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See detailMultiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices
Kosta, Sarah ULg; Negroni, Jorge; Lascano, Elena et al

in Mathematical Biosciences (2017), 284

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological ... [more ▼]

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of an ultra-marathonof 330km on plasma levels of cardiac biomarkers
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Gergelé, Laurent et al

in British Journal of Sports Medicine (2017, February), 51(4), 347

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See detailA specific immune and lymphatic profile characterizes the pre-metastatic state of the sentinel lymph node in patients with early cervical cancer
Balsat, Cédric ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Herfs, Michael ULg et al

in Oncoimmunology (2017), 6(2), 1265718

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its ... [more ▼]

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its specific dissemination through a complex bilateral pelvic lymphatic system, early cervical cancer is a relevant candidate for investigating the early nodal metastatic process. In the present study, we analyzed in-depth both the lymphatic vasculature and the immune climate of pre-metastatic sentinel LN (SLN), in 48 cases of FIGO stage IB1 cervical neoplasms. An original digital image analysis methodology was used to objectively determine whole slide densities and spatial distributions of immunostained structures. We observed a marked increase in lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and a specific capsular and subcapsular distribution in pre-metastatic SLN when compared with non-sentinel counterparts. