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See detailGestion des déchets nucléaires en France et en Belgique: Quelle place pour la critique ?
Parotte, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, May 25)

Depuis les années 1970, avec la multiplication des controverses scientifiques (Callon, Lascoumes et Barthe 2001), souvent liées à des mouvements pacifistes en environnementalistes ; nous assistons à la ... [more ▼]

Depuis les années 1970, avec la multiplication des controverses scientifiques (Callon, Lascoumes et Barthe 2001), souvent liées à des mouvements pacifistes en environnementalistes ; nous assistons à la naissance d’un flux d’incertitude et de critique politico-sociale, dirigée principalement vers le monde scientifique, sa production et ses hésitations. Il est malaisé de prévoir si cela mènera à une réelle désolidarisation des notions de science, technologie et progrès, mais il reste à supposer que cette critique permettra une gestion plus réflexive des effets majeurs du développement scientifique et technologique (Schot et Rip 2009). En d’autres termes, bien que les liens entre les idéologies du progrès et de la technologie restent très souvent puissants et non remis en question, on assiste au même moment à une critique sociale des conséquences sur le processus de gestion des choix technologiques qui s’y rapportent. Cette contribution propose de s’attarder sur le cas de la gouvernance socio technique de la gestion des déchets hautement radioactifs depuis le « tournant participatif » opéré dans les années 90 en France et en Belgique. Il s’agit de poser un regard critique sur l’apparition d’un nouveau mode de gouvernance plus participatif (au travers de l’inclusion de nouveaux acteurs) et ses conséquences. Dans quelle mesure ceux-ci redéfinissent-ils les positionnements du monde scientifique au sein du processus décisionnel ? Comment le monde scientifique reçoit-il les critiques qui lui sont adressées ? Plutôt que des tendances globales, cette contestation témoigne le plus souvent d’une mosaïque d’activités critiques dynamiques, concurrentes ou complémentaires dont les effets semblent faire vaciller — ou à tout le moins mettre sous tension — l’organisation, les routines et les institutions des sociétés modernes (Delvenne 2011). Cette mosaïque reflète le dynamisme des acteurs sociaux qui propagent leurs agendas et défendent leurs intérêts à travers la négociation de concessions, l’enchevêtrement de décisions et la cristallisation de rapports de force. En d’autres termes, les avancées d’un projet comme la gestion des déchets nucléaires ne sont pas la progression inéluctable d’un processus uniformément accepté par toutes les tendances de la société. En réalité, il existe une multitude d’acteurs qui influencent sans cesse la nature de ses contours. Ces acteurs sociaux bénéficient d’espaces politiques et institutionnels divers pour exprimer leurs préférences et tenter de transformer durablement les critiques qu’ils formulent en actions politiques qui trouvent un écho plus large au sein de la société. [less ▲]

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See detailLa culture industrielle de microalgues
Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailCharles Juliet : Du portrait a-posteriori à l’écriture de soi L’adresse à la mère comme tentative de désenfouissement dans Lambeaux
Vandormael, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, May 25)

Lambeaux propose un diptyque de portraits. Dans la première partie, celui de la mère biologique. Dans la seconde, celui de l’auteur lui-même et au sein de celui-ci, enfin, le portrait de la mère adoptive ... [more ▼]

Lambeaux propose un diptyque de portraits. Dans la première partie, celui de la mère biologique. Dans la seconde, celui de l’auteur lui-même et au sein de celui-ci, enfin, le portrait de la mère adoptive. La dimension vocative explicite de la narration en constitue à la fois l’originalité et le paradoxe. Le recours au « Tu » dans l’ensemble du texte fait advenir une poétique de l’adresse en laquelle se cristallise la spécificité du récit de filiation propre à l’autofiction de la littérature contemporaine : différent du simple devoir de mémoire ou encore de la - très en vogue - commémoration, il se situe plutôt du côté de la restitution, à laquelle il y a deux sens à donner : à la fois reconstituer ce qui fut et s’est défait, et rendre leur existence à ceux qui s’en sont trouvés dépouillés en faisant apparaître ce qui demeure enfoui et dont on n’a pu hériter. Pour répondre au silence d’une mère qu’il n’a pas connue et qui elle-même n’a pas pu s’exprimer, faute d’accès au langage ou d’une présence pour l’écouter, Juliet choisit l’instantané et l’immédiateté d’un discours d’interpellation au présent et la forme du dialogue avec les morts, forcément toujours en partie déjà voué à l’échec. Dès lors, notre propos souhaite interroger comment le choix du vocatif permet un dédoublement fécond du sujet,faisant advenir une relation de soi à soi qui déjoue les processus classiques de l'autobiographie. [less ▲]

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See detailElectric current crowding in nanostructured conductors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

Conference (2015, May 24)

When current stream lines are forced to depart from their rectilinear trajectory due to the presence of an obstacle, they conglomerate at the sharp bends encountered on their paths. The consequent current ... [more ▼]

When current stream lines are forced to depart from their rectilinear trajectory due to the presence of an obstacle, they conglomerate at the sharp bends encountered on their paths. The consequent current crowding is present in normal metals as well as in superconductors and has been, since long ago, identified as a key player in electromigration phenomena leading to failure in integrated circuit interconnects while might also be at the origin of local ablation in planar plasmonic structures. More recently, current crowding has been recognized as an important factor limiting the performance of superconducting single-photon detectors, leading to flux quanta motion rectification, or being a source of unwanted ratchet signal and depletion of surface barriers for magnetic flux penetration. In this talk, we will also show that in nanostructured superconductors at low temperatures, current crowding can trigger abrupt flux avalanches developing well defined geometrical patterns. Our experimental findings are backed up to the finest details, by simulations based on a phenomenological thermomagnetic model which, in turn, can be used to predict such complex structures and, given its reliability, allows one to estimate physical variables of more difficult experimental access, such as the local values of temperature and electric field. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mondialisation et l’avenir de l’enseignement du français
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 23)

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See detailDo large scale restoration projects reduce within-species traits variability?
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Conference (2015, May 23)

Dry calcareous grasslands represent local biodiversity hotspots of European temperate regions. They have suffered intensive fragmentations due to due to the abandonment of traditional agropastoral systems ... [more ▼]

Dry calcareous grasslands represent local biodiversity hotspots of European temperate regions. They have suffered intensive fragmentations due to due to the abandonment of traditional agropastoral systems and the resulting encroachment, reforestation, urbanization or transformation into arable lands. In order to preserve and enhance their ecological value, a series of ecological restoration projects have been implemented throughout Europe (LIFE+). As habitats restoration costs can be prohibitive, actions should demonstrate their success. In the face of environmental changes, restored populations should possess attributes necessary for adaptive evolutionary changes allowing them to persist over the long term. Intra-population functional variability expresses the range of possible trait values of a species living in a heterogeneous environment. It results notably from genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity and enables species survival, growth and reproduction under various environmental conditions. In Belgium, three European LIFE projects have taken place between 2000 and 2009, restoring more than 400 hectares of calcareous grasslands. Restorations have mainly been evaluated in terms of plant species diversity and community composition. Though it is expected to be of crucial importance for species evolutionary potential, the restoration of the entire range of environmental heterogeneity and the resulting intra-population functional variability of restored population have so far not been assessed. We compared the intra-population variability of functional traits (specific leaf area (SLA) and maximum vegetative height) of 10 restored and 10 reference populations of Potentilla neumanniana (30 individuals per populations). We characterized abiotic and biotic conditions by measuring soil depth, sun exposure, bare ground cover and mean vegetation height around each sampled individual. Our main results showed that the range of within-species functional variability was restored in our study area. We will conclude with implications for the evolutionary potential of restored populations and for future ecological restoration projects. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration de facteurs cognitifs et thymiques en lien avec les symptômes psychotiques : Analyses en clusters.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg; Nuyens, Filip et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

Introduction Il est maintenant reconnu qu’il existe différentes trajectoires possibles au développement et au maintien des symptômes psychotiques tels que les hallucinations et les idées délirantes. Ces ... [more ▼]

Introduction Il est maintenant reconnu qu’il existe différentes trajectoires possibles au développement et au maintien des symptômes psychotiques tels que les hallucinations et les idées délirantes. Ces phénomènes sont également en lien avec différents mécanismes cognitifs (e.g. style d’encodage, impulsivité) et facteurs thymiques (e.g. anxiété, dépression). Cependant, le poids de ces facteurs peut certainement varier en fonction des différentes trajectoires. Objectifs L’objectif de cette étude est d’explorer l’impact de différents facteurs cognitifs et thymiques sur les symptômes psychotiques dans un large échantillon issu de la population normale afin d’essayer d’en faire ressortir des profils différents avec l’aide d’analyses en clusters. Les mesures suivantes ont été incluses : Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale, Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait). [less ▲]

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See detailBifurcation Analysis of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems Using the Harmonic Balance Method
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

The harmonic balance (HB) method has been widely used in the past few years, as a numerical tool for the study of nonlinear industrial models. However, in its classical formulation the HB method is ... [more ▼]

The harmonic balance (HB) method has been widely used in the past few years, as a numerical tool for the study of nonlinear industrial models. However, in its classical formulation the HB method is limited to the approximation of periodic solutions. The present paper proposes to extend the method to the detection and tracking of codimension-1 bifurcations in the system parameters space. As an application, the frequency response of a spacecraft and its bifurcations are studied, together with two nonlinear phenomena, namely quasiperiodic oscillations and detached resonance curves. [less ▲]

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See detailMake the ureter your friend
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailEffect of inulin and wheat bran in the creep feed of neonatal piglets
Li, Bing ULg; Leblois, Julie ULg; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailQuels profils caractérisés par l'humeur, l'activation comportementale et les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle pouvons-nous identifier dans une population adulte ?
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

The behavioural model of depression put forward that the level of activities in depressed patients decreases which maintains their low mood. Depressed patients are also known to use non-adaptive cognitive ... [more ▼]

The behavioural model of depression put forward that the level of activities in depressed patients decreases which maintains their low mood. Depressed patients are also known to use non-adaptive cognitive coping strategies (e.g. rumination, catastrophizing). Previous research underlined that cognitive coping strategies predict the level of activation (non-adaptive cognitive coping strategies predict a low level of activation). According to the dimensional approach of psychopathology, we hypothesised that sub-groups of depressed and non-depressed adults could be identified depending on their level of activation and the kind of cognitive coping strategies they use. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationships between the level of activation, the cognitive coping strategies, anxiety and depression with a cluster-analysis approach. 762 adults (530 women, 232 men; mean age= 31.54, SD= 12.08) completed an online survey assessing the above-mentioned variables with self-reports measures (BADS-SF, CERQ, BDI-II, STAI-Y B). Results identified four clusters that differed according to the level of activation, the cognitive coping strategies, the anxiety and the depression. For instance, one of the four classes highlighted that non-active depressed adults used catastrophizing and rumination contrary to another classes of active non-depressed ones. These results, providing interesting guidelines for psychological interventions, will be discussed further during the congress. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence studies on potential anticancer properties of two new Ru(II) complexes : preliminary results
Collienne, Simon ULg; Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 22)

Fight against cancer is a priority of today’s research. Since the discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin (CisPt) in 1965 by Rosenberg [1], the treatment of cancer by chemotherapy has known ... [more ▼]

Fight against cancer is a priority of today’s research. Since the discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin (CisPt) in 1965 by Rosenberg [1], the treatment of cancer by chemotherapy has known great improvements. Unfortunately, CisPt has several side effects and is not effective against all kinds of cancer. Nevertheless its use highlights the great potential of organometallic compounds in the treatment of cancer [2]. Here we investigated the potential anticancer properties of two new organometallic compounds based on ruthenium II : [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C.IDip)]+(PF6)- and [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C.ICy)]+(PF6)-, named as LDO436 and LDO437 respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailModulatory effects of Ruthenium (II)-based complexes on oxidative stress induced by activated HL60 cells and Neutrophils
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Collienne, Simon ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

There is a growing interest on the use of metal-based chemotherapeutic agents to fight different types of cancers [1]. The most used family of the organometallic compounds is platinum derivatives whose ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest on the use of metal-based chemotherapeutic agents to fight different types of cancers [1]. The most used family of the organometallic compounds is platinum derivatives whose Cisplatin (CisPt) is the lead compound used for the treatment of various cancers including lung, testis, gastric, breast, etc. Nevertheless, beside its recognized therapeutic effects, side effects such as gastric toxicity and acute kidney failure were observed during the treatment, limiting its clinical use. Other compounds are currently studied and among them, Ruthenium (Ru) complexes have gained more importance for their less toxicity and lower aggressive effect on healthy tissues than CisPt. Ru-complexes are also more resorbed and excreted [2]. Numerous studies focused on the mechanisms of action of Ruthenium compounds to fight cancer, including antioxidant or pro-oxidant activity. During inflammation, activation and infiltration of neutrophils contribute to oxidant stress playing a crucial role in tumor development. Likewise, the degranulation of neutrophil causes the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) which reacts with H2O2 to catalyze redox reactions. A therapeutic target to control inflammation is the modulation of oxidant enzymes and cells involved in radical species production and redox reactions. Because Ruthenium compounds can easily enter into cancer cells, a series of Ru(II)-complexes newly synthesized were used for this purpose. They were first tested for their radical scavenging activities using ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Amongst them, compound 1 (LD0436) and compound 2 (LD04037) were then studied for their ability to modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inflammatory cells like human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL 60) and neutrophils (PMN) using fluorescence, chemiluminescence (CL) and electron spin resonance ESR techniques. The toxicity of those Ru-complexes against HL-60 and neutrophils was checked using Trypan blue exclusion assay. Altogether, CL and ESR findings indicate that both complexes 1 (LD0436) and 2 (LD0437) exhibit a dose-dependent inhibitory activity compared to CisPt, gallic acid, curcumin and quercetin, which were taken as reference molecules in the different systems investigated. Similarly, the tested complexes also display an antioxidant profile on the substrate oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase such as MPO mainly involved in acute and chronic inflammatory situations. 1: (RuCl(p-Cymen)(S2C.IDip)]+(PF6)-], 2: (RuCl(p-Cymen)(S2C.Icy)]+(PF6)-] References: 1. Ceresa C, Brawin A, Cavaletti G, Trinidad A et al., (2014) Current Medicinal Chemistry 20(21), 2237-2265. 2. Liu, Y, Zhang X, Zhang R, et al., (2011) European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. 1974-1980. [less ▲]

