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See detailInventaire et mise en collection d’espèces de pucerons et de parasitoïdes collectés en grandes cultures, et premier enregistrement de Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) et Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en Belgique
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; Starý, Petr et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2016), 69

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps (von Moericke) were used during 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Fifty-two aphid species were identified and conserved in the entomological Conservatory of Gembloux. Among them, Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) and Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) were officially referenced for the first time in Belgium. Moreover, a collection composed by 16 parasitoid species was created. Their interest for biological control, as well as the methods that are studied in the laboratory of functional and evolutionary Entomology from Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège) to promote their presence in crops are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSTUDY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETIC AND MULTIFERROIC MATERIALS BY FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS
Garcia Castro, Andrés Camilo ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

In the last fifteen years, multifunctional materials, and more specifically, multi- functional oxides have been widely studied due to its wide range of properties. Properties that go from ... [more ▼]

In the last fifteen years, multifunctional materials, and more specifically, multi- functional oxides have been widely studied due to its wide range of properties. Properties that go from superconductivity to ferroelectricity passing through mag- netism and multiferroism have been reported. Nonetheless, the fluoride family was left aside and little information is known about its possible ferroelectricity or mul- tiferroism. In this Ph.D thesis, we explored the electronic, vibrational, structural and magnetic properties of fluoride perovskite-based compounds. To such pur- poses, We performed ab-initio calculations based in the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented in VASP and CRYSTAL codes. Our first step was to perform vibrational analyses in a large set of fluoroper- ovskites ABF3. Based on the results, we proposed a model that establishes an A-site geometrically driven ferroelectric vibrational instability in fluorides. Our studies reveal a different behavior as a function of isotropic pressure for NaBF3 with respect to oxides (e.g. BaTiO3) with B = Ca, V, Mn, and Zn. For these compounds we found an increase of the ferroelectric instability as a function of hydrostatic pressure. This probably due to the “transformation” of eigendisplace- ments responsible for the mode that creates the corresponding instability. In particular, an increase of ionic A-site radii present a strong influence in FE-polar instability. We also have shown, based on our first-principles calculations and symmetry theory analysis that all post-perovskites ABX3 with an active magnetic B-site cation can exhibit a noncollinear magnetic configuration, which happens to be allowed by symmetry. With these findings, the magnetic properties found exper- imentally were clarified for this particular high-pressure phase perovskite found at the Earth’s mantle. Additionally, We have predicted that NaMnF3 suffers a structural phase transition under pressure to a post-perovskite phase, where non- collinear ferromagnetism and large magnetic moment components are obtained within this high-pressure phase.. Going beyond, We have shown that it is possible to achieve multiferroic-induced state in NaMnF3 under epitaxial strain at compressive or tensile strain. We found a nonlinear behavior of the ferroelectric instability as well as a non-linear piezo- electric response as a function of epitaxial strain. The later completely different as the one found in oxide perovskites. Similarly, an out-of-plane polarization was observed, a property that has not been observed in oxides. We observed a Na + Mn sites cooperative ferroelectric ordering for compressive strain against a pure A-site geometrically driven ferroelectricity at tensile values of the ac-strain. Magnetic ordering reveals a non-collinear ground state with the GzAxFy repre- sentation. Even more interesting, and non-linear magnetoelectric coupling was found under the strained Pna1 ground state becoming the first known multifer- roic/magnetoelectric perovskite fluoride. Later, in order to go further, We studied the electronic and structural proper- ties of novel heterostructures based on oxyfluorides (KTaO3)n/(KBF3)l B = Zn and Ni interfaces. We found that the orbital levels splitting at the interfaces is strongly modified by the O–B–F coordination. The polar catastrophe phenomena also takes place in the oxyfluoride interfaces similarly to oxide heterostructure, however, we found that less number of layers are needed in order to achieve the insulator-to-metal transition when comparing to SrTiO3/LaAlO3 superlat- tices. We observed that the magnetism in the KTaO3/KNiF3 exhibits a moment magnitude modulations. Nevertheless, the magnetic structure keeps the G-type antiferromagnetism such as in the bulk former compound. Surprisingly, we ob- served a large k3-Rashba type splitting in at the oxyfluoride interfaces, at least four times larger than the one reported in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 interface and twice of the KTaO3-based transistor. In conclusion, we observed that fluorides-perovskites are good prototypes for multifunctional properties as oxides. Therefore, based on the results reported in this thesis, we expect that experimentalist and theoreticians can be motivated in characterization of fluorides, which can lead to a new set of unexplored materials with potential novel applications in electronics. [less ▲]

