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See detailLivre Blanc Céréales
Bodson, Bernard ULiege; Watillon, Bernard

Book published by Gembloux Agro Bio Tech (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège)
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See detailPush-Pull strategy to control aphids in Belgium and China
Xu, Qingxuan ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human health ... [more ▼]

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most cultivated crops in temperate climates. As its pests are mainly controlled with insecticides which are harmful to the environment and human health, alternative practices such as intercropping have been studied for their potential to promote biological control. Fifty original research papers were obtained from a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature. Results from a vote-counting analysis indicated that, in the majority of studies, pest abundance was significantly reduced in intercropping systems compared with pure stands. However, the occurrence of their natural enemies as well as predation and parasitism rates were not significantly increased. Nevertheless, other practices could be combined with intercropping to favour natural enemies and enhance pest control. Dispersal of viruses is intimately tied to their vectors. Aphids are known to invest in costly antipredator behavior when perceiving cues of predators. Before presenting the results and the answers to the previous questions, a brief research was conducted in order to have an overview of the intercropping on the spread of aphids, to assess the potential impact of intercropping systems attracting natural enemies on the virus transmission. We studied aphid antipredator behavior in intercropping with wheat-broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as a model. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus, is an important vector of the barley yellow dwarf virus. The effects of two natural aphid enemies, adult and larvae of the seven-spot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linneaus, on R. padi dispersion was studied under laboratory conditions. Results show that in receptor lines (other lines than the source one), two hours after the experiment started, aphids were more abundant in monoculture than intercropping in the presence of ladybeetle adults and larvae and after 24 hours, it was still the case in the presence of predatory larvae. These results might be explained by the non-host plant chemical cues and the physical barrier that was broad-bean plants confusing R. padi when searching for their host plants after being dropped from wheat by predators. After make sure that the intercropping can reduce the dispersal of aphids in the presence of predators, in fine potentially limiting virus dispersal, especially shortly after aphids colonize plants. Then we try to solve how to increase the number of natural enemies of intercropping in Belgium and China. Semiochemical substances have been tested to enhance biological control, with inconsistent results. Combining semiochemical and intercropping can be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In Belgium, a two-year setup involving wheat–pea strip intercropping combined with the release of E-β-farnesene (EBF) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) was tested as a push–pull strategy to simultaneously repell aphids and attract beneficials. Two types of slow-release formulation (i.e., oil and alginate beads) containing EBF or MeSA were deployed with intercropping. The abundance of aphids was significantly decreased, hoverfly larvae and mummified aphids increased on both pea plants and wheat tillers by the release of oil-formulated EBF and MeSA. The proportion parasitism of aphids-parasitism rate was also increased by treating both crops in both years. Releasing EBF through oil rather than alginate beads proved significantly better for attracting natural enemies and reducing aphids. Aphids were negatively correlated with the density of hoverflies (both adults and larvae) and numbers of mummies. We also tested the combining in China and the experiments were set-up: wheat-pea strip intercropping solely, intercropping combined with the release of EBF, and intercropping combined with the release of MeSA, each treatment repeated three times. The total number of aphids throughout the growing season was significantly decreased in treatments with releases of semiochemicals compared to intercropping solely. The effect was stronger with MeSA than with EBF on the control of R. padi, and hoverflies and lacewings were twice more numerous in MeSA. All the results showed that combining intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA formulated in oil can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies. Therefore, the combination of both strategies could help farmers reduce the use of insecticides Dispersal of viruses is intimately tied to their vectors. Aphids are known to invest in costly antipredator behavior when perceiving cues of predators. Before presenting the results and the answers to the previous questions, a brief research was conducted in order to have an overview of the intercropping on the spread of aphids, to assess the potential impact of intercropping systems attracting natural enemies on the virus transmission. We studied aphid antipredator behavior in intercropping with wheat-broad bean (Vicia faba L.) as a model. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi Linnaeus, is an important vector of the barley yellow dwarf virus. The effects of two natural aphid enemies, adult and larvae of the seven-spot ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linneaus, on R. padi dispersion was studied under laboratory conditions. Results show that the total number of aphids was higher in intercropping than monoculture in treatments without ladybeetles, while the contrary was observed in the presence of ladybeetle larvae. These results might be explained by the non-host plant chemical cues and the physical barrier that was broad-bean plants confusing R. padi when searching for their host plants after being dropped from wheat by predators (i.e. associational resistance). After make sure that the intercropping can reduce the dispersal of aphids in the presence of predators, in fine potentially limiting virus dispersal, especially shortly after aphids colonize plants. Next step will be to solve how to increase the number of natural enemies of intercropping in Belgium and China. Semiochemical substances have been tested to enhance biological control, with inconsistent results. Combining semiochemical and intercropping can be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In Belgium, a two-year setup involving wheat–pea strip intercropping combined with the release of E-β-farnesene (EBF) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) was tested as a push–pull strategy to simultaneously repell aphids and attract beneficials. Two types of slow-release formulation (i.e., oil and alginate beads) containing EBF or MeSA were deployed with intercropping. The abundance of aphids was significantly decreased, hoverfly larvae and mummified aphids increased on both pea plants and wheat tillers by the release of oil-formulated EBF and MeSA. The proportion parasitism of aphids-parasitism rate was also increased by treating both crops in both years. Releasing EBF through oil rather than alginate beads proved significantly better for attracting natural enemies and reducing aphids. Aphids were negatively correlated with the density of hoverflies (both adults and larvae) and numbers of mummies. We also tested the combining in China and the experiments were set-up: wheat-pea strip intercropping solely, intercropping combined with the release of EBF, and intercropping combined with the release of MeSA, each treatment repeated three times. The total number of aphids throughout the growing season was significantly decreased in treatments with releases of semiochemicals compared to intercropping solely. The effect was stronger with MeSA than with EBF on the control of R. padi, and hoverflies and lacewings were twice more numerous in MeSA. All these results showed that combining intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA formulated in oil can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies. Therefore, the combination of both strategies could help farmers reduce the use of insecticides. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
See detailToward discovery of novel key genes for pancreatic beta cell regeneration in zebrafish
Carril Pardo, Claudio Andrès ULiege; Bergemann, David ULiege; Massoz, Laura ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 14)

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic strategies to preserve beta-cell mass and function and improve insulin treatments, beta-cell replacement constitutes a promising alternative to replenish the pancreas with functional beta-cells. Several observations of pancreatic cell plasticity has led to the hope that triggering beta-cell regeneration within the pancreas could be harnessed in future therapies. Still, mammals show limited regenerative capabilities, making difficult the study of these mechanisms. In contrast, zebrafish is extensively used for regeneration studies notably of beta-cells. We recently showed that the adult zebrafish ducts display characteristics of embryonic pancreatic progenitors that can give rise to beta-cells in physiological and induced diabetic condition*, and we determined the transcriptomic profile of zebrafish pancreatic ducts during beta-cell regeneration. To identify new genes crucial for beta-cell regeneration we plan to investigate the role of about 10 selected candidate genes by analyzing invalidating mutations created by CRISPR/Cas9. Their effect on beta-cell regeneration will be studied in 7-20 old larvae which we have established as experimental platform for functional studies. This project should help decipher the molecular mechanism of beta-cell regeneration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (3 ULiège)
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See detailThe MAR model : CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX results
Wyard, Coraline ULiege; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULiege; Fettweis, Xavier ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 14)

This research discusses the results obtained by running the MAR model over the CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX domains. The MAR results depend on its horizontal resolution (5 - 10 - 20 km), its version (v3.6 vs ... [more ▼]

This research discusses the results obtained by running the MAR model over the CORDEX.be and EURO-CORDEX domains. The MAR results depend on its horizontal resolution (5 - 10 - 20 km), its version (v3.6 vs v3.7), and on the reanalysis used as forcing. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of the Antarctic surface mass balance to oceanic perturbations
Kittel, Christoph ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 14)

Regional   climate   models   (RCMs)   are   suitable   numerical   tools   to   study   the   surface   mass balance (SMB ... [more ▼]

Regional   climate   models   (RCMs)   are   suitable   numerical   tools   to   study   the   surface   mass balance (SMB) of the wide polar ice sheets due to their high spatial resolution and polaradapted physics. Nonetheless, RCMs are driven at their boundaries and over the ocean by reanalysis or global climate model (GCM) products and are thus influenced by potential biases in these large­scale fields. These biases can be significant for both the atmosphere and the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea ice concentration and sea surface temperature). With the RCM MAR, a set of sensitivity experiments has been realized to assess the direct response of the SMB of the Antarctic ice sheet to oceanic perturbations. MAR is forced by ERA­Interim and anomalies based on mean GCM biases are introduced in sea surface conditions. Results show significant increases (decreases) of liquid and solid precipitation due to biases related to warm (cold) oceans. As precipitation is mainly caused by low­pressure systems that intrude into the continent and do not penetrate far inland, coastal areas are more sensitive than inland regions. Furthermore,  warm ocean representative  biases lead to anomalies as large  as  anomalies simulated by other RCMs or GCMs for the end of the 21st century. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Metabolomics Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) to the Development of New Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Inhibitors (PDK)
Arslan, Deniz ULiege; Schoumacher, Matthieu ULiege; Pirotte, Bernard ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 14)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly population of industrialized countries. This blindness results from the deterioration of the macula, a small part of ... [more ▼]

