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See detailCycle, cercle, compilation. Introduction
Henrard, Nadine ULg

Conference (2016, February 16)

Introduction à la journée "Cycle, cercle, compilation", s'intéressant à la constitution d'ensembles d'hommes (cercles littéraires) ou de textes (compilations, cycles) au Moyen Âge. Les questionnements ... [more ▼]

Introduction à la journée "Cycle, cercle, compilation", s'intéressant à la constitution d'ensembles d'hommes (cercles littéraires) ou de textes (compilations, cycles) au Moyen Âge. Les questionnements soulevés par cette journée touchent ainsi à tous les stades de la chaîne du texte, de l’écriture à la réception et nécessitent de conjuguer axes synchronique et diachronique, données codicologiques et littéraires, historiques et aussi sociologiques. Ils invitent à interroger la part du hasard et de l’intention qui joue dans le rassemblement des œuvres et montrent, si besoin en était encore, qu’il est indispensable d’inscrire le fait littéraire dans une dynamique globale, en rappelant que les œuvres ne sont que des pièces imbriquées dans divers systèmes avec lesquels elles entrent en dialogue. [less ▲]

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See detailBilan des 10 ans de l’Arrêté Royal sur la Planification d’urgence: Le cycle tourne-t-il rond ?
Fallon, Catherine ULg; Thiry, Aline ULg; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

L’objectif du projet PULL mené par le Centre de recherche SPIRAL est de préévaluer l’opportunité et la faisabilité de l’application de l’approche « living lab (LL) » à la gestion du cycle du risque en ... [more ▼]

L’objectif du projet PULL mené par le Centre de recherche SPIRAL est de préévaluer l’opportunité et la faisabilité de l’application de l’approche « living lab (LL) » à la gestion du cycle du risque en Wallonie. Des interviews non directives menées dans le cadre de ce projet et la littérature scientifique relative aux Living lab dans différents domaines d’application, suggèrent en effet que la méthodologie LL pourrait s’avérer utile dans le contexte de la réforme en matière de la gestion publique des risques et des crises (crisis management and emergency planning) Nous avons organisé une enquête en ligne (de type Delphi – 24 experts associés) avec deux tours : le premier est consacré au « diagnostic » par les experts des problèmes rencontrés dans leur pratique professionnelle de l’analyse du risque et de la planification d’urgence. Le deuxième tour met en discussion les forces, faiblesses d’une démarche « Living Lab » pour améliorer les pratiques de planification d’urgence. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Gerard, Pascale; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2016)

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term effectiveness and safety of iONS in this indication are scarce, though they could be useful to neurologists and patients in daily practice. The purpose of this short report is to discuss the very long-term outcome of a drCCH cohort, including adverse events. FINDINGS: Previously, favourable results were obtained with iONS in 15 drCCH patients: 80 % were significantly improved and 60 % were pain free. We report here the very long-term follow-up (up to nine years) of 10 patients belonging to this cohort. Meanwhile 5 patients had to be definitively explanted because of device infection (3) or paresthesia intolerance (2). Four patients (40 %) evolved to an episodic form of CH. Six remained chronic but their attack frequency was decreased by 70 % on average. Intake of preventive drugs is still necessary in 80 % of patients. All patients needed at least one battery replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Up to nine years after implantation, iONS is still effective in most patients with drCCH. Concomitant preventive drugs remain often necessary. Forty percent of patients reverse to episodic CH, possibly by natural history. iONS is not a benign procedure but device-related complications appear similar to those reported with other invasive neurostimulators. [less ▲]

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See detailRankine cycle based waste heat recovery system applied to heavy duty vehicles: topological optimization and model based control
Grelet, Vincent ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

standards force the original engine manufacturers to search for innovative solutions in order to reduce oil consumption. As an important part of the energy contained in the primary carrier (the fuel) is ... [more ▼]

