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See detailDynamic calibration of piezoelectric transducers for ballistic high-pressure measurement
Elkarous, Lamine ULg; Robbe, Cyril; Pirlot, Marc et al

in International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering (2016)

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See detailPerformance of a radial-inflow turbine integrated in an ORC system and designed for a WHR on truck application: An experimental comparison between R245fa and R1233zd
Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Legros, Arnaud ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2016)

The goal of this study is to experimentally compare the performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system equipped with a radial-inflow turbine for two working fluids: R245fa and R1233zd. The radial ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study is to experimentally compare the performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system equipped with a radial-inflow turbine for two working fluids: R245fa and R1233zd. The radial- inflow turbine is a small-scale prototype designed to convert the waste heat from the exhaust gases of a truck combustion engine and was developed mainly using components of truck turbochargers. It is directly connected to a high-speed synchronous generator. The bearings system of the turbine and the generator have the innovative particularity to be respectively lubricated and cooled down by the working fluid so no additional lubricant or coolant is needed. The experimental comparison is carried out over a test-rig equipped with the radial turbine. The heat wasted by the truck through the exhaust gases is sim- ulated using an electric oil boiler coupled to the ORC loop. The electrical power supplied by the turbine, limited to a maximum of 3.5 kWel by the generator, is then dissipated in a load bank composed of truck fans while the condenser is cooled by a water loop. Measurements in steady-state are performed in order to evaluate the performance of the turbine-generator set when varying the pressure ratio, the rotational speed, the inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the turbine and the lubrication flow rate of the bearings for various oil temperatures and mass flow rates. In order to identify the most suitable fluid for the Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) application, three comparison methods are proposed and discussed based on the measurements. Finally, because the turbine-generator set is the first oil-free prototype developed by the manufacturer, potential sources of improvements are discovered and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe casier judiciaire : un instrument mémoriel au passé tourmenté mais à l’avenir empreint de sérénité ?
Seron, Vincent ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016)

Profondément réformé en 1997, le casier judiciaire n’en finit pas de faire l’objet de remaniements et de prêter le flanc à la critique. Des modifications régulièrement opérées s’agissant de la délivrance ... [more ▼]

Profondément réformé en 1997, le casier judiciaire n’en finit pas de faire l’objet de remaniements et de prêter le flanc à la critique. Des modifications régulièrement opérées s’agissant de la délivrance de ses extraits à sa mise à jour lacunaire, nombreux sont les éléments qui témoignent des difficultés récurrentes auxquelles cet instrument séculaire est confronté. En quatre temps, cet article propose de remettre en perspective les principaux éléments explicatifs de l’état transitoire au sein duquel le casier judiciaire est confiné depuis près de deux décennies, d’analyser son fonctionnement actuel, de focaliser l’attention sur les récents changements apportés à son contenu ainsi qu’à la communication des données qu’il contient, et de s’interroger sur la prétendue non fiabilité de ce casier. [less ▲]

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See detailPropositions pour penser la notion d'erreur en photographie
Havelange, Carl ULg

Conference (2016, March 04)

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See detailRepeated Behavioral Assessments in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness
Wannez, Sarah ULg; Annen, Jitka ULg; Aubinet, Charlène ULg et al

Conference (2016, March 04)

The Coma Recovery Scale Revised (CRS-R) is considered as the most sensitive scale to assess patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Guidelines recommend repeated assessments because patients might ... [more ▼]

The Coma Recovery Scale Revised (CRS-R) is considered as the most sensitive scale to assess patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Guidelines recommend repeated assessments because patients might suffer from consciousness fluctuations, but it is not specified how many assessments are needed. The present study included 131 patients with DOC. They have been assessed at least 6 times during a 14-days period with the CRS-R. Results show that 5 CRS-R assessments are needed to reach a reliable diagnosis, and that all the CRS-R subscales are influenced by consciousness fluctuations. We here showed that consciousness fluctuations influence the behavioral diagnosis, and that 5 assessments within a short period of time are needed to get a reliable clinical diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Study of Canine Leishmaniasis in Algeria and its Impact on the Human Visceral Leishmaniasis
Adel, Amal ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. In absence of treatment the ... [more ▼]

Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. In absence of treatment the outcome is death. The disease is characterised by irregular fever bouts, loss of weight, hepatosplenomegaly and anaemia. It is endemic in the Indian sub-continent and in East Africa. In the Mediterranean region, it is present in rural areas, in villages, in mountain areas, but also in certain peri-urban zones, where the parasites survive in dogs and other mammals. In fact, domestic dogs are the principal reservoir of human VL and they also can develop a more generalised and fatal form of the disease, although more than half of the dogs remain asymptomatic, the individual outcome depending on both cellular and humoral immune responses. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs can infect the phlebotomine vectors, thereby enabling the transmission to other dogs or to people. This is the main reason why early detection and treatment of infected animals is the best way to reduce the risk of infection and, as such, forms an essential component in the prevention and control of the human disease. Ideally, a so-called “gold standard” test is required to reliably and correctly determine the infectious status of an individual and/or the infection prevalence in a population in a certain region at a certain point in time. A gold-standard test provides an error-free classification of individuals as infected or infection-free. The discriminative power of a real-life test is quantified by measures of precision, more specifically the sensitivity and the specificity of the test. They vary in function of characteristics of the population studied. In the majority of cases, a gold standard test does not exist. In order to overcome this lack, use is made of reference tests. The latter are often imperfect (sensitivity and specificity below one) and they allow estimation of a so-called apparent prevalence rather than the actual true prevalence. A statistical solution to the problem of lack of gold standard test consists of a Bayesian approach, which allows us to combine data of a study with external (prior, independent) information, such as results from previous studies or expert opinion. This approach yields an estimate of the true prevalence, as well as estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of the tests used. This thesis attempts to contribute towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria. More specifically, our general objective (Chapter 3) was to estimate the true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis, in a situation where a diagnostic gold standard test was unavailable, and to describe the epidemiological curve and profile of visceral leishmaniasis in the country. With this in mind, the work is organised in nine chapters. The first chapter outlines the importance of leishmaniasis (respectively visceral and canine) in terms of public health and veterinary public health and provides an overview of the current knowledge base on canine leishmaniasis. The second chapter is devoted to a description of the epidemiological methodology available for the estimation of the true prevalence and the test characteristics in the absence of gold standard test. Chapter 4 describes an epidemiological study conducted in the capital city Algiers, comprising 462 dogs subdivided in four groups according to their function (stray dogs, guard dogs, farm dogs and pet dogs). A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the four groups and to evaluate three serological tests: an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), a direct agglutination test (DAT) and a commercial rapid test on gel, based on the protein rK39 (PaGIA). We were able to demonstrate variability in the test performance characteristics in the different groups, and this in terms of sensitivity and specificity. IFAT, although it is an imperfect test, is nevertheless the test of choice when the dog population targeted consists of stray dogs, but its specificity drops to a unsatisfactory 65.2% (IC: 60.2-73.5%) when applied to farm dogs: the fact of living together with other animals may induce cross-reactions. Stray dogs also yielded the highest estimate for the true prevalence (11.7%), probably a consequence of their constant living outside, which increases the risk of exposure to infected phlebotomine vectors. Using the above results, a large-scale transversal survey was mounted in six towns of the littoral zone of Algeria (Chapter 5). Thus, a total of 2,184 farm dogs and guard dogs were sampled in two distinct periods using two serological tests: before and after the main vector season, using IFAT and DAT. Serial and parallel interpretation of the combined tests were compared to various other statistical methods in order to estimate the true prevalence and the sensitivity and specificity of the two tests. The latent class model of Hui and Walter based on conditional independence between the diagnostic tests was compared to a Bayesian model, which made it possible to include conditional dependency between tests, if required. The best-adjusted model estimated canine leishmaniasis prevalence between 11% and 38% with an increasing trend from west to east. IFAT sensitivity varied between 86% and 88% in the different localities, whereas specificity ranged between 65% and 87%. DAT was invariably less sensitive than IFAT, but had a better specificity: between 80% and 95% in function of locality and season. The results highlighted once more the danger of considering IFAT to be a gold standard test for canine leishmaniasis. Chapter 6 draws up an epidemiological profile of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria, based on cases notified to the National Public Health Institute between 1998 and 2008. A total of 1,562 were found for this period. This translates into an incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.4% were children between zero and four years of age. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the principal clinical and biochemical signs. Antimonies are the first-line treatment drugs in paediatric wards and amphotericin B injections are the treatment of choice in adults. Severe under-declaration (less than one case in ten notified) was demonstrated thanks to a survey carried out in the paediatric, internal medicine and infectious diseases departments of the five university hospital centres in Algiers, which had an influx of patients from all four corners of the country. Results of both Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 revealed a concordance between human visceral leishmaniasis incidence rates and true prevalence of canine leishmaniasis, providing extra support for the hypothesis that dogs are the main reservoir of the disease. Motivated by the results of the two surveys (Chapters 4 and 5), Chapter 7 describes a literature review of the performance of IFAT when used to estimate the canine leishmaniasis prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. Chapters 8 and 9 present the general discussion and conclusions and recommendations of the overall contribution of this research effort. Even though this work only represent a small addition to knowledge body on visceral leishmaniasis, it allowed us to better describe and understand the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria and to obtain true prevalence estimates of canine leishmaniasis in various towns in the littoral zone of the country. It showed us the importance of correctly identifying and defining the target population of surveys to obtain the best possible posterior estimates and to optimise control measures. This work also showed the efficacy of the application of appropriate statistical models in a Bayesian framework when confronted with the absence of a gold standard test. Chapter 10 summarizes all references cited in the thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailEuthanasie et don d'organes
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2016, March 04)

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See detailOlivier Schrauwen e a expansão da banda desenhada belga
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

An internationally translated and critically acclaimed "graphic novelist" superstar, Olivier Schrauwen has often parodied his own posture in strangely inventive comics narrated by his alter ego "O ... [more ▼]

An internationally translated and critically acclaimed "graphic novelist" superstar, Olivier Schrauwen has often parodied his own posture in strangely inventive comics narrated by his alter ego "O. Schrauwen". This presentation offers some insights into the works of Schrauwen, their distinct aesthetics and ironical tone, showing how this style is rooted in a context of alternative comics and self-publishing. Retracing Schrauwen's trajectory from the Flemish to the international comics scene, this presentation will sketch a broad picture of the development and expansion of Belgian comics in the 21st century. Through references to the contemporary work of Brecht Evens, Judith Vanistendael, Brecht Vandenbroucke, as well as the classic comics of Willy Vandersteen, Marc Smeets, Urbanus, Kamagurka and Herr Seele, it proposes a brief introduction to the world of Belgian Dutch-language comics. [less ▲]

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See detailParameter Correlation Analysis in Four Mathematical Models of Left Ventricular Relaxation
Pironet, Antoine ULg; MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg et al

in 14th Belgian Day on Biomedical Engineering (2016, March 04)

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See detailCardio-pulmonary mechanics and minimal modelling in critical care
de Bournonville, Sébastien; Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

in 14th Belgian Day on Biomedical Engineering (2016, March 04)

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See detailCardio-pulmonary mechanics and minimal modelling in critical care
de Bournonville, Sébastien; Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 04)

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See detailPolitique de la Ville - Dynamisation des coeurs de ville
Bianchet, Bruno ULg; Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

Keynote about urban policies in Wallonia (Belgium). It was summary of our research 2014-2015 about evaluation and proposals for urban policies in Wallonia.

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See detailPolitique internationale de la culture: une introduction
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

Scientific conference (2016, March 04)

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See detailDroit constitutionnel belge - Dossier de documentation (année académique 2015-2016)
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Learning material (2016)

Le document constitue le Dossier de documentation, à lire par les étudiants en parallèle au cours ex cathedra, de l'enseignement de Droit constitutionnel dispensé à l'Université de Liège en bachelier en ... [more ▼]

Le document constitue le Dossier de documentation, à lire par les étudiants en parallèle au cours ex cathedra, de l'enseignement de Droit constitutionnel dispensé à l'Université de Liège en bachelier en droit et en science politique [less ▲]

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See detailMetamorphosing cultural patterns: Cassirer in the steps of Warburg on Culture Theory
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2016, March 03)

My argument stems from a reading of the fifth study in Cassirer’s The Logic of the Cultural Sciences (1942), devoted to the “Tragedy of Culture.” I contend that this fifth study resolves an observable ... [more ▼]

My argument stems from a reading of the fifth study in Cassirer’s The Logic of the Cultural Sciences (1942), devoted to the “Tragedy of Culture.” I contend that this fifth study resolves an observable indecision in Cassirer’s position on cultural productions: to lead man toward greater happiness and freedom, should one strive to uphold traditional forms, or should one abandon old models and create new ones? I believe that Cassirer’s consideration of art historian Aby Warburg’s works (1866-1929) constitutes a defining moment in understanding his answer to that question. This fifth study illustrates the profound impact of Warburg’s model for understanding culture on Cassirer’s philosophy. Contrary to the claims of some exegetes, Cassirer and Warburg’s theoretical positions on the matter are very close. Cassirer’s treatment of the reception of artistic forms (he argues that form reception is never merely a passive act) follows, point by point, Warburg’s theory of the survival (Nachleben) of artistic motifs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe darkening of the Greenland ice sheet: trends, drivers, and projections (1981–2100)
Tedesco, M.; Doherty, S.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

The surface energy balance and meltwater production of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) are modulated by snow and ice albedo through the amount of absorbed solar radiation. Here we show, using space-borne ... [more ▼]

The surface energy balance and meltwater production of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) are modulated by snow and ice albedo through the amount of absorbed solar radiation. Here we show, using space-borne multispectral data collected during the 3 decades from 1981 to 2012, that summertime surface albedo over the GrIS decreased at a statistically significant (99 %) rate of 0.02 decade−1 between 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, albedo modelled by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) also shows a decrease, though at a lower rate ( ∼ −0.01 decade−1) than that obtained from space-borne data. We suggest that the discrepancy between modelled and measured albedo trends can be explained by the absence in the model of processes associated with the presence of light-absorbing impurities. The negative trend in observed albedo is confined to the regions of the GrIS that undergo melting in summer, with the dry-snow zone showing no trend. The period 1981–1996 also showed no statistically significant trend over the whole GrIS. Analysis of MAR outputs indicates that the observed albedo decrease is attributable to the combined effects of increased near-surface air temperatures, which enhanced melt and promoted growth in snow grain size and the expansion of bare ice areas, and to trends in light-absorbing impurities (LAI) on the snow and ice surfaces. Neither aerosol models nor in situ and remote sensing observations indicate increasing trends in LAI in the atmosphere over Greenland. Similarly, an analysis of the number of fires and BC emissions from fires points to the absence of trends for such quantities. This suggests that the apparent increase of LAI in snow and ice might be related to the exposure of a "dark band" of dirty ice and to increased consolidation of LAI at the surface with melt, not to increased aerosol deposition. Albedo projections through to the end of the century under different warming scenarios consistently point to continued darkening, with albedo anomalies averaged over the whole ice sheet lower by 0.08 in 2100 than in 2000, driven solely by a warming climate. Future darkening is likely underestimated because of known underestimates in modelled melting (as seen in hindcasts) and because the model albedo scheme does not currently include the effects of LAI, which have a positive feedback on albedo decline through increased melting, grain growth, and darkening. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la stabilité d'une paroi rocheuse à Flémalle
Delvoie, Simon ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

Report (2016)

La caractérisation détaillée du massif rocheux a été réalisée à partir de mesures in situ et d'observations. Ces données sont ensuite utilisées dans l'analyse de stabilité du massif rocheux. Un traitement ... [more ▼]

La caractérisation détaillée du massif rocheux a été réalisée à partir de mesures in situ et d'observations. Ces données sont ensuite utilisées dans l'analyse de stabilité du massif rocheux. Un traitement adéquat de la paroi est finalement proposé afin de minimiser les projections de blocs rocheux sur d'éventuels bâtiments sur le moyen et le long terme. [less ▲]

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See detailA Readers’ History of Girls’ Comics: A Review of Remembered Reading
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

in The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship (2016), 6

In her monograph Remembered Reading (2015), Mel Gibson builds on her field work, interviews and meetings with readers of girls’ comics to recover the history and memory of this forgotten genre. Drawing on ... [more ▼]

In her monograph Remembered Reading (2015), Mel Gibson builds on her field work, interviews and meetings with readers of girls’ comics to recover the history and memory of this forgotten genre. Drawing on these shared memories and recollections, Gibson presents a readers’ history of British girls’ comics that reveals how these readings were part of identity constructions and personal histories, tied up to public factors of gender, age and class. In doing so, Gibson revises many stereotypes that have characterized girls’ comics, sketches a much more nuanced picture of the genre, and highlights the complexity of readers’ engagement with comics. [less ▲]

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See detailRelative positioning with Galileo E5 AltBOC code measurements
Deprez, Cécile ULg

Conference (2016, March 03)

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de ... [more ▼]

Depuis une dizaine d’années, l’Europe développe son propre système de positionnement par satellites (ou Global Navigation Satellites System (GNSS) en anglais), connu sous le nom de Galileo. À la pointe de la technologie, les horloges atomiques embarquées à bord de ses satellites ainsi que les signaux transmis par ces derniers sont extrêmement prometteurs dans beaucoup de domaines. Bien que toujours en phase de test à l’heure actuelle, ce système a déjà conduit à de premières mesures, notamment en matière de positionnement. Parmi ces nouvelles technologies, un signal en particulier semble très prometteur : Galileo E5, aussi appelé Galileo E5a+b ou encore Galileo E5 AltBOC. Ce signal permet d’effectuer des mesures de code et de phase plus précises. Il est également moins sensible au multi-trajet. Grâce à ses caractéristiques innovantes, Galileo E5 devrait permettre d’estimer des positions avec une précision supérieure à tous les autres signaux utilisés aujourd’hui. Une étude comparative des positions estimées avec les systèmes GPS (américain) et Galileo (européen) sur leurs différentes fréquences émises (GPS L1, GPS L2, GPS L5 pour GPS et Galileo E1, Galileo E5a, Galileo E5b et Galileo E5 AltBOC pour Galileo) a été menée dans ce mémoire. Pour ce faire, une combinaison d’observations appelée double différence (DD) est utilisée sous différentes configurations (ligne de base nulle (ZB), courte (SB) et moyenne (MB)) de récepteurs GNSS. Les récepteurs utilisés appartiennent à l’Université de Liège (2 récepteurs Trimble NetR9, 1 récepteur Septentrio XS et un récepteur Septentrio X4). Il ressort de cette étude que Galileo E5 AltBOC présente les observations les plus précises (en ZB, toutes sources d’erreurs éliminées). L’analyse démontre également qu’une précision de l’ordre de quelques décimètres sur la position à déterminer peut être atteinte avec les codes transmis par le signal Galileo E5, et ce jusqu’à 25 kilomètres de distance. [less ▲]

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