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See detailMitigating the Nuclear ‘Dual-Use Dilemma’: Suggestions for the Enhancement of the Culture of Responsibility
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in ... [more ▼]

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in nuclear field for addressing the ‘dual-use’ feature of nuclear technologies, and based on precautionary, proactionary or cost/benefit approaches, it suggests the adoption of a framework based on the notion of ‘responsible stewardship’. This model entails: (a) a constant analysis of nuclear technology, both on the side of risks and of benefits, through the involvement and cooperation of all the stakeholders in the field (the involvement of both ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ actors, i.e. governments and scientific community); (b) the adoption of policies through ‘hard law’ and ‘soft law’ sources, which should be periodically revised, and based on the proportionality principle and the reasonableness one (with a balance among rights and freedom, from a constitutional viewpoint); (c) an ongoing communication, dialogue and interaction between actors in the nuclear area. A specific attention is devoted to the balance between the freedom to research and the security needs. Then, the concrete ways for applying such model are explained, in particular with regards to the issue of control of materials, education of people, and control of information. Finally, the historical steps in the governance of nuclear technologies and the positions of different religions addressing the issue have been explored, in order to provide some examples of the suggested approach. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalies de l’expérience de soi exprimées par le sujet schizophrène et par ses proches
Lo Presti, Fanny; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2015, November 19)

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See detailL'Azacytidine comme traitement de la maladie du greffon contre l'hôte de type chronique sclérodermique expérimentale.
Fransolet, Gilles ULg; Ehx, Grégory ULg; SOMJA, Joan ULg et al

Conference (2015, November 19)

Introduction: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has remained a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the last decades. Following unmanipulated peripheral-blood ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has remained a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the last decades. Following unmanipulated peripheral-blood stem cell transplantation, 60% of the patients experience chronic GVHD while approximately 15% of them develop a sclerodermic form of chronic GVHD characterized by multiple organ fibrosis and loss of skin elasticity. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal protective role in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD by inhibiting alloreactive conventional T cells (Tconvs). Several studies have shown that hypomethylating agents such as azacytidine (Aza) can demethylate the master transcription factor of Treg (Forkhead box protein 3 factor, FoxP3), thus promoting Treg differentiation from Tconvs. This work investigates the impact of Aza in a classical murine model of sclerodermic chronic GVHD (B10.D2  BALB/cJ). Methods: In vitro analyses have been performed to determine the impact of Aza on collagen production. NIH-3T3 fibroblastic cells were plated and stimulated with 50 ng of PDGF or 10 ng of TGF-beta. Cells were then cultured with various concentrations of Aza for 48 hours. After culture, cells were stained with Sirius Red before quantification of collagen amount by absorbance at 490 nm. For in vivo experiments, lethally irradiated (7 Gy) BALB/cJ recipient mice were injected with 107 bone marrow cells + 7.107splenocytes from B10.D2 donor mice to induce scl-cGVHD. Recipients were injected with either 0,5 or 2 mg/kg of Aza every 48 hours from day 10 to 30 following transplantation. GVHD was scored using a five criteria scale (weight loss, activity, fibrosis, hair loss and mice posture; 0-1-2 points/criteria). Mice were sacrificed at a score of 8/10 (or > 20% weight loss) or at day 52 after transplantation (end of experiment). Results: Concerning in vitro analyses, results suggest a decreased production of collagen at higher concentration of Aza with both stimulations (seen by a gradual diminution of absorbance). For in vivo experiments, mice treated with Aza 0.5 mg/kg (n = 14) or 2 mg/kg (n = 25) had significant lower clinical scores of GVHD compared to control ones (n = 23) after treatment. FACS analysis showed a higher proportion of Treg among CD4+ T cells in the blood of Aza 2 mg/kg mice than in control mice at day 35 following transplantation (P = 0.047), as well as a higher percentage of Tregs expressing the KI67 proliferative marker on the same time point (P = 0.0005). Finally, analyses of the cellular blood components with Cell-dyn demonstrated that Aza 2 mg/kg treated mice were significantly lymphopenic as compared to control mice at day 35 after transplantation (P = 0.05). Conclusion : Aza prevented sclerodermic GVHD in this classical murine model of chronic GVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailA KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICA
Mahyou, Hamid; Tychon, Bernard ULg; Balaghi, Riad et al

in Land Degradation & Development (2015)

