear wastes is envisaged by deep geological repository. Due to the safety function of the host formation, the behaviour of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) that develops around underground galleries during their drilling is of paramount importance. The EDZ is dominated by fracturing process which engenders irreversible modifications of the hydro-mechanical properties of the porous rock. In this zone, a significant hydraulic permeability increase of several orders of magnitude is observed. It may alter the safety function of the host formation by creating preferential flow paths for the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere. Consequently, the understanding and the prediction of the EDZ hydro-mechanical behaviour are crucial issues for the long-term management of nuclear wastes. Among the different low-permeability media that are envisaged for the deep repository, the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone is studied. The fracturing behaviour, the water transfers, and the coupled processes that occur around the underground galleries are most particularly addressed, especially in the EDZ. The fractures induced by the excavation process are reproduced with strain localisation in shear bands. An appropriate model allowing to properly reproduce the strain localisation in geomaterials with finite element methods is used. It is an enhanced model for microstructure media called the coupled local second gradient model and which involves a regularisation method. Its application is extended to unsaturated anisotropic rocks with compressible solid grains. The numerical modelling of the fractured zone with shear banding provides information about its shape, extent, fracturing structure, and behaviour that are in good agreement with in situ measurements. In particular, the shape of the EDZ in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone is governed by its anisotropy and the gallery convergence strongly depends on the appearance of the shear bands. The fluid transfers and the coupled processes are investigated in the EDZ. The impact of the rock fracturing on its hydraulic properties is addressed by taking into account strain localisation effects at macroscale. The evolution of the intrinsic water permeability is expressed by a strain-dependent relation which engenders a more pronounced increase of the permeability inside the shear bands. In agreement with experimental measurements, an important increase is reproduced in the excavation damaged zone. After gallery excavation, the hydraulic transfers in the rock surrounding the galleries are investigated by considering the interaction between the rock and the gallery air. These transfers are studied at large-scale during the reproduction of gallery air ventilation. Depending on the air hygrometry, the gallery ventilation implies drainage and desaturation of the surrounding rock which affect the shear banding development. The hydraulic transfers in the rock which depend on the water exchanges at gallery wall are also studied. The proposed approach aims to highlight the important hydro-mechanical aspects to take into account for the reproduction of the EDZ behaviour in unsaturated biphasic media with shear banding. The focus is resolutely on the large-scale numerical modelling of the EDZ as well as on the reproduction of the mechanical and hydraulic experimental measurements performed around galleries. [less ▲]

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See detailField data on the little known and endangered Lepilemur mittermeieri
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C. et al

in Journal of Primatology (2015), 4(2),

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three ... [more ▼]

Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three individuals collected at the same locality. No observation confidently allocated to the species has been reported since. The objectives of our research were to verify that the sportive lemurs found in forests of the Ampasindava peninsula beyond the type-locality of Lepilemur mittermeieri belonged to the same species as the type, to provide morphological and behavioural data for populations confidently attributed to L. mittermeieri and to obtain for these populations preliminary evaluations of density variations within the peninsula. Our surveys were undertaken in March and April 2014 in remnant forest patches of the western part of the Ampasindava peninsula. Linear transects by night and punctual observations by day were conducted. A total of 54 animals were seen along nine transects situated in four forest patches, two at low altitude and two at high altitude. All animals examined and photographed appeared similar, and the impression was gained that a single taxon was involved. Genetic material collected from one dead specimen proved identical to the type of L. mittermeieri which confirmed the identity of the populations we observed. It thus appears that L. mittermeieri is indeed the only sportive lemur present on the peninsula and that it occurs in several forest remnants. We endeavoured to get evaluations of the density and abundance of the species in the four forest patches we studied. We used KAIs (Kilometric Abundance Indices) to evaluate and compare relative densities, and Buckland’s distance sampling method to evaluate absolute densities. The latter suggested a density of 1.9 animals/ha, a result that must, however, be taken with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailBien soigner l'arthrose: un enjeu capital pour notre société!
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, November 16)