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See detailDocteur
Poskin, Antoine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

During summer 2011, cattle presented severe hyperthermia combined with dropped milk yield and diarrhoea from unknown origin. In October 2011, blood was collected from cattle presenting these clinical ... [more ▼]

During summer 2011, cattle presented severe hyperthermia combined with dropped milk yield and diarrhoea from unknown origin. In October 2011, blood was collected from cattle presenting these clinical signs in Schmallenberg, a small city in West Germany. A new Orthobunyavirus, responsible for these unspecific clinical signs was identified and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Upon November 2011, an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirths and malformed new-born was observed in bovine, ovine and caprine herds in Europe due to transplacental transmission of SBV to the foetus. The SBV vectors are small hematophagous midges of the gender Culicoides. This work contributed to estimate the impact of the SBV epidemic in Belgium (Study 1). On the basis of farmer’s observations, between 0.5% and 4% of calves were aborted, stillborn or malformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Abortions and stillbirths were not clear consequences of the SBV outbreak in cattle. In sheep, between 11% and 19% of lambs were aborted, stillborn or malformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Deformed animal was the most important finding of SBV outbreak at herd level and an essential condition for the farmer to send suspected samples to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for SBV analysis. The results gathered from the study indicate that SBV surveillance and monitoring should be implemented by SBV RNA detection with rRT-PCR in organs collected from stillborn and deformed calves and lambs born in big herds. The high impact of SBV highlighted in the Study 1 was putatively explained by unknown host supporting the SBV activity. In this respect, the role of pigs had never been evaluated. This was essential considering the suggested role of the domestic pigs in the life- cycle of the SBV-closely related Akabane virus (AKAV) (Huang et al., 2003). The absence of RNAemia after experimental infection of piglets with SBV realized in the Study 2 of the i thesis suggests the absence of obvious role of domestic pigs in SBV life-cycle. The absence of RNAemia is indeed a strong indication that further spread of SBV from the pigs to the Culicoides during a blood meal of the vector is not likely to occur, therefore making impossible an SBV transmission. The limited and temporary seroconversion observed after SBV inoculation in only half of the inoculated piglets and the absence of seroconversion reported in a limited number of field collected samples support this consideration. To prevent SBV progression, it was crucial to further study the pathogenesis of SBV. The Study 1 proved that the most important clinical impact of SBV was the consequence of the malformed new-born; hereto it was particularly crucial to improve the knowledge on the development of the SBV-related teratogenic effects. In this respect, experimental infection of pregnant sheep with SBV constituted an appropriate research approach. An experimental model was therefore essential to standardize. This thesis contributed to the standardization of in vivo experiments (in collaboration with another working group) by determining the minimum infectious dose of an SBV infectious inoculum. This reference infectious serum must contain approximately 20 TCID50 to induce a homogeneous effective infection in sheep. This dose is rather low and could be inoculated by a single Culicoides under natural conditions. Beyond this minimum infectious dose, no dose dependent effect was observed in productively inoculated ewes, either in the duration of the RNAemia, the quantity of SBV RNA detected by rRT–PCR in the blood, or in the number of SBV RNA copies present in the organs collected at necropsy. The experimental model developed (partly) in the Study 3 was used to inoculate pregnant ewes at day 45 and 60 of gestation, and increase the knowledge on SBV transplacental transmission. The inoculation induced the persistence of SBV RNA in placental organs until birth. Schmallenberg virus RNA was recovered from the organs collected at birth from the lambs of both groups. However, the chance to obtain SBV RNA positive placental ii organs was significantly higher when the infectious inoculum was inoculated at day 60 of gestation. Positive organs in lambs included CNS and muscle, but no malformation was observed in new-born lambs. This absence of malformations suggests that SBV inoculation must occur earlier than the day 45 of gestation to produce teratogenic effects in sheep. Also, the persistence of SBV RNA in the foetal envelope is indicative of a putative mean for SBV overwintering. The Study 4 highlighted a 6 month persistent seroconversion in the absence of SBV surinfection. In the meantime, SBV circulation drastically dropped on the field and the absence of SBV circulation could induce the sheep to become seronegative under natural conditions. In the Study 5, the experimental model developed in the Study 3 was used to demonstrate that one single SBV inoculation can induce a protective immunity in sheep that persists during a minimum period of 15 months. This experiment highlights that 2 successive periods of SBV circulation, spared of one year, is not likely to induce malformations on the field the second year. Based on the experience gathered with the closely related AKAV, recurrent outbreaks of congenital events can be expected for a long period. Vaccination of seronegative animals could be used to prevent the deleterious effects of SBV in case of SBV re-emergence. During this epidemic, different surveillance approaches including syndromic surveillance, sentinel herd surveillance, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies and pathogen surveillance in vectors have proven their utility and complementarity and should be considered to continue in the future in order to monitor the SBV dynamic. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropogenic forcing dominates global mean sea-level rise since 1970
Slagen, A.; Church, J.; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Nature Climate Change (2016)

