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See detailPlantes pesticides et protection des cultures maraichères en Afrique de l’Ouest (synthèse bibliographique)
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Silvie, Pierre; Assogba Komlan, Françoise et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21(4), 288-304

Introduction. Les cultures maraichères occupent une place importante pour l’alimentation humaine et contribuent significativement aux revenus des familles en Afrique de l’Ouest, mais leur production est ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Les cultures maraichères occupent une place importante pour l’alimentation humaine et contribuent significativement aux revenus des familles en Afrique de l’Ouest, mais leur production est confrontée à une pression des bioagresseurs qui limite leur productivité. Littérature. Cette revue, basée sur des publications scientifiques, a pour objectif d’évaluer le potentiel des plantes pesticides comme alternative à l’usage des pesticides de synthèse pour lutter contre les bioagresseurs des cultures maraichères en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle montre que le principal moyen actuel pour combattre ces bioagresseurs repose essentiellement sur les pesticides de synthèse. Cependant, compte tenu de leur nocivité sur l’homme et l’environnement, en plus de la sélection de populations résistantes chez les bioagresseurs, la recherche de solutions alternatives s’impose. Les plantes pesticides se présentent comme une alternative prometteuse dans le contexte ouest-africain. En effet, diverses espèces de plantes pesticides peuvent être utilisées comme extraits de plantes ou en association avec d’autres cultures pour le contrôle des bioagresseurs. Celles-ci sont présentées dans le présent article de synthèse. Conclusions. Les plantes pesticides peuvent être une alternative prometteuse pour la gestion des bioagresseurs des cultures maraichères. Cependant, la plupart d’entre elles ne sont pas cultivées. Explorer les capacités biocides de plantes d’intérêt comme le genre Ocimum, connu pour ses usages thérapeutique, médicinal et alimentaire pourrait être intéressant pour le producteur. Toutefois, les populations doivent être sensibilisées sur les avantages à long terme des produits traités avec les pesticides à base de plantes pour faciliter leur utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailContraintes et stratégies d’amélioration de la filière maïs au Rwanda
Musabanganji, Edouard ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

For more than a decade, Rwanda has adopted a series of policies and strategies aimed at economic development and the improvement of the living conditions of its predominantly agricultural population. In ... [more ▼]

For more than a decade, Rwanda has adopted a series of policies and strategies aimed at economic development and the improvement of the living conditions of its predominantly agricultural population. In agriculture, implementation of these strategies and related programs has been accompanied by a series of advances in the adoption of farming technologies and increasing agricultural production. However, the country's economy is still characterized by subsistence agriculture, and for the maize sector in particular, the country is continuously depending on imports to meet domestic demand, and maize processing plants always operate below their productive capacity. This research aims to examine the level of competitiveness of this sector in the current production and marketing conditions in order to identify existing constraints and formulate the strategies that can improve the level of economic performance of maize production and maize marketing system. The data used to study the economic performance of maize production come from close monitoring of maize production activities on a sample of 50 producers from five maize producers’ cooperatives selected in the districts of Huye, Rusizi, Gasabo, Burera and Bugesera during two growing seasons. They were supplemented by direct observation, interviews with targeted resource persons, and focus group discussions. The analysis was done using group analysis and appropriate statistical methods. The study of the maize marketing system used the 'Structure-Conduct-Performance' model with data collected from a sample of 150 producers and 17 assemblers selected in the districts of Burera, Bugesera and Huye, and 15 transporters, 5 wholesalers and 15 retailers selected at the national market of Kigali. The results revealed that for many producers, the yield is very low compared to theoretical expected yields, production costs are higher and exceed sales prices, gross margin and family labor income are negative, and the gross added value created by maize producers is not high even though it is positive. The analysis showed that the increase in the selling price positively influences the gross margin, added value and family labor income, and that the rational use of improved seeds, chemical fertilizers and soil conditioners improves the yield. This clearly shows that improving the selling price and rational use of inputs can significantly contribute to making maize production a more profitable and income-generating activity. The study also identified challenges that hamper the production process. These include non-availability of, and low access to inputs, inadequate technical support, limited financial resources and low access to formal agricultural credit, high marshlands rental fee, method of fixing the maize floor price and lack of mechanisms ensuring its use by potential buyers, the lack of storage infrastructure, and the unsustainability of inputs subsidies granted by the government. At the marketing level, the results revealed that several actors are involved in the marketing of maize. The study also revealed that maize imported from Uganda is sold on domestic market at lower prices than locally produced maize, which attests the increase in the cost of maize production in Rwanda compared to Uganda and the low level of competitiveness of the local maize compared to Ugandan maize. The improved status of feeder roads and the high level of access to price information by actors were highlighted among the technological innovations that helped improve the marketing system of foodstuffs in general and maize in particular, which was also evidenced by the level of integration observed between districts maize markets and the national market of Kigali. However, the lack of enough capital and low access to formal credit were noted as major constraints by most of the chain actors. In the light of all these results, it is clear that the production and marketing of maize are not done in good conditions at all levels. This in turn undermines the sector's ability to respond adequately to domestic demand, generate income for actors and integrate itself into both domestic and regional markets. Therefore, strategies aiming at scaling-up the maize production and marketing, and improving working conditions of the sector operators were recommended. These strategies include the implementation of actions to improve access to finance by farmers and other actors; making inputs avail and accessible; reorganizing the marketing system especially in terms of fixing and using the floor price; making available storage facilities where necessary; improving the monitoring, training and sensitization of maize producers on farming techniques and the use of improved technologies; and harmonizing the marshland rental fee at national level. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction (master in aerospace engineering)
Grodent, Denis ULiege

Learning material (2017)

Introduction

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See detailTowards a covering aerospray method for quantitative analyses of pharmaceutical tablets using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI)
Cailletaud, Johan ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Dumont, Elodie ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 22)

In recent years, the use of SERS-CI in pharmaceutical sciences has increased in order to study the distribution of low-dose compounds in solid dosage forms [1]. This technique allows to improve the ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the use of SERS-CI in pharmaceutical sciences has increased in order to study the distribution of low-dose compounds in solid dosage forms [1]. This technique allows to improve the sensitivity of conventional Raman microscopy and to reduce significantly the image acquisition time by exalting the signal information. However, the applications of SERS-CI in the pharmaceutical field remain limited, especially due to the difficulty of obtaining a homogeneous deposit of metallic nanoparticles on the sample surface. Generally, the covering method used on the tablet is a drop casting deposition due to its simplicity and rapidity of implementation. Despite the colloidal solution deposit is not fully controlled. The inhomogeneous covering is the result of the “coffee-ring” effect that concentrates the nanoparticles at the edges of the droplet [2]. This implies remarkable variations of the SERS analyte signal’s intensity at different places. For a more reproducible and homogeneous coating, an aerospray method using a homemade apparatus was developed (Figure 1). The device is composed with a pair of coaxial tubes, the colloidal solution is pulled through the inner tube from a syringe pump and the outer tube is connected to a source of high pressure gas. Nitrogen, used as a nebulizing gas, creates a flow of small droplets of nanoparticles that are nearly dry when they hit the sample surface. The aerospray device is easy to implement and the entire surface of the tablet is covered by the SERS substrate in a homogeneous way. By using this covering method, the potential of SERS-CI is improved and making it a suitable technique for quantitative analyses of low drug concentrations or impurities in pharmaceutical tablets. [less ▲]

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See detailLes interactions enseignant/enfants comme soutien au développement langagier des enfants en classe maternelle
Leroy, Sandrine ULiege; Bergeron-Morin, Lisandre ULiege; Desmottes, Lise ULiege et al

in Les entretiens de Bichat : les entretiens d'orthophonie 2017 : Les pathologies du langage chez l'enfant de moins de 6 ans: facteurs de risque (FR), facteurs de protection (FP) (2017, September 22)