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly population of industrialized countries. This blindness results from the deterioration of the macula, a small part of the retina specialized for the high-acuity vision. Exudative AMD, called “wet”, is characterized by the formation of new blood vessels growing under the retina according to a process named choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Currently, the aetiology and pathogenesis of AMD remain unclear. Nevertheless, a recent metabolomics study performed on the serum of “wet” AMD patients and on a CNV murine model, that mimics the effect of “wet” AMD, have demonstrated that lactate level is clearly involved in the severity of the pathology as well as the relationship between lactate, CNV and AMD [1]. According to this result, we suggest a new therapeutic approach of AMD based on the normalization of blood lactate level. The modulation of the lactate plasma concentration by treatment of the animals with synthetic compounds and more specifically Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors significantly decrease the CNV. PDK and its four isoforms (PDK1-4) regulate the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a major role in the metabolic pathway of glucose, by reversible phosphorylation. Starting from these results, development of new PDK inhibitors could open the way to innovative treatment opportunities in AMD disease. Different analogues of (R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (fig.1) have been already synthetized and pharmacological evaluation is currently in progress. According to the results obtained, various pharmacomodulations will be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailLes documents d'urbanisme. Vers quel typologies de représentation sous le paradigme du BIM ?
Boutemadja, Abdelkader ULiege

Conference (2017, September 14)

Sous le nouveau paradigme du BIM et du SIG 3D, quel typologies de représentation graphique doivent adopter les documents d'urbanisme. Il s'agit d'une reflexion qui donne à entrevoir les possibilités de ... [more ▼]

Sous le nouveau paradigme du BIM et du SIG 3D, quel typologies de représentation graphique doivent adopter les documents d'urbanisme. Il s'agit d'une reflexion qui donne à entrevoir les possibilités de représentation qu'offrent les nouvelles technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailModélisation des mécanismes psychologiques du processus de radicalisation
Garcet, Serge ULiege

Conference (2017, September 14)

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (2 ULiège)
See detailAtelier de Grounded Theory Method
Lejeune, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 14)

De nombreuses publications se réclament de l'analyse par théorisation ancrée (Grounded Theory Method). Ce succès suggère même que cette technique constitue une formalisation générique de la recherche ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses publications se réclament de l'analyse par théorisation ancrée (Grounded Theory Method). Ce succès suggère même que cette technique constitue une formalisation générique de la recherche qualitative. Un examen approfondi révèle cependant que, de ces nombreux travaux se réclamant de la GTM, peu rencontrent effectivement les critères essentiels que constituent l'étiquetage de l'expérience vécue, la tenue d'un journal de bord et l'élaboration d'une conceptualisation originale. Croisant ses expériences de sociologue de terrain et de formateur en recherche qualitative, Christophe Lejeune met en garde contre les pièges que recèle la recherche qualitative et présente les solutions pratiques qu'y apporte l'analyse par théorisation ancrée. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (9 ULiège)
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See detailDevelopment of inversion techniques in Asteroseismology
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of cyproterone acetate and vertically-transmitted microsporidia parasite on Gammarus pulex sperm production
Gismondi, Eric ULiege; Fivet, Adeline ULiege; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULiege

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017), 24(29), 2341723421

Endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) and parasitism can both interfere with the reproduction process of organisms. The amphipod Gammarus pulex is the host of the vertically transmitted microsporidia ... [more ▼]

Endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) and parasitism can both interfere with the reproduction process of organisms. The amphipod Gammarus pulex is the host of the vertically transmitted microsporidia Dictyocoela duebenum, and this work was devoted to the investigation of the effect of an exposure to the anti-androgen compound, cyproterone acetate (CPA), and/or of the presence of D. duebenum on the spermatozoa production and length. Significant reduction of the spermatozoa production was observed when G. pulex males were uninfected and exposed to CPA. There also appeared a lower number of spermatozoa when D. duebenum infects G. pulex, whatever the exposure condition. Moreover, we highlighted that CPA has no effect on spermatozoa production when males are infected by D. duebenum, and no treatment has impacted the spermatozoa length. Our results suggest CPA and D. duebenum could impact the endocrine system of G. pulex and especially processes close to the spermatozoa production (e.g., androgenic gland, androgen gland hormone released, gonad-inhibiting hormone synthesized by X-organ). However, as no mechanism of action was highlighted, further testing need to be performed to improve the understanding of their impacts. Finally, results confirm that vertically transmitted microsporidia could be a confounding factor in the endocrine disruption assessments in Gammaridae. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (7 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow to distinguish between nouns and classifiers in Binominal Naming Constructions? Answers from two Western Amazonian languages
Van linden, An ULiege; Rose, Françoise

Conference (2017, September 13)

Western Amazonian languages stand out in showing classifiers that – in addition to the well-established classifier environments – also appear as derivational devices on nouns (Payne 1987; Aikhenvald 2000 ... [more ▼]

Western Amazonian languages stand out in showing classifiers that – in addition to the well-established classifier environments – also appear as derivational devices on nouns (Payne 1987; Aikhenvald 2000; Seifart & Payne 2007). Since classifiers are commonly assumed to originate in nouns (Aikhenvald 2000), classifier languages confront us with an analytical problem in the domain of Binominal Naming Constructions (BNCs), i.e. how to distinguish between the derivational use of classifiers on nouns (1)-(2) and noun-noun compounds (3)-(4). The present paper addresses this problem on the basis of primary data collected on Harakmbut (isolate, Peru), e.g. (1) and (3), and Mojeño Trinitario (Arawak, Bolivia), e.g. (2) and (4), two unrelated (and not in contact) Western Amazonian languages. While Mojeño Trinitario will be shown to be a multiple classifier language with an extensive set of classifiers, Harakmbut turns out to show (a small set of) classifiers only, in fewer environments. Yet, both languages will appear to behave strikingly similarly in the domain of BNCs. (1) classifier-derived nouns in Harakmbut a) siro-pi metal-CLF:stick ‘knife’ (cf. Hart 1963: 1) b) siro-pu’ metal-CLF:cylindrical;hollow ‘metal tube’ (cf. Hart 1963: 1) (2) classifier-derived nouns in Mojeño Trinitario a) yuk(u)-pi fire-CLF:long;flexible ‘candle’ b) wray(u)-'a chicken-CLF:oval ‘chicken egg’ (3) noun-noun compounds in Harakmbut a) ndumba-kuwa forest-dog ‘bush dog’ (Helberg 1984: 252; Tripp 1995: 194) b) äwït-ku giant.otter-head ‘giant otter’s head; person with giant otter’s head’ (4) noun-noun compounds in Mojeño Trinitario a) mari-chóchoku stone-river.bank ‘stony riverbank’ b) paku-miro dog-face ‘dog’s face; person with dog’s face’ In this paper, we will discuss how noun-classifier derivation compares to noun-noun compounding at the phonological, prosodic, semantic and syntactic levels in both Harakmbut and Mojeño Trinitario. For example, noun-noun compounds consist of clear “Thing-roots” (Haspelmath 2012) in both languages, with one element being the morphosyntactic and semantic head. In noun-CLF formations, however, classifiers do not really denote a “thing”, but rather a shape or quality; they do not contain a head. As a factor bearing on this analytical problem, we will show that in both languages the noun/classifier distinction is blurred by the fact that there is a class of nouns that share many features with the canonical classifiers. In both languages, these nouns refer to parts of entities, such as bodyparts, cf. (3b) and (4b), or plant parts. Morphologically, these are bound roots, which require affixation to obtain independent nominal status, specifically possessor prefixes in Mojeño Trinitario and (semantically empty) nominalizing prefixes in Harakmbut. Interestingly, in both languages such N-N compounds as (3b) and (4b) can be used as endocentric compounds in their literal sense, but they can also be used exocentrically to refer to a person whose (physical) characteristics resemble those of the referent of the endocentric compound. In Mojeño Trinitario, such exocentric uses take determiners for human referents, whereas neither component noun refers to a human entity (Harakmbut lacks any formal indication for such uses). More generally, we will examine to what extent these bound nouns can be analysed as incipient classifiers, and formulate diachronic hypotheses informed by our analysis of BNCs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULiège)
See detailDevelopment of SERS nanosensors for the detection of small bioactive molecules by cellular analysis in complex matrices: Application to dopamine
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 13)

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 ... [more ▼]

