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See detailThe BRICS New Development Bank: a China-led challenge to the Western Hegemony
WCusson, Gabrielle ULg; Culpi, Ludmila ULg

Scientific conference (2016, January 28)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailHéroïsme en clôture : de la contemplative silencieuse à l’amazone chrétienne. Discours et représentations de l’héroïsme féminin sous la plume d’annonciades célestes au XVIIe siècle
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

Conference (2016, January 28)

Les annonciades célestes – ordre féminin d’origine génoise fondé en 1604 et implanté en pleine Guerre de Trente Ans sur la Dorsale catholique, face aux territoires protestants – ont produit une nombre ... [more ▼]

Les annonciades célestes – ordre féminin d’origine génoise fondé en 1604 et implanté en pleine Guerre de Trente Ans sur la Dorsale catholique, face aux territoires protestants – ont produit une nombre considérable de chroniques, annales, journaux, mémoires, biographies spirituelles, abrégés de vertus, lettres, autobiographies et autres billets d’humeur, autant de témoignages d’expériences, vécues en espace clos, mais toujours en prise sur le monde, en quête d’éternité, mais sans cesse plongées dans le temps en cours. Des expériences riches et singulières, qui ont eu souvent raison des timidités ou des retenues des intéressées pour aboutir à des relations particulièrement savoureuses où alternent écriture de soi et écriture de l’histoire. Cette documentation inédite et pour une bonne part inexploitée – au contraire des fonds relatifs aux Visitandines – permet, notamment, d’approcher leur conception de la moniale tridentine idéale, mise en scène et en mots par des autrices dont le génie littéraire n’égale sans doute pas les grandes plumes de Port-Royal, mais dont la production révèle tant le large éventail de représentations de soi élaborées par les annonciades que la réception intra muros des discours tenus à leur propos dans le siècle. Contemplatives vouées à une très stricte clôture, ces femmes se voient néanmoins en missionnaires conquérantes d’un espace à (ré)évangéliser. Il s’agira d’étudier d’une part comment elles intègrent les recommandations de leur entourage masculin qui les incitent à la discrétion, à l’effacement, au silence, bref, à un héroïsme comparable à celui de la Vierge, qui dans le secret de sa chambre n’en conçoit pas moins le Sauveur de l’humanité et, d’autre part, et sans que cela soit contradictoire, comment ces cloîtrées vivent les péripéties de leur expansion en aventurières de Dieu et souhaitent, en les narrant, manifester au monde leur héroïsme au service de la Réforme catholique. [less ▲]

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See detailHolocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions from speleothem and peat bog archives
Allan, Mohammed ULg; VERHEYDEN; CRUCIFIX, Michel et al

Poster (2016, January 28)

The geological materials (speleothems and peatbogs) presented in Belgium (Hautes-Fagnes Plateau, Ardennes caves) are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both ... [more ▼]

The geological materials (speleothems and peatbogs) presented in Belgium (Hautes-Fagnes Plateau, Ardennes caves) are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are easily dated (U/Th and counting for laminated speleothems, 210Pb and 14C for peatbogs), have a high temporal resolution (decadal to seasonal), contain multiple measurable parameters (elemental geochemistry, stable isotopes, radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopes, pollens, rates of peat humification, luminescence and thickness of laminated speleothems) and depending on environmental conditions of temperature and / or humidity. The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity of both archives (speleothems and peatbogs) to human perturbations and climate changes. Our ultimate goal is to contribute to a better understanding of natural interglacial climate variability by generating and confronting high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions from 2 continental archives. [less ▲]

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See detailTightening linearizations of non-linear binary optimization problems
Rodriguez Heck, Elisabeth ULg; Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, January 28)

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See detailCombining acceleration techniques for pricing in a VRP with time windows
Michelini, Stefano ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg; Küçükaydin, Hande

Conference (2016, January 28)

In this study, we investigate a solution methodology for a variant of the VRP with time windows. The cost of each route depends on its overall duration (including waiting times), while the departure time ... [more ▼]