L'école maternelle constitue un contexte privilégié pour soutenir le développement du langage et de la communication des enfants. La qualité des interactions entre l’enseignant et les enfants de sa classe ... [more ▼]

L'école maternelle constitue un contexte privilégié pour soutenir le développement du langage et de la communication des enfants. La qualité des interactions entre l’enseignant et les enfants de sa classe est reconnue comme étant l’aspect le plus déterminant de la qualité éducative, notamment en ce qui concerne le développement langagier. Cet article a pour objectif de faire un survol de la littérature sur le développement du langage des enfants en contexte préscolaire, sur le rôle que peut y jouer l’enseignant, ce qui ouvre des perspectives quant aux modalités de développement professionnel des enseignants en maternelle. [less ▲]

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See detailUn MOOC sur l’enseignement du FLE : la question de la médiation des savoirs et de l’évaluation des savoir-faire
Meunier, Deborah ULiege; Thonard, Audrey ULiege

Conference (2017, September 22)

« Ma classe de FLE » est un projet de MOOC destiné à de (futurs) enseignants de français langue étrangère. Constitué de 8 modules interactifs, ce MOOC vise à développer les connaissances et compétences ... [more ▼]

« Ma classe de FLE » est un projet de MOOC destiné à de (futurs) enseignants de français langue étrangère. Constitué de 8 modules interactifs, ce MOOC vise à développer les connaissances et compétences des participants en matière de gestion des interactions (orales et écrites) et des ressources (notamment numériques), mais aussi de développement des compétences grammaticales et interculturelles des apprenants. A partir d’exemples concrets d’activités, nous interrogerons d’un point de vue didactique deux aspects liés à ce dispositif d’enseignement/apprentissage innovant : la médiation des savoirs et les pratiques d’évaluation. En effet, les enjeux d’une pédagogie renversée, où l’apprenant est au centre de l’apprentissage et le numérique à son service, impliquent une (re)configuration des rôles des acteurs du dispositif (apprenants, enseignants, tuteurs, animateurs) dans la médiation des savoirs d’une part, et l’évaluation des acquis d’apprentissage d’autre part. Nous verrons comment nous avons mis en œuvre la co-construction collaborative et ouverte de savoirs, et quels dispositifs d’évaluation (par les pairs, par essai-erreur) nous avons proposés, en accord avec la pédagogie (inter)active dans laquelle s’inscrit notre projet de MOOC. [less ▲]

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See detailAngels and Constellations in Australian Fiction: Profane Illumination and Topological Temporality in Gail Jones's A Guide to Berlin
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, September 22)

This seminar will focus on Australian writer Gail Jones’s sixth novel, A Guide to Berlin, published in 2015. Named after a short story by Vladimir Nabokov, Jones’s guide portrays the advent of a small ... [more ▼]

This seminar will focus on Australian writer Gail Jones’s sixth novel, A Guide to Berlin, published in 2015. Named after a short story by Vladimir Nabokov, Jones’s guide portrays the advent of a small international community through the convergence in snowy Berlin of six foreign travellers joined together in their devotion to Nabokov’s literary œuvre. Drawing on the psychogeography of Berlin, with its “shifting angles” and “receding perspectives,” its “corridors between spaces” and “immaterial traces,” this seminar aims at bringing together Michel Serres’s topological reading of time, Walter Benjamin’s convoluted view of history, and Paul Celan’s speaking shadows and at textualising their precepts in Jones’s fiction. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Predictors and Consequences of Hearing Health Behaviors in Older Adults
Marquet, Manon ULiege; Chasteen, Alison L; Plaks, Jason E et al

Poster (2017, September 22)

Introduction: Hearing loss is a common chronic condition affecting older adults in Western populations [1, 2]. Even if older adults could benefit from hearing aid use, they are reluctant to wear them [1 ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Hearing loss is a common chronic condition affecting older adults in Western populations [1, 2]. Even if older adults could benefit from hearing aid use, they are reluctant to wear them [1]. The purpose of the present study was twofold: a) to examine whether older adults’ implicit theories regarding the modifiability of abilities in general would predict their hearing health behaviors; and (b) to assess consequences of these behaviors on subjective aging. Methods: One hundred and sixty-three older adults (Mean age = 68.62, SD = 5.40) completed, among other questionnaires, questions assessing their implicit theories of ability (i.e., seeing general abilities as fixed vs. improvable with effort [3]) and their subjective age (i.e., felt age, do age, look age, and interest age [4]). They also reported their perceptions of the benefits of various hearing health behaviors for slowing the effects of aging (i.e., getting their hearing tested and using hearing aids) as well as their intentions to engage in those behaviors. Results: We found that the more older people considered that abilities are alterable, the more they perceived hearing health behaviors as being beneficial, which in turn increased their intentions to engage in these behaviors. Also, the greater their intentions, the younger subjective age they reported. Key conclusions: These relationships between implicit theories, hearing health behaviors, and subjective age are particularly important to take into account. Indeed, neglecting hearing problems and experiencing an older subjective age may have detrimental health-related outcomes over time [5, 6]. 1. Feder, K., Michaud, D., Ramage-Morin, P., McNamee, J., & Beauregard, Y. (2015). Prevalence of hearing loss among Canadians aged 20 to 79: Audiometric results from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports, 26(7), 18-25. 2. Lin, F. R., Thorpe, R., Gordon-Salant, S., & Ferrucci, L. (2011). Hearing loss prevalence and risk factors among older adults in the United States. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(5), 582-590. doi: doi:10.1093/gerona/glr002 3. Dweck, C. S. (1999). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadephia, PA: Psychology Press. 4. Kastenbaum, R., Derbin, V., Sabatini, P., & Artt, S. (1972). “The ages of me”: Toward personal and interpersonal definitions of functional aging. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 3(2), 197-211. 5. Bainbridge, K. E., & Wallhagen, M. I. (2014). Hearing loss in an aging American population: Extent, impact, and management. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 139-152. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182510 6. Kotter-Grühn, D., Kornadt, A. E., & Stephan, Y. (2015). Looking beyond chronological age: Current knowledge and future directions in the study of subjective age. Gerontology, 62(1), 86-93. doi: 10.1159/000438671 [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic externalism(s) and cognitive transparency
Leclercq, Bruno ULiege; De Brabanter, Philippe

Conference (2017, September 22)

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See detail‘Once Upon A Time’ ou le contrôle de la narration
Claisse, Frédéric ULiege; Huppe, Justine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Ce billet de blog analyse les liens entre "ELIPSIA", une série de court-métrages réalisée par Frédéric DARRAS entre 2012 et 2016, et le projet de recherche STORYFIC, consacré aux effets du storytelling ... [more ▼]

Ce billet de blog analyse les liens entre "ELIPSIA", une série de court-métrages réalisée par Frédéric DARRAS entre 2012 et 2016, et le projet de recherche STORYFIC, consacré aux effets du storytelling sur l'écriture de fiction contemporaine, et plus particulièrement aux pouvoirs de la fiction. Après avoir décrit les enjeux posés par la série, l'article développe une série de parallèles avec les préoccupations d'auteurs français contemporains (C. Delaume, C. de Toledo, P. Vasset, A. Damasio), qui nourrissent le même rapport ambivalent à la fiction: à la fois dénoncée pour son emprise sur nos existences et son caractère aliénant, mais aussi valorisée pour ses promesses de réappropriation et d'émancipation. [less ▲]

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See detailMyoferlin controls mitochondrial structure in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and affects tumor aggressiveness
Rademaker, Gilles ULiege; Hennequière, Vincent ULiege; Brohée, Laura ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 22)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer related death. Therapeutic options remain very limited and are still based on ... [more ▼]

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer related death. Therapeutic options remain very limited and are still based on classical chemotherapies. Cell fraction can survive to the chemotherapy and is responsible for tumor relapse. It appears that these cells rely on OXPHOS for survival. Myoferlin, a membrane protein involved in cell fusion was recently shown by our laboratory to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we discovered that myoferlin was more expressed in cell lines undergoing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) than in glycolytic cell lines. In the former cell lines, we showed that myoferlin silencing reduced OXPHOS activity and forced cells to switch to glycolysis. The decrease in OXPHOS activity is associated with mitochondrial network disorganization. Dynamin-related protein (DRP)-1 phosphorylation led us to suggest mitochondrial fission, reducing cell proliferation, ATP production and inducing autophagy and ROS accumulation. To confirm the clinical importance of myoferlin in PDAC, we showed that low myoferlin expression was significantly correlated to high overall survival. Myoferlin staining of PDAC sections was negatively correlated with several 18FDG PET indices indicating that glycolytic lesions had less myoferlin. As the mitochondrial function is demonstrated to enhance the cell resistance to the treatment, the metabolic switch forced by myoferlin silencing could open up a new perspective in the development of therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards the development of a dual mode fluorescence/SERS dopamine aptasensor
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 21)

This work was dedicated to the development of a dual mode fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dopamine aptasensor. The preparation of the aptasensor was first optimised. Thereafter ... [more ▼]

This work was dedicated to the development of a dual mode fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dopamine aptasensor. The preparation of the aptasensor was first optimised. Thereafter, calibration curves were realised by means of fluorescence quenching and SERS. Finally, the specificity of both methods was tested. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques pistes pour relancer la foresterie sociale et la participation en Afrique centrale
Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege

Conference (2017, September 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (29 ULiège)
See detailHealing effect of controlled anti-electromigration on conventional and high-Tc superconducting nanowires
Baumans, Xavier ULiege; Lombardo, Joseph ULiege; Brisbois, Jérémy ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 21)

At the present time, electron beam lithography (EBL) is considered as the reference technique for nanoscale patterning. However, making nanostructures below the sub-10 nm scale is still challenging due to ... [more ▼]

At the present time, electron beam lithography (EBL) is considered as the reference technique for nanoscale patterning. However, making nanostructures below the sub-10 nm scale is still challenging due to broadening effects (forward electron scattering, backscattering, electrostatic charging…), and requires strong investment in terms of cost for state-of-the-art EBL systems. In this sense, alternative methods are continuously explored in order to make such nanofabrication easily reachable. A promising approach consists of inducing atomic diffusion by a large current density. This phenomenon, called electromigration (EM), and well known since the 60’s as a failure mechanism in metallic interconnections [1], still attracts interests from scientists and engineers for its great potential for fabrication of microstructures and for its reversibility character [2, 3]. In this work, we show that the combination of electromigration and anti-electromigration allows the precise tuning of superconducting properties of Al nanoconstrictions and we also observe the reversibility of electromigration failure for this material (see Fig. 1). The same process has been applied on Nb, leading to a more irreversible process, and La2 xCexCuO4. For the latter material, we show that selective migration of oxygen atoms and the consequent doping modification induces a transition from a superconducting state to an insulating state in a reversible way [4]. We also discussed the possibility to enhance the electromigration technique by replacing the complex feedback control by a technique of electropulsing. These researches have direct practical impact as a method to explore the dependence of the characteristic parameters on the exact oxygen content and pave the way for a reversible control of local properties of nanowires. [less ▲]

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See detailAgeism and dementia stigma among healthcare professionals
Schroyen, Sarah ULiege; Adam, Stéphane ULiege; Missotten, Pierre ULiege

Poster (2017, September 21)

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See detailFacultative paedomorphosis in pond-breeding newts
Denoël, Mathieu ULiege

Conference (2017, September 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (8 ULiège)