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude comparative de nouveaux indices de détection de la réponse qui s’apparentent au hasard et à l’inattention
Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg et al

Conference (2015, November 19)

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs dans une situation de testing. Plusieurs approches ont déjà été développées pour détecter ce type de réponse (Zickar et Drasgow, 1996 ... [more ▼]

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs dans une situation de testing. Plusieurs approches ont déjà été développées pour détecter ce type de réponse (Zickar et Drasgow, 1996). Parmi celles-ci, l’utilisation d’indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés (person-fit indices) est l’approche qui est la plus étudiée et qui semble la plus prometteuse (Karabatsos, 2003; Meijer et Sijtsma, 2001). Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous nous concentrerons sur trois indices de détection populaires qui présentent des caractéristiques permettant d’en faciliter l’interprétation : lz (Drasgow, Levine et Williams, 1985), ZU (Wright et Masters, 1982) et ZW (Wright et Masters, 1982). Toutefois, il s’est avéré qu’ils sont tous fortement affectés par le fait que l’habileté d’un étudiant est estimée plutôt que réelle (Li et Olejnik, 1997; Molenaar et Hoijtink, 1990). Voilà pourquoi Snijders (2001) a proposé une version corrigée de l’indice lz (nommée lz*) qui prend en considération ce problème important. Nous avons déjà appliqué la correction de Snijders aux indices U et W en créant les indices ZU* et ZW* (Magis, Béland et Raîche, 2014). L’objectif de cette étude sera d’examiner le comportement des indices corrigés lz*, ZU* et ZW* et de leur version standardisée. Pour ce faire, nous effectuerons trois études différentes : une analyse descriptive des scores des indices, une analyse des erreurs de type I et une analyse de leur puissance de détection. Les analyses ont démontré que ce sont les indices corrigés lz* et ZW* qui sont les plus intéressants à utiliser puisque leurs scores suivent approximativement la loi N(0,1) et puisqu’ils permettent de bien détecter les réponses qui s’apparentent au hasard et à l’inattention. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Grid(s) versus Microgrids
Ernst, Damien ULg

Speech/Talk (2015)

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See detailProfessionnel-le-s de l’enfance : Les compétences au cœur du métier
Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

A partir des résultats de deux recherches participatives sur les formations initiales dans le champ de l’enfance, financées par l’Office de la Naissance et de l’Enfance (ONE) en Fédération Wallonie ... [more ▼]

A partir des résultats de deux recherches participatives sur les formations initiales dans le champ de l’enfance, financées par l’Office de la Naissance et de l’Enfance (ONE) en Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles (César et al., 2012 ; Pirard et al., 2015), la communication présente une série de principes directeurs pour les politiques de formation et le développement professionnel des acteurs concernés. Elle propose une redéfinition des compétences d’accueil articulées autour des dimensions organisationnelles, réflexives et relationnelles qui permet de dépasser la vision technique et hygiénico-médicale du passé et de reconnaitre la dimension psychoéducative qui s’est affirmée de manière plus récente. [less ▲]

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See detailVoyage dans le Système Solaire
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detail5-Azacytidine and Rapamycin: different and synergistic effect on ex vivo expansion of natural human T Regulatory cells
Conteduca, Giuseppina ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

BACKGROUND: Natural T regulatory cells (Treg) are challenging to expand ex vivo, and this has severely hindered in vivo evaluation of their therapeutic potential. 5-Azacytidine (5-azaC) and Rapamycin ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Natural T regulatory cells (Treg) are challenging to expand ex vivo, and this has severely hindered in vivo evaluation of their therapeutic potential. 5-Azacytidine (5-azaC) and Rapamycin (RAPA) are immunosuppressive drugs that promote selectively the expansion of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 5-azaC and RAPA could be used together to promote the ex vivo expansion of Tregs purified from adult human peripheral blood. METHODS: CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells were isolated from PBMC of normal controls using Miltenyi beads and FACS ARIA sorting. These cells subsets were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and 200 IU/ml of IL2 for 2 weeks. RAPA (100nM) and 5-azaC (1µM) were added to half of the cultures. We monitored cell expansion and after harvest, the cell phenotype, gene expression, T suppression activity and Annexin V binding were determined and compared to values obtained with control cell culture and with freshly-separated CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells. Also we tested the absolute number of Treg in the several culture conditions during the time of expansion. RESULTS: We found that 5-azaC helped maintain FOXP3 expression during the expansion process probably by promoting the conversion of T conventional (Tconv) in Treg, instead Rapa induces selectively apoptosis in Tconv cells and expansion in Treg. The addition of 5-azaC to RAPA treated cultures improved gene expression of FOXP3, CD25, STAT5 and TGF-B resulted in enhanced Treg expansion and suppressive activity. Also Rapa and 5-AzaC combination sustain Bcl-2 protein expression in Treg conferring resistance to apoptosis process. CONCLUSION: 5-azaC may have utility in ex vivo expansion of human Tregs, not as a single agent, but in combination with RAPA. These data may considerably accelerate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of autoimmune disease or posttransplant alloreactions by the adoptive transfer of nTreg cells. [less ▲]

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See detailNew technologies in Mycology: PCR for diagnosis
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

Molecular biology techniques are widely used in mycology. First of all they are used for confirmation of difficult or uncertain identifications. In this case PCR followed by ITS sequencing is generally ... [more ▼]

Molecular biology techniques are widely used in mycology. First of all they are used for confirmation of difficult or uncertain identifications. In this case PCR followed by ITS sequencing is generally used. For diagnostic purposes, PCR is mostly applied for the detection of invasive infections such as pneumocystosis, candidosis or aspergillosis. However these techniques (Candida and Aspergillus detection) are still not included in the recommandations given by EORTC by lack of standardisation. However, the development of new commercially available techniques, will probably change the diagnostic algorithm. New commercial PCR kits applied to the detection of dermatophytes are also recently available to the laboratories and they will be a good complement to culture-based diagnostic methods. [less ▲]

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See detailLes portails occidentaux de la cathédrale d'Amiens
Lekane, Marie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

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See detailParler pour soi-même dans un espace médiatique : les postures énonciatives dans le blog d'Ivan Rioufol
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

A partir de l'analyse de l'énonciation dans le Blog d'Ivan Rioufol, je tente de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques politiques de ce discours, c'est-à-dire la manière dont il structure l'espace public ... [more ▼]

A partir de l'analyse de l'énonciation dans le Blog d'Ivan Rioufol, je tente de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques politiques de ce discours, c'est-à-dire la manière dont il structure l'espace public et la place qu'il y donne à son lecteur. Ce sont donc les effets politiques et policiers, au sens de Rancière, que j'y mets en évidence. [less ▲]

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See detail“Shakespeare was wrong”: counter-discursive intertextuality in Gail Jones’s Sorry
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(6), 661671

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and ... [more ▼]

In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and epistemological supremacy. Starting from this unsettling premise, this article seeks to define Jones’s counter-discursive use of Shakespearean intertextuality. While it has, for decades, proved a risky task for both historians and novelists to write about the delicate issue of silence in Australia without risking the appropriation of an Aboriginal voice, the article examines how Jones exploits defamiliarizing techniques in order to undermine the dominant European discourse (as encoded in the Shakespearean text) without assuming an Aboriginal perspective. Her aim is to facilitate the emergence of an incipient, tentatively-defined counter-discourse sufficiently attuned to the specific realities of Australia. The article argues that by adopting an Australian cultural perspective designed to decentre Shakespeare Jones hopes to reconcile history and writing, but also the divided aspects of White Australia’s twofold identity at a time of profound national changes. [less ▲]

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See detailDialectiques du commun chez Sartre
Oulc'hen, Hervé ULg

Scientific conference (2015, November 19)

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See detailEmotional distress in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis: using the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation to understand the role of illness perception and coping strategies
Toucheque, Malorie ULg; Stassart, Céline ULg; Duncan, Christina et al

Conference (2015, November 19)

Background: The common sense model of self-regulation (CSM) provides a framework for understanding the connection between emotions, thoughts and behaviors in people experiencing illness. However, most of ... [more ▼]

Background: The common sense model of self-regulation (CSM) provides a framework for understanding the connection between emotions, thoughts and behaviors in people experiencing illness. However, most of model in health psychology, including the CSM, were initially addressed to adult patients. Objective: This study examines the traditional conceptualization of the CSM where coping act as a mediator of the relation between illness perception and emotional distress in a pediatric population with chronic disease, namely Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Method: Using a cross-sectional design, 38 children with CF aged between 8 and 12 years participated in the study. All children were asked to complete: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Kidcope and the Children’s Illness Perception Questionnaire (CIPQ). A composite score labelled “emotional distress” including scores of anxiety and depressive symptoms were created. Results: Illness perception predicted emotional distress (Timeline: β = .43; t = 2.835; p = .007; Consequences: β = .50; t = 3.429; p = .002; Control: β = .18; t = 1.088; p = .284). As regard with coping strategies, only emotional outburst and distraction predicted emotional distress (emotional outburst: β = .48; t = 3.241; p = .003; distraction: β = .32; t = 2.038; p = .049). However, there were no relation of illness perception subscales with emotional outburst and distraction. Therefore, the mediational role of coping strategies between illness perception and emotional distress could not be tested. Conclusion: Findings did not confirm the original conceptualization of coping as a mediator suggesting that the CSM needs to be adapted when applied with a pediatric population. Even though young children are able to think before acting (i.e. Piaget’s work), future research should explore the possibility that cognitions and actions exist at the same level and can independently impact adjustment outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailLiquidity patterns in the US corporate bond market
Heck, Stéphanie ULg; Margaritis, Dimitri; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

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See detailLa gouvernance environnementale au Sri Lanka. Discours, mise en oeuvre et appropriation locale des politiques de conservation de la nature dans le district d'Hambantota.
Rosillon, Caroline ULg

Doctoral thesis (2015)

L’approche développée dans cette thèse se situe dans le champ de l’anthropologie politique. Elle ambitionne de conjuguer une approche foucaldienne et les outils de la socioanthropologie du développement ... [more ▼]

L’approche développée dans cette thèse se situe dans le champ de l’anthropologie politique. Elle ambitionne de conjuguer une approche foucaldienne et les outils de la socioanthropologie du développement au sein d’une étude des politiques de développement et de conservation de la nature menées dans le district d’Hambantota, au sud du Sri Lanka. La première partie de la thèse se penche, dans une perspective historique et nationale, sur le cadre politique, discursif et idéologique dans lequel prennent place les programmes étatiques de développement. Il y est principalement question de l’émergence et de l’affirmation du nationalisme cinghalais bouddhiste qui s’est constitué au cours de l’histoire de la formation de l’État postcolonial. Le contenu de ce nationalisme repose sur une glorification du passé précolonial du pays et place la communauté paysanne au cœur de la nation. C’est dans ce cadre national que sont élaborés des programmes de développement à destination des populations rurales dont le contenu repose sur l’idée que la modernisation et le développement passent par la réactivation et la valorisation des traditions et du passé. Dans ce nationalisme cinghalais bouddhiste, la nature, dépositaire des traces de l’histoire nationale « légitime », occupe une place de premier plan et les aires protégées constituent des lieux d’expression, de matérialisation et de popularisation de l’idéologie nationaliste. La thèse met en avant la prégnance de cette idéologie dans la société sri lankaise, son caractère hégémonique et le rôle des espaces et de la nature comme supports de cette idéologie. La deuxième partie consiste en une approche ethnographique de deux études de cas illustrant les politiques de conservation mises en œuvre dans le district d’Hambantota. Il s’agit de deux programmes distincts dans leur nature, leur origine, leurs conséquences et la manière dont ils sont appropriés par les acteurs locaux. Le premier cas est un programme de conservation des tortues de mer conduit par une ONG locale dans un village de pêcheurs (Kandura). Le second cas est celui d’une aire protégée de l’État : le parc national de Bundala. La thèse essentielle développée dans cette partie est que les politiques de conservation ou de développement sont toujours influencées par un ensemble de contingences locales qui résultent d’une histoire et de dynamiques contemporaines et qui conditionnent les résultats des politiques implantées. Dans les deux exemples, il existe des formes de détournements, de dérives et de décalages décrits dans cette thèse à travers les processus d’« appropriation » dont font l’objet les deux programmes dans les localités dans lesquelles ils sont implantés. Ces interventions extérieures mettent en jeu un ensemble de rapports de force liés aux arènes locales dans lesquelles elles sont implantées qui sont elles-mêmes structurées en fonction de multiples réseaux de pouvoir et règles d’organisation. L’analyse comparative de ces deux études de cas révèle d’importants contrastes. Elle met en lumière des marges d’appropriation distinctes entre les deux programmes. Dans l’un, l’omniprésence de l’État ainsi que la verticalité du dispositif laisse peu de place aux formes de réappropriation collective ou individuelle tandis que la nature du projet, dans le second cas, permet aux individus des formes d’appropriation multiples et étendues. Ces contrastes sont liés à des types de pouvoir et de sociabilité distincts et témoignent de l’existence de multiples « faces » de la citoyenneté et de multiples registres de subjectivation dans lesquels les individus se construisent quotidiennement en fonction des situations dans lesquelles ils sont projetés. Cette thèse permet en définitive de saisir les processus locaux et tangibles de la gouvernance environnementale et offre une contribution singulière à l’étude des politiques néolibérales de la conservation de la nature. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectra
Dammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand les ondes électromagnétiques vous informent !
Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Introduction aux techniques de télécommunications et transmission par ondes électromagnétiques

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See detailGoverning anticipation through flexibility. The use of models for the regulation of chemicals
Thoreau, François ULg; Laurent, Brice

Conference (2015, November 18)

As the use of models is increasing within regulatory bodies, it is important to grasp both the empirical practices of producing and using them, and their political meaning. At stake here is the ... [more ▼]

As the use of models is increasing within regulatory bodies, it is important to grasp both the empirical practices of producing and using them, and their political meaning. At stake here is the possibility of identifying the characteristics of a way of governing anticipations that would be based on models. In this paper, we engage in such an exploration by focusing on models developed to predict the potential risks of chemicals. These models, called “Quantitative Structure-Activities Relationship” (QSAR), are based on statistical correlations between a set of descriptors (e.g. chemical composition, crystalline structures…) and a set of physicochemical properties, including potential toxicity. They are developed using a limited number of substances that serve as reference points, so that the properties of other chemicals could later be predicted by the model, according to their proximities to the reference points. QSAR models have been promoted by regulatory agencies for over twenty years, but have been recently gaining momentum in Europe, in the wake of the REACH regulation. As the regulation on chemicals is becoming more constraining on private companies, usual experimental approaches raise many concerns (which are lengthy, costly and often requires animal testing). Based on the analysis of the relevant documentation, interviews with scientists and regulators, as well as the ethnographic observation of a recent research project attempting to developed QSAR models for nanomaterials, this paper provides the preliminary elements for describing the mode of governing anticipation that emerges from the use of such models. We contend that QSAR approaches offer empirical examples to identify a mode of governing anticipation based on flexibility, understood at the epistemic and political levels. [less ▲]

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