In this study, we investigate a solution methodology for a variant of the VRP with time windows. The cost of each route depends on its overall duration (including waiting times), while the departure time of a vehicle is a decision variable. Furthermore, each route has a maximum permitted duration. In order to solve this problem with a branch-and-price methodology, we study also the associated pricing problem, an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints (ESPPRC). Compared to the classical ESPPRC, this variant admits an infinite number of Pareto-optimal states. In order to tackle this, it was shown in [1] that it is possible to represent the total travelling time as a piecewise linear function of the service start time at the depot. Together with this representation, an appropriate label structure and domi- nance rules are proposed and integrated into an exact bidirectional dynamic programming algorithm [2]. It is possible to implement certain acceleration techniques in the dynamic program- ming algorithm used to solve the pricing problem. We focus on two of these techniques: decremental state space relaxation (DSSR), introduced in [3], and ng-route relaxation, in- troduced in [4] and [5]. DSSR aims to enforce gradually the constraints on the elementarity of the path, which adversely affect the number of generated and dominated labels. A set of critical nodes is iteratively populated, and elementarity is enforced only on these critical nodes. When using ng-route relaxation, a neighbourhood is defined for each vertex. Then, the labels are extended such that, thanks to this neighbourhood structure, it is possible to allow only cycles that are relatively expensive and therefore less likely to appear in the optimal solution. In this study, we explore several different strategies used to apply these techniques, for example initialization strategies for the critical vertex set in DSSR, or the size of the neighbourhoods for ng-route relaxation. We also analyze two ways of combining DSSR and ng-route relaxation. The different algorithmic choices are represented as categorical parameters. The categorical parameters, together with the numerical ones, can be tuned with tools for automatic algorithm configuration such as the irace package [6]. We discuss how this column generation procedure can be included as a component in the development of a matheuristic based on the idea in [7], which consists in a collaboration scheme between a branch-and-price algorithm, an exact MIP solver, and a metaheuristic. [less ▲]

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See detailGeoarchaeology of the Ancient Harbour of Utica in a Deltaic Context (2014 and 2015)
Pleuger, Elisa ULg; Gadhoum, Ahmed; Abichou, Hakim et al

Conference (2016, January 28)

Ancient authors mention Utica as a maritime and port city and estimate its origin around the 11th c. BC. However, in the present state of research, no archaeological evidence is earlier than the 9th c. BC ... [more ▼]

Ancient authors mention Utica as a maritime and port city and estimate its origin around the 11th c. BC. However, in the present state of research, no archaeological evidence is earlier than the 9th c. BC, and the location of the Phoenician and Roman port infrastructures remains unknown. Today, the ancient city is located on a promontory in the heart of the Medjerda delta, 10 km inland. Based on this observation, our geoarchaeological research focuses on two main issues: - Was there a marine environment around the promontory of Utica, which could shelter harbour structures? - Why the city, formerly a seaport city, is today located 10 km from the coast? Can the wadi be solely responsible of such an important sediment accumulation in a few millennia? Have any natural or anthropogenic factors influenced this deltaic progradation over the centuries? First results permitted drawing an hypothesis of the coastline during Antiquity to the effect that the Utica promontory was surrounded by the sea in an earlier era. (1) Effectively, the «North compartment» of the delta was covered by the sea at a given time, which will be determined by the next radiocarbon dating. But the sea still brushed the north side of the promontory during the Roman period, as evidenced by the potsherds found in one of the cores. This deep marine bay could be a potential location for harbour infrastructure prior to clogging of the bay by the sediments carried by the wadi. (2) The «corridor» area, materialised by the promontories of Utica and Kalâat el-Andalous, was also invaded by the sea at one time. The many artifacts found in this core attest the occupation of this area, outside of the maximal extension of the ancient city according to A. Lézine. Dating of the marine units in the two cores will bring essential data: * to establish the chronological framework of the retreat of the coastline and of the clogging of the bay; * to understand the passage of the Medjerda into the «North compartment» by the corridor Utica-Kalâat. The geoarchaeological results corroborate ancient sources. Utica was able to welcome important harbour structures, since the presence of a deep marine environment is attested around the promontory, but these remains are probably 5 m deep under the alluvium of the Wadi Medjerda. [less ▲]

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See detailLa violence de l’image. Débats autour de l’irreprésentable (G. Didi-Huberman/ J. Rancière)
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Scientific conference (2016, January 28)

L’image peut être vectrice de débats politiquement complexes (tendus), notamment quand elle est porteuse de violence – quand elle montre/représente la violence. Or, on sait bien qu’au XXème siècle, il y a ... [more ▼]

L’image peut être vectrice de débats politiquement complexes (tendus), notamment quand elle est porteuse de violence – quand elle montre/représente la violence. Or, on sait bien qu’au XXème siècle, il y a un événement qui fait rupture de ce point de vue, en tant qu’il pousse la violence exercée par des hommes sur d’autres hommes à son paroxysme : la Shoah. Comme on peut l’observer dans toutes sortes de polémiques qui entourent la possibilité même de sa représentation (la littérature sur le sujet est vraiment très dense), la Shoah implique un rapport extrêmement difficile au document visuel, dont on a d’ailleurs longtemps pensé qu’il était pratiquement inexistant. « Il n’y a pas d’images de la Shoah » peut s’entendre de deux manières : soit qu’il n’y ait pas d’images effectives du processus d’extermination, soit que la possibilité même de représenter ce processus soit refusée par l’intensité de sa violence. La représentation visuelle de la Shoah pose problème. Non seulement la représentation imagée fictionnelle (cf. le cas récent du film Le fils de Saul de László Nemes – grand prix du jury au festival de Cannes), mais aussi, de manière plus étonnante encore peut-être, la représentation imagée documentaire. Autrement dit : même la diffusion de l’iconologie concentrationnaire, qui se réduit à presque rien puisque bon nombre de photographies ont été détruites par les nazis, soulève des réactions extrêmement vives. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets anthropiques sur les écosystèmes marins
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Grosjean, Philippe

Scientific conference (2016, January 28)

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See detailContribution of Capillary Electrophoresis and Ion Mobility Spectrometry to probe conformational change during desolvation
Far, Johann ULg; Delvaux, Cédric ULg; Kune, Christopher ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 28)

The transfer of ions from the solution to the gas phase is a critical step to produce « native species ». Coming from a highly solvating medium, ionic species will tend to find a new equilibrium ... [more ▼]

The transfer of ions from the solution to the gas phase is a critical step to produce « native species ». Coming from a highly solvating medium, ionic species will tend to find a new equilibrium conformation in the gas phase. The pathway to reach the thermodynamically stable conformation involves crossing potential barriers of different heights. When these barriers are too high compared to the internal energy of the ions, it will result in “partial memories” (as structural preservation) of the conformation in solution. In order to evaluate the effect of the solvent evaporation and of the various collision processes encountered by the ions in the mass spectrometer, we developed two strategies: The first strategy consists in comparing in a single experiment the shape of the ions in solution and in the gas phase. Data are obtained by coupling Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IMS). Drift times in solution and in the gas phase are directly compared. Deviations from their correlation points out changes in folding upon desolvatation. Preliminary results show that some of peptides issued from tryptic digest of BSA clearly change their conformation during desolvatation. The second strategy consists to monitor the shape of the different conformers observed for the intact cytochrome C during native runs in capillary electrophoresis and “native” ion mobility mass spectrometry, both using a physiological TRIS acetic pH7 buffer compared to a “MS friendly” ammonium acetate pH7 buffer. Finally as preliminary study, we proposed to use homopolymers for better understanding about the folding behavior in gas phase and the resulting shape of these ions using ion mobility spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure ambulatoire de la PA (MAPA) : pour qui?, pourquoi?, comment?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Scientific conference (2016, January 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
See detailHolocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions from Belgian peatbog
Allan, Mohammed ULg; VERHEYDEN, sophie; Le roux, gael et al

Conference (2016, January 27)

Atmospheric deposition is an important part of the global climate system, and plays a key role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as a source for major and trace nutrient elements ... [more ▼]

Atmospheric deposition is an important part of the global climate system, and plays a key role in the marine and terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as a source for major and trace nutrient elements. Reconstruction of atmospheric deposition is crucial to understand the effects of the increased atmospheric depositions induced by humans on the environment and to help understanding Holocene climate variability. This study investigated potential paleoenvironmental proxies provided by major and trace elements and stable isotopes compositions of peat bogs. Peat bog cores were collected from Hautes-Fagnes plateau (Misten bog) (SE-Belgium). The analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic element concentrations as well as Nd isotopes were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, in a  7 m peat section representing 7300 years, dated by 210Pb and 14C methods. The Misten bog is highly affected by atmospheric supplies (natural and anthropogenic) and can be used to establish the changes in atmospheric dust during the Mid-Late Holocene. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at 3200-2800BC, 600BC, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700 AD corresponding to local and regional human activities combined with climate change. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The Nd values show large variability, between -5 and –13, identifying three major sources of dust: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. Our results provide evidence that climate forcing may be detected in ombrotrophic peat, even for the historical period that is characterised by a mixed climate-human control. [less ▲]

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See detailThe City museum : a concept with multiple interpretations
Postula, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2016, January 27)

As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities have developed museums to expose their history. This movement has then grown throughout the twentieth century around the ... [more ▼]

As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, some major European cities have developed museums to expose their history. This movement has then grown throughout the twentieth century around the world. At the beginning of the third millennium, the phenomenon is more relevant than ever, as evidenced by numerous projects of creation and renovation of such institutions. Nevertheless, it took a long time before that kind of museums began to be considered as part of a specific museum category, with its own characteristics and challenges. It is only in 1993, at the Museum of London, that representatives of museums devoted to the study of cities met for the very first time, in order “to discuss [their] problems, to develop theories and to promote [their] special place in the museum movement worldwide” (HEBDITCH Max, “Key-note address”, in JOHNSON Nichola (ed.), Reflecting cities, London, 1993, p. 1). The expression “city museum” took shape for this occasion, with the creation at the end of the symposium of a first International Association of City Museums, followed subsequently by other organizations. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the multiple interpretations and meanings attached to the quite recent concept of “city museum”, examined through its different uses and definitions within the museological literature. The analysis of these speeches will highlight the fact that there are no unanimously established uses of the expression among the specialists. It will also show that, as a museum category, city museum is an object whose identity is still under construction. [less ▲]

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See detailUtiliser les résultats du contrôle laitier pour améliorer son rendement fromager
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
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See detailIn vitro monitoring of human tissue degradation by TD-GC×GC-TOFMS
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg; DELPORTE, Géraldine ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 27)

Human rescue dog unit are amongst the most efficient tools to locate cadaver or individuals trapped after a natural disaster. However, the dog training process is long and expensive. Dog trainers are ... [more ▼]

Human rescue dog unit are amongst the most efficient tools to locate cadaver or individuals trapped after a natural disaster. However, the dog training process is long and expensive. Dog trainers are still looking for a better understanding of the dog olfaction matching mechanism to improve their training methods (1). How does the decomposition process differ between organs? Are there specific body parts better suited for dog training? What are the major volatile compounds responsible of the dogs’ match response? In the line of these questions, this project was monitoring the headspace of various human organs during the decomposition process. Five different organs, from five different bodies, were used: heart, lung, liver, kidney, and blood. Each organs were sampled in triplicates and let to decompose in glass jar. Regularly, the headspace of the jar was sampled by dynamic pumping to sorbent tubes that were further be desorbed on a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography system (GC×GC). GC×GC is a powerful analytical tool that allows the resolution of “the smell of death”, i.e. the decomposition odor (2-3). The development of an in vitro approach for decomposition monitoring provided several analytical improvements in the decomposition field. Indeed, the study of dead bodies is always limited in the number of replicates (4). The sampling process developed for this project allows intra and inter corpse comparison with at least triplicates sampling. These comparisons were conducted using advanced chemometric methods (Fisher ratio, PCA, hierarchical analysis…) that will contribute to better understand key parameters of rescue the dog training. References 1. Hoffman et al. FSI (2009) 186, 6-13. 2. Stefanuto et al. CPC (2014) 79, 786-789. 3. Perrault et al. J. Sep. Sci. (2015) 38, 73-80. 4. Stefanuto et al. ABC (2015) 407, 4767-4778 [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of the palaeoenvironment of the Medjerda delta (Tunisia) and geoarchaeology of the ancient city of Utica
Pleuger, Elisa ULg; Abichou, Hakim; Gadhoum, Ahmed et al

Conference (2016, January 27)

Phoenician Utica remains today largely unknown, as is its role in the Phoenician expansion in the western Mediterranean. Aristotle and Pliny the Elder mention Utica as a maritime and port city and ... [more ▼]

Phoenician Utica remains today largely unknown, as is its role in the Phoenician expansion in the western Mediterranean. Aristotle and Pliny the Elder mention Utica as a maritime and port city and estimate its origin around the 11th c. BC. However, in the present state of research, no archaeological evidence is earlier than the 9th c. BC, and the location of the Phoenician and Roman port infrastructures remains unknown. Today, the ancient city is located on a promontory in the heart of the Medjerda delta, 10 km inland. This project proposes an interdisciplinary effort to understand the Medjerda delta landscape changes during the Holocene. It starts from an archaeological problem and proposes the contribution of geoarchaeology to the understanding of the relationship between ancient societies and their environment. The fluvial palaeoenvironments and sedimentary processes are studied through the mechanical extraction of cores (15-20 m deep) to reach the early Holocene. Selected sediment samples are then studied in laboratory, using different and complementary approaches. The location of port infrastructures will bring initial answers to the question of the foundation of the city. The study of river palaeoenvironments of the Medjerda delta during the Holocene aim at a better understanding of the nature of the settlement, as well as the function of the city of Utica over time. This study will also assess the impact of the ancient city on the environment and understand how the city adapted to the mobility of this Mediterranean delta. Furthermore, the analysis of sedimentary processes causing the filling of the harbour basin will lead to speculation about the causes of the abandonment of the structures and more generally the decline of the city in favor of Carthage. It will also examine whether natural or anthropogenic factors have influenced this deltaic progradation over the centuries. [less ▲]

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