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the ... [more ▼]

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the coastal environment, infrastructure and coastal communities1, 2. Although individual attribution studies have been done for ocean thermal expansion3, 4 and glacier mass loss5, two of the largest contributors to twentieth-century sea-level rise, this has not been done for the other contributors or total global mean sea-level change (GMSLC). Here, we evaluate the influence of greenhouse gases (GHGs), anthropogenic aerosols, natural radiative forcings and internal climate variability on sea-level contributions of ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice-sheet surface mass balance and total GMSLC. For each contribution, dedicated models are forced with results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model archive6. The sum of all included contributions explains 74 ± 22% (±2σ) of the observed GMSLC over the period 1900–2005. The natural radiative forcing makes essentially zero contribution over the twentieth century (2 ± 15% over the period 1900–2005), but combined with the response to past climatic variations explains 67 ± 23% of the observed rise before 1950 and only 9 ± 18% after 1970 (38 ± 12% over the period 1900–2005). In contrast, the anthropogenic forcing (primarily a balance between a positive sea-level contribution from GHGs and a partially offsetting component from anthropogenic aerosols) explains only 15 ± 55% of the observations before 1950, but increases to become the dominant contribution to sea-level rise after 1970 (69 ± 31%), reaching 72 ± 39% in 2000 (37 ± 38% over the period 1900–2005). [less ▲]

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See detailMANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pituitary "incidentaloma": Neuroradiological assessment and differential diagnosis.
Vasilev, Vladimir; Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2016)

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See detailQue fait-on de nos émotions ? : Autour du spectacle « Tristesses »
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailGenotypic characterization of T. mentagrophytes complex strains circulating in Belgium with the Diversilab® system.
SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; Utri, Tania ULg; ADJETEY BAHUN, Akolé ULg et al

Poster (2016, April 09)

Background Infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed in Belgium since a few years. The most common source of infection is guinea pigs. This ... [more ▼]