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See detailLes concessions forestières des communautés locales : une avancée potentielle pour la foresterie sociale ? Perspectives dans un monde en déforestation
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Karsenty, Alain; Gillet, Pauline ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

La RDC vient d’adopter un décret qui met enfin en oeuvre la foresterie sociale en RDC, 12 ans après la promulgation de la loi. Ce décret suscite de nombreux espoirs quant à la mise en place d’une ... [more ▼]

La RDC vient d’adopter un décret qui met enfin en oeuvre la foresterie sociale en RDC, 12 ans après la promulgation de la loi. Ce décret suscite de nombreux espoirs quant à la mise en place d’une foresterie communautaire digne de ce nom en RDC. Quel est le champ des possibles ? Quelle influence potentielle en termes de déforestation ? [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAlain Robbe-Grillet face à l'entretien journalistique : paradoxes
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailAt the heart of Jupiter’s aurora; at the crossroads of Astrophysics Geophysics and Plasma Physics
Grodent, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2015, May 21)

Auroral physics is at the intersection of more general fields of physics such as Astrophysics, Geophysics and Plasma Physics. In particular, the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn may be seen as slow ... [more ▼]

Auroral physics is at the intersection of more general fields of physics such as Astrophysics, Geophysics and Plasma Physics. In particular, the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn may be seen as slow rotating pulsars. For these two planets, there is a direct link between this pulsar-like behaviour and the auroral processes that are taking place in their atmosphere. We will take the example of Jupiter to illustrate haw the aurora is generated in the magnetosphere as a result of the volcanic activity of the moon Io. The ultraviolet aurora of Jupiter is conveniently described in terms of components located inside (poleward of) or outside (equatorward of) the main oval emission. However, these components may also be discriminated by their temporal behaviour, where the narrowest parts of the main “oval” remain relatively stable over time periods of several hours, and the satellite footprints show large variability with timescales of minutes. Inside the main emission, at the heart of the aurora, the so-called polar aurora, presumably corresponding to the polar cap mixing open and closed magnetic field lines, is characterized by rapid motions taking the form of swirls, giving rise to the “swirl region” and by beatings in the “active region”. This delicate auroral region is difficult to apprehend because of its ever-changing shape and because of the lack of appropriate tools to study it. [less ▲]

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See detailMaladaptive emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity mediate the relation between adverse life events and attenuated psychotic symptoms.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Dessart, Gregory; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

Introduction There is now solid evidence for a relation between Adverse Life Events (ALE) and psychotic symptoms in both patients with psychosis and in the general population. A recent study has shown ... [more ▼]

Introduction There is now solid evidence for a relation between Adverse Life Events (ALE) and psychotic symptoms in both patients with psychosis and in the general population. A recent study has shown that this relation may be partially mediated by stress sensitivity. However, other factors that may mediate this relation, such as emotion regulation strategies, have not yet been examined in the literature. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the mediation effect of both emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity in the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms in the general population. Results Results demonstrated that the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e. hallucinations and delusions) was mediated by maladaptive emotion regulations strategies. Discussion Although it is most likely that there are several possible trajectories leading to the formation of positive psychotic symptoms, the results of the present study suggest that one such trajectory may involve the maladaptive regulation of negative emotions alongside a certain vulnerability after experiencing highly distressing ALE. Hence, interventions aiming to enhance adaptive emotion regulation strategies and diminish the utilization of maladaptive strategies should be regarded as an integral part of psychological treatment schemes in the context of psychotic symptoms. Conclusion In summary, the present study demonstrated that the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms is mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. [less ▲]

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