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 cells. First, the synthesis of the SERS substrate, gold nanoparticles, and its characterization. Then the development of the method with the help of a design of experiments and the demonstration of the specificity of the method over other structurally related catecholamines. And finally, the implementation of the method on the culture medium of PC-12 cells, on an HEPES buffer having served to wash the cells and on the PC-12 cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (5 ULiège)
See detail"Cadrer, c'est choisir." Introduction à l'éducation aux médias.
Hamers, Jérémy ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of wildflower strips and an adjacent forest on aphids and their natural enemies in a pea field
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Mouchon, Pierre; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in Insects (2017), 8(3), 99

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation ... [more ▼]

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%), questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvanced data processing for high-contrast imaging - Pushing exoplanet direct detection limits with machine learning
Gómez González, Carlos ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Since ancient times, mankind has wondered whether other solar systems exist around other stars somewhere in the Universe. It took many centuries to finally prove the existence of extra-solar planetary ... [more ▼]

Since ancient times, mankind has wondered whether other solar systems exist around other stars somewhere in the Universe. It took many centuries to finally prove the existence of extra-solar planetary systems. Nowadays, more than 3500 exoplanets have been discovered, mostly thanks to indirect detection methods. Indeed, the task of directly detecting exoplanets through high-contrast imaging (HCI) is a formidable challenge, and has only been enabled in the last decade thanks to advances in instrumentation and dedicated image processing algorithms. This last component of the exoplanet direct imaging pipeline is what ultimately pushes the detection limits and sensitivity of HCI instruments and survey campaigns. Unfortunately, the HCI community has been slow in adopting the latest developments in data management and machine learning for analyzing the increasing amount of available data. This dissertation is an attempt to fill in this very gap, and develops at the interface of computer science, machine learning, statistics, and astrophysics. This work contributes to the field of data processing for HCI in two main ways. On one hand, I have developed an open source \texttt{Python} library for taking HCI data from the raw state up to the characterization of companions. It implements state-of-the-art approaches and is positioning itself as one of the de facto software solutions for building HCI pipelines. I have also participated to the critical analysis of data from different first and second generation HCI instruments. On the other hand, I have approached the task of exoplanet detection in angular differential imaging sequences from a computer vision and machine learning perspective. This interdisciplinary work has led to novel algorithmic solutions, extending unsupervised learning techniques widely used in HCI and proposing advanced supervised learning approaches based on cutting-edge deep learning models. My novel algorithms have been presented using a robust performance assessment framework to produce large comparative performance studies. These studies show the improved sensitivity vs specificity trade-off of the proposed supervised detection approach. The proposed algorithms bring the possibility of re-processing existing HCI databases to maximize their scientific return and potentially improve the demographics of directly imaged exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic Development and Structural Change
Van Neuss, Leif ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture ... [more ▼]

This doctoral dissertation contributes to the understanding of structural change, often defined as the process of reallocation of economic activity and resources across the three broad sectors agriculture (primary sector), manufacturing (secondary sector) and services (tertiary sector). Increasingly connected to the study of modern growth, the analysis of structural change has known an important revival over recent decades, due in part to the economic concerns associated with the movement of deindustrialization that has particularly affected the world’s most economically successful countries since the last third of the 20th century. These concerns have indeed fed many discussions on the causes and consequences of structural change, as well as on the role of policy instruments in driving and accompanying the inter-sectoral reallocation of activity. The first part of the thesis gets particularly interested in the driving forces behind the process of structural change. It begins by placing structural change in a very long historical perspective, notably shedding light on the factors that contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, an event characterized by the acceleration of structural change and traditionally considered as a turning point in the history of mankind because it eventually brought about modernity. It then analyzes the main causes of structural change in market economies, putting a particular emphasis on two mechanisms of structural change that have been largely overlooked in the recent multi-sector growth literature: changes in input-output (sectoral) linkages and changes in comparative advantage via globalization and trade. With respect to trade, an empirical analysis reveals that global exchanges have the potential to influence significantly and substantially a country’s sectoral patterns of employment, and that the estimated contribution of trade, especially of trade with developing countries, to recent structural change (deindustrialization) in affluent countries may be revised upwards when resorting to better-suited indicators of trade in manufactures. The second part of this doctoral thesis deals more with the economic effects of structural change. In particular, it proposes a new shift-share method, which is an accounting method aimed at computing the impact of the economic structure - or structural change - on a territory’s economic performance. By way of illustration, it provides an application to manufacturing employment in the Belgian provinces between 1995 and 2007. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 ULiège)