Background Infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed in Belgium since a few years. The most common source of infection is guinea pigs. This species which is referred to the Trichophyton species of A.benhamiae can cause tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea manus and more frequently tinea faciei. These strains appear with a bright yellow thallus in culture and do not easily sporulate making them difficult to identify. Sequencing of these strains reveals “Arthroderma benhamiae”. At the contrary white strains of T. mentagrophytes complex are identified by sequencing as “T. mentagrophytes variety interdigitale” or T. interdigitale. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the genetic heterogeneity of these two subtypes of the T. mentagrophytes complex by using the DiversiLab® system. Material and methods 32 strains were collected by the National Reference Center for mycoses between 2012 and 2015. The fungal strains were identified by microscopy or ITS sequencing. All strains appearing white with a yellow pigment in culture and being identified as “A. benhamiae” by DNA sequencing were included as well reference strains. Some selected strains appearing white in culture and being identified as “T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale” by DNA sequencing were also included. The genotypic analysis was performed by the DiversiLab® system (bioMérieux) by DNA fingerprinting generation. Results Both groups showed huge differences in DNA fingerprints. The similarity calculated by the DiversiLab® tool between the two groups was 70%. This reflects a high genotypic heterogeneity regarding the two types of strains analyzed. This is surprising given that both groups belong to the same species complex. The comparison of these two distinct DNA fingerprints with the mold database of bioMérieux generated identification as “T. mentagrophytes” for both groups. We noticed that the library contained two distinct patterns of DNA fingerprints (profile 1, strains MK55-60 and profile 2, strains MK138-143). Yellow strains were highly similar to profile 1 and white strains were highly similar to profile 2. Unfortunately, no additional information regarding the subspecies implicated could be obtained from the manufacturer. However, this study demonstrates that it may represent respectively “yellow strains types Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae” and “ white strains types T. interdigitale”. Conclusion This study highlights the genotypic differences between two types of strains belonging to the T. mentagrophytes species complex. Yellow strains which incidence is increasing in Belgium are clearly different from other strains previously characterized and the DiversiLab® method shows a high efficiency for discriminating between these two species difficult to separate by microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe body beautiful : Feminist bodies as territories of resistance
Herbert, Emilie ULg

Conference (2016, April 09)

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See detailImpacts of unusually high sea ice cover on Antarctic coastal benthic food web structure
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dubois, Philippe; Eleaume, Marc et al

Conference (2016, April 08)

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice ... [more ▼]

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice cover decrease, the sea ice cover of East Antarctica unexpectedly tends to increase, possibly in relation with changes in atmospheric circulation. Changes in sea ice cover are likely to influence benthic food web structure through modifications of benthic-pelagic coupling, disruption of benthic production and/or modifications of benthic community structure (i.e. resource availability for benthic consumers). Here, we studied shallow (0-20 m) benthic food web structure on the coasts of Petrels Island (Adélie Land, East Antarctica) during an event of unusually high spatial and temporal (two successive austral summers without seasonal break-up) sea ice cover. Using stable isotope ratios of C, N and S and the SIAR mixing model, we examined importance of several organic matter sources (benthic macroalgae, benthic biofilm, sympagic algae, suspended particulate organic matter and penguin guano) for nutrition of over 20 taxa of benthic invertebrates (sponges, sea anemones, nemerteans, sessile and mobile polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, sipunculids, pycnogonids, amphipods, sea stars, sea urchins and sea cucumbers) spanning most present functional guilds. Our results provide insights about how Antarctic benthic consumers, which have evolved in an extremely stable environment, might adapt their feeding habits in response to sudden man-driven changes in environmental conditions and trophic resource availability. [less ▲]

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See detailResolving trophic links within temperate eelgrass meadows - use of fatty acids and stable isotopes in MixSIAR mixing model
Jankowska, Emilia; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; De Troch, Marleen et al

Conference (2016, April 08)

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See detailThe hands of Papyrus Turin 1879: Individualizing handwritings in 20th dynasty hieratic sources
Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2016, April 08)

Papyrus Turin 1879 (and other fragments) — the so-called ‘Map of the gold mines’ or ‘Turin map’ — is among the most famous papyri of the Turin collection, but it was neither systematically published, nor ... [more ▼]

Papyrus Turin 1879 (and other fragments) — the so-called ‘Map of the gold mines’ or ‘Turin map’ — is among the most famous papyri of the Turin collection, but it was neither systematically published, nor studied up until today. Most of the egyptological attention was indeed captured by the ‘map’ side (e.g., Goyon 1949; Harrell & Brown 1992, with previous references), but the other side, which contains many hieratic texts belonging to different genres, has never been examined thoroughly (exceptions are Janssen 1994 and Hovestreydt 1997 for col. 1-2 of frag. A, vo). The goal of this talk is twofold. First, I will provide an overview of the texts found on this papyrus, focusing on the types of hieratic hands. A special attention will be devoted to the repertoire of hieratic signs as well as to the amount of variation in terms of signs formation for a single hand. Second, I will explore the possibility of ‘individualizing’ the hands of this papyrus by connecting their features to other hieratic sources of the 20th dynasty. Harrel & Brown’s (1992) suggestions regarding the attribution of these texts to specific scribes will be challenged and an alternative methodology will be suggested. [less ▲]