standards force the original engine manufacturers to search for innovative solutions in order to reduce oil consumption. As an important part of the energy contained in the primary carrier (the fuel) is lost to the ambient through heat, it seems convenient to recover a part of this thermal energy and to turn it into fuel consumption reduction. Thermodynamic bottoming cycle such as the Rankine cycle could be used to meet this objective. Its popular use throughout the world for electricity generation makes it a natural candidate for on-board implementation in vehicles. However, a certain number of hurdles are still present before the system can be efficiently applied to heavy-duty trucks. In the last thirty years, numerous studies heave been carried out to evaluate the real potential of that kind of system on a vehicle but nothing has yet been commercialized. The heat sources to recover from, the constraints relative to the on-board application and the long and frequent transient behavior of the vehicle mean both the system architecture and its control strategy need to be optimized. The system optimization leads to a choice in terms of working fluid, heat sources and sinks, and components sizing in order to maximize power recovery and hence the fuel saving. The control plays a major role by using the capability of such a system to ensure an efficient and safe operation and limiting the interactions with the other vehicle sub-systems. In this thesis, a system design methodology is introduced to optimize the system architecture using complete model-based vehicle simulation. The constraints relative to the mobile application are taken into consideration to evaluate the potential of such a system. Modelbased control strategies for on controlled variable, namely the superheat level, are developed. Constrained by the implementation platform, different control frameworks ranging from PID to model predictive controllers or observer based controllers are developed to fit into a normal automotive electronic control unit. Most of these novel strategies were experimentally validated on a test rig developed during the thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes caractéristiques du capitalisme industriel et financier belge dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle
Geerkens, Eric ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailDouble thermoresponsive di- and triblock copolumers based on N-vinylcaprolactam and N-vinylpyrrolidone: synthesis, micellisation ang gelation
Mathieu, Kevin ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2016, February 15)

The development of stimuli-responsive polymers, especially thermo-responsive ones, has been a tremendous field of research in the last years. The solubility of such macromolecules can be reversibly ... [more ▼]

The development of stimuli-responsive polymers, especially thermo-responsive ones, has been a tremendous field of research in the last years. The solubility of such macromolecules can be reversibly triggered by small changes of temperature without additives. Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL), which exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 36°C and a low toxicity, is of particular interest especially for biomedical applications. For these reasons, the insertion of well-defined PNVCL segments in more complex architectures is highly desirable but it requires efficient synthetic tools. In this context, we have developed a cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) for synthesizing novel well-defined NVCL-based copolymers. First, the LCST of PNVCL was tuned over a wide range of temperature by incorporation of specific amounts of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) in the backbone. Then, CMRP of NVCL followed by statistical NVCL/NVP copolymerization led to diblocks having two discrete LCSTs. Finally, double. The thermal response and multistep assembly behavior of these NVCL-containing di-and triblock copolymers were studied by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering in dilute aqueous solution (~ 1 wt%). Rheological measurements performed on more concentrated copolymer solutions (~ 15 wt%) also emphasized their ability to form thermo-reversible gels. Gelation occurred at lower concentration and stronger gels were obtained with the triblocks because a real tridimensional network formed in this case. thermoresponsive triblocks were obtained by cobalt-mediated radical coupling (CMRC) of the parent diblocks upon treatment with isoprene. [less ▲]

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See detailWerner Herzog : sur le chemin des corps
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 15)

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See detailDynamique des flux de carbone entre l'atmosphère et des écosystèmes ouest-africains: cas des forêts et savanes sous climat soudanien au Bénin
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In West Africa as elsewhere in other parts of the world, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are the main sources for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like some nets ... [more ▼]

In West Africa as elsewhere in other parts of the world, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are the main sources for energy, building poles and livestock fodder. They probably behave like some nets carbon sinks, but there are only few studies that have focused on their carbon exchanges with the atmosphere. Preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy of green house gases, notably CO2. This thesis focuses on the analysis of the CO2 fluxes in three contrasting types of the ecosystem under a Sudanian climate in Benin. Specifically, it was a cultivated forest, a protected forest and a cultivated savannah. Turbulent CO2 fluxes were measured by an eddy-covariance system placed above the ecosystems. The measurements were made during variable periods of 17 months (cultivated forest), 18 months (protected forest) and 29 months (cultivated savannah). The three studied sites have been equipped by the hydro-meteorological observatory AMMA-CATCH and the national project Ouémé 2025. The CO2 fluxes data were completed by some meteorological measurements and by an inventory of dominating species the three sites. Fluxes were examined on the basis of the two main seasons imposed by the cycle of West African Monsoon. The spatial (local and regional) and temporal (hour, seasonal, annual and inter-annual) scales were considered according to the sites. Water was the main factor controlling the dynamic of the terrestrial West African ecosystems. At the daily scales, the radiation was the main driving variable of the net CO2 fluxes. Besides that radiation control, a clear relationship was observed between the net CO2 fluxes and the canopy conductance. A limited impact of saturation deficit was observed, notably during the afternoon. The soil moisture was the main factor governing the ecosystem respiration. However, no clear dependency of the ecosystem respiration on the temperature was observed at hourly scale. After long dry periods, the ecosystem respiration increased immediately in response to the first significant rains. The CO2 fluxes and the characteristics of the protected forest were always higher than those of the cultivated savannah at the daily and seasonal scales. At the annual scale, while the protected forest (Bellefoungou) and cultivated savannah (Nalohou) sequestered an average of 640 ± 50 and 232 ± 27 g C m-2, respectively considering the period of the measurements, the cultivated forest was in equilibrium with 29 ± 16 g C m-2. Overall, the three studied ecosystems were more efficient during morning and wet season than during afternoon and dry season. Finally, this study revealed that the inter-annual variability of the carbon sequestration by the cultivated savannah was mainly controlled by the ecosystem respiration variability in relation to the soil water content variation. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailLa littérature panoramique par ses éditeurs
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2016, February 13)