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See detailSustainable Development Goals, Implications on Nordic Diaspora
Gsir, Sonia ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailDeterminants of Access to Agricultural Credits for Small Scale Farmers in the Southern Province of Rwanda
Musabanganji, Edouard ULg; Antoine, Karangwa; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Book of Proceedings Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "AgroSym 2015" (2015, November 15)

This study investigated the determinants of financial inclusion for small scale farmers by focusing on the access to formal and informal agricultural credits in the Southern Province of Rwanda. Data were ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the determinants of financial inclusion for small scale farmers by focusing on the access to formal and informal agricultural credits in the Southern Province of Rwanda. Data were collected from 310 farmers from Huye and Nyamagabe districts through an open-ended structured questionnaire and analysed using the binary logistic regression method. The major findings, on one hand, showed that among the requested and approved agricultural loans, 87.2% and 12.7% were from informal and formal financial institutions respectively. Among those who accessed agricultural credits, 59.7% were from Huye and 40.3% from Nyamagabe. On the other hand, it was revealed that the household characteristics and the community attributes are the most important determinants. Those household characteristics include household income and expenditure, Ubudehe socio-economic category of the household, off-farm employment and the size of the land owned by the household whereas community attributes involve residence area, transport and informal financial services availability. Regarding farmer characteristics, the education level was found to be the only factor affecting the smallholder farmers' access to agricultural credit. In light of the findings, it was recommended to conduct sensitization sessions focusing on the importance of agricultural credits for smallholder farmers especially in the areas with high level of poverty. In addition, there is need to work on alleviating the formal agricultural credits access barriers, and to conduct a study on the dynamics of informal and formal agricultural credits up take and usage by smallholder farmers to explore all dimensions of financial inclusion in the study area. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Russie, ce dangereux ami pour lutter contre le djihadisme wahhabiste
Ernst, Damien ULg; Hermans, Michel ULg

Article for general public (2015)

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See detailSynthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groups
Clément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]

The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailComment mieux comprendre la radicalisation adolescente ? - Carte blanche
Garcet, Serge ULg

Article for general public (2015)

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See detailLaser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness
Paydas, Hakan ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Carrus, Raoul et al

in Materials & Design (2015), 85

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]

Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Q-Codes. From Dunedin 2007 to Hyderabad 2015
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Conference (2015, November 14)

Aim Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General Practice ... [more ▼]

Aim Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General Practice/Family Medicine (3CGP/FM), an association of ICPC and of a new tool called Q-Codes means identifying the main concepts the writer is willing to share in his/her contribution. This is called ‘text classification’ or ‘topic list building’ in computer sciences and ‘qualitative data analysis’ in cognitive sciences. The GP is dealing with issues concerning the patient and with issues concerning the management of the job. Symptoms, diagnosis and process are up to what we will call clinical activities. General management as well as ethical or quality related issues are up to what we will call non-clinical or managerial activities. Clinical activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the International Classification of Primary Care second edition, electronic, version 5 (ICPC-2 e ver5). Managerial activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the Q-Codes, version 2.1, 2015 which we are explaining now in detail. Method The European cross-lingual portal of health terminologies for indexing and searching Web resources (www.hetop.eu) is using the OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, relying for instance to Bioportal and connected to the world of the Internet of data. We have developed the terminological content of 183 items called Q-codes using a graphic Interface, filling the knowledge base with relevant information about the concept studied, linking them to professional terminologies like MeSH, or to lay ones like Babelnet and DBpedia, if any, and relying them to top bibliographic free full text citations of the domain. Results 183 Q-Codes have been designed and 177 extensive terminological records are available online, for now for beta testers. The whole process is described on http://docpatient.net/3CGP. The ongoing version of the Q-codes is available here in 6 languages http://docpatient.net/3CGP/Q-Codes_ver_2_2.pdf The poster present a general overview of the terminological development. [less ▲]

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