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See detail"Living on the Edge of Death": Irony in Chris Abani's Song for Night
Tunca, Daria ULg

Conference (2016, April 07)

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See detailEvaluating ethane and methane emissions associated with the development of oil and natural gas extraction in North America
Franco, Bruno ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Emmons, L. K. et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2016), 11(4), 044010

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight ... [more ▼]

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America. Using time series of C2H6 total columns derived from ground-based FTIR observations made at five selected NDACC sites, we characterize the recent C2H6 evolution and determine growth rates of ~5%/yr at mid-latitudes and of ~3%/yr at remote sites. Results from CAM-chem simulations with the HTAP2 bottom-up inventory for anthropogenic emissions are found to greatly underestimate the current C2H6 abundances. Doubling global emissions is required to reconcile the simulations and the observations prior to 2009. We further estimate that North American anthropogenic C2H6 emissions have increased from 1.6 Tg/yr in 2008 to 2.8 Tg/yr in 2014, i.e. by 75% over these six years. We also completed a second simulation with new top-down emissions of C2H6 from North American oil and gas activities, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, inferred from space-borne observations of methane (CH4) from GOSAT. In this simulation, GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce FTIR measurements at the mid-latitudinal sites, underscoring the impact of the North American oil and gas development on the current C2H6 abundance. Finally we estimate that the North American oil and gas emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas, grew from 20 to 35 Tg/yr over the period 2008 to 2014, in association with the recent C2H6 rise. [less ▲]

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See detailCO2-blown microcellular non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams: from bio- and CO2-sourced monomers to potentially thermal insulating materials
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Green Chemistry (2016), 18(7), 2206-2215

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal ... [more ▼]

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal conductivity and have an impressive potential for use in insulating materials. They constitute attractive alternatives to conventional polyurethane foams. We investigated CO2’s ability to synthesize the cyclic carbonates that are used in the preparation of NIPU by melt step-growth polymerization with a bio-sourced amino-telechelic oligoamide and for NIPU foaming. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of NIPU foams. Such foams will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailHot Melt Extrusion as a New Method to Form Inclusion Complexes with Cyclodextrins
Thiry, Justine ULg; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka et al

Conference (2016, April 06)

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See detailReconstruction and analysis of long-term satellite-derived sea surface temperature for the South China Sea
Huynh, Thi Hong Ngu ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

in Journal of Oceanography (2016)

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. Unfortunately, the SST data sources in the South China ... [more ▼]

Sea surface temperature (SST) is one of the key variables often used to investigate ocean dynamics, ocean-atmosphere interaction, and climate change. Unfortunately, the SST data sources in the South China Sea (SCS) are not abundant due to sparse measurements of in situ SST and a high percentage of missing data in the satellite-derived SST. Therefore, SST data sets with low resolution and/or a short-term period have often been used in previous researches. Here we used Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions, a self-consistent and parameter-free method for filling in missing data, to reconstruct the daily nighttime 4-km AVHRR Pathfinder SST for the long-term period spanning from 1989 to 2009. In addition to the reconstructed field, we also estimated the local error map for each reconstructed image. Comparisons between the reconstructed and other data sets (satellite-derived microwave and in situ SSTs) show that the results are reliable for use in many different researches, such as validating numerical models, or identifying and tracking meso-scale oceanic features. Moreover, the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the reconstructed SST and the reconstructed SST anomalies clearly shows the subseasonal, seasonal, and interannual variability of SST under the influence of monsoon and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), as well as reveals some oceanic features that could not be captured well in previous EOF analyses. The SCS SST often lags ENSO by about half a year. However, in this study, we see that the time lag changes with the frequencies of the SST variability, from 1 to 6 months. [less ▲]

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