Phénomène de société et de mode, la littérature panoramique identifiée rétrospectivement par Walter Benjamin constitue surtout une entreprise éditoriale majeure. Elle mobilise un grand nombre d’acteurs ... [more ▼]

Phénomène de société et de mode, la littérature panoramique identifiée rétrospectivement par Walter Benjamin constitue surtout une entreprise éditoriale majeure. Elle mobilise un grand nombre d’acteurs (libraires, illustrateurs, graveurs, imprimeurs) à l’échelle européenne et prépare de nouveaux statuts pour la fonction même d’éditeur, qui voit naître un discours spécifique à son propos, dans une époque qui précède de peu sa professionnalisation et dans un contexte de circulation médiatique accrue de l’imprimé sous ses formes les plus variées. La communication se centrera sur deux éditeurs panoramiques français importants, Curmer et Aubert, pour mettre en évidence la nature de leurs projets, l’originalité de leurs méthodes et l’identité de leurs personnels. On reviendra sur le rôle de passeur culturel du premier et de rassembleur d’une équipe d’artistes du second, deux caractéristiques à l’origine du rayonnement de la littérature panoramique. On examinera aussi les particularités de certaines de leurs productions, entre texte et image, journal et livre, ouvrage de collection et fascicule éphémère, jouant sur les matériaux et les circuits de diffusion. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailMercury and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins from Lower Keys and Coastal Everglades (South Florida)
Damseaux, France ULg; Kiszka, Jeremy; Heithaus, Michael et al

Poster (2016, February 12)

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a major apex predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of South Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida ... [more ▼]

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a major apex predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of South Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was 1) to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, DLCs and PCDD/Fs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from the LFK (8 males and 16 females) and from the FCE (13 males and 9 females). Pollutants were analysed by the mean of Direct Mercury analyser (for T-Hg), GC-ECD (POPs) and GC-MS (DLCs and PCDD/Fs). The PCBs were the main compounds found in bottlenose dolphins from the LFK and FCE. The most present congeners where the CB no. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 (ΣPCBs LFK males: 13420.5 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs LFK females: 9683.4 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs FCE males: 5637.9 ng.g-1 lipids, ΣPCBs FCE females: 1426.9 ng.g-1 lipids). PCBs concentrations were significantly higher in individuals from the LFK than those from the FCE but significantly lower than those from other locations in the south-eastern US. Unlike organic pollutants, T-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in FCE male dolphins (LFK: 2936.0 ng.g-1 dw, FCE: 10048.3 ng.g-1 dw). These high concentrations were the highest recorded in the south-eastern US and are most likely due to the presence of mangrove ecosystems. This study highlights the complexity of contaminant dynamics (inorganic vs. organic), even at small spatial scales. [less ▲]

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See detailBiologie, sociologie, philosophie. Le fait moral entre Durkheim et Bergson
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Conference (2016, February 12)

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See detailThe secret life of a Mediterranean seagrass litter macrofauna community : a history of oxygen
Remy, François ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Sturaro, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2016, February 12)

Most of the foliar primary production of Posidonia oceanica, a major Mediterranean seagrass, sheds in autumn and is exported from the meadow to adjacent areas to form "Exported Macrophytodetritus ... [more ▼]

Most of the foliar primary production of Posidonia oceanica, a major Mediterranean seagrass, sheds in autumn and is exported from the meadow to adjacent areas to form "Exported Macrophytodetritus Accumulations", EMAs. These EMAs are a habitat, shelter and feeding place for an abundant and diverse community of macrofauna. Being very dynamic places and potentially playing a role of transition compartment between water column and sediment, EMAs present high variability in term of physicochemical conditions and more specifically in term of oxygen concentration. Mild to severe hypoxic periods (2 - 0.01 mL O2.L-1) can be observed in situ at different moments of the year, and this variability thus potentially play a structuring role on the macrofauna community. During this study, our main specific questions were (1) Does oxygen stratification occur inside EMAs? (2) If present, how long does it take to observe this stratification? (3) Is the macrofauna impacted and do the dominant species occupy defined positions inside the different micro-habitats? To assess the importance of this impact, an experimental study was conducted in October 2014 near the STARESO oceanographic station (Calvi, Corsica) using an original "layer-sampling" design. The experimental construction was put underwater inside an EMA for 48 hours at a depth of 8m. Samples were collected (N=8) in a 20cm thick EMA using "sealed" boxes to sample every 5cm, from the sediment, to the water column. Oxygen, nutrients and of course the litter itself (containing the macrofauna) were sampled carefully to make sure no exchange occurred between the 4 different layers. After data analysis, the assessment was clear: oxygen stratification occurred in less than 48h and oxygen level inside the layer close to the sediment experienced a fast decrease below the hypoxia threshold (2 mL O2.L-1). Diversity was highly impacted, showing a clear positive link with oxygen concentration. Macrofauna also appeared to follow this oxygen stratification but this response was very species specific. Some species didn't follow oxygen and are present in every layer and most of them were strongly positively linked to oxygen concentration. But a few (Nebalia strausi and Athanas nitescens) were strongly negatively linked to oxygen concentration and were present only in the more hypoxic layers. This experimentation thus confirmed our in situ observations. Oxygen stratification occurred quickly (< 48h) when EMAs were experiencing calm weather. This stratification observed from the water column to the sediment was very marked. Diversity and abundance of most abundant macrofauna species were drastically influenced by this stratification, showing the importance of these micro-habitats in structuring of this macrofauna community. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic plasticity of Antarctic echinoids under contrasted environmental conditions
Michel, Loïc ULg; David, Bruno; Dubois, Philippe et al

Poster (2016, February 12)

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was ... [more ▼]

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was studied in three neighbouring regions (Drake Passage, Bransfield Strait and Weddell Sea) featuring several depth-related habitats offering different trophic environments to benthic consumers. Three families with contrasting feeding habits (Cidaridae, Echinidae and Schizasteridae) were studied. Gut content examination and stable isotopes ratios of C and N suggest that each of the studied families showed a different response to variation in environmental and food conditions. Schizasteridae trophic plasticity was low, and these sea urchins were bulk sediment feeders relying on sediment-associated organic matter in all regions and/or depth-related habitats. Cidaridae consumed the most animal-derived material. Their diet varied according to the considered area, as sea urchins from Bransfield Strait relied mostly on living and/or dead animal material, while specimens from Weddell Sea fed on a mixture of dead animal material and other detritus. Echinidae also showed important trophic plasticity. They fed on various detrital items in Bransfield Strait, and selectivity of ingested material varied across depth-related habitats. In Weddell Sea, stable isotopes revealed that they mostly relied on highly 13C-enriched food items, presumably microbially-reworked benthic detritus. The differences in adaptive strategies could lead to family-specific responses of Antarctic echinoids to environmental and food-related changes. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit international et pacifisme en Belgique de 1870 à 1940 : une cohabitation complexe
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, February 12)

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See detailLe projet DEMETER. Quelles transférabilités ?
Georges, François ULg

Scientific conference (2016, February 12)

Dans cette conférence de clôture du projet Tempus DEMETER, nous abordons trois thématiques : l’approche par compétences, l’enseignement en ligne et la pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Ces trois ... [more ▼]

Dans cette conférence de clôture du projet Tempus DEMETER, nous abordons trois thématiques : l’approche par compétences, l’enseignement en ligne et la pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Ces trois thématiques participent au développement d’un apprentissage de qualité. Nous les fondons théoriquement et abordons les conditions de leur déploiement dans l’enseignement supérieur. [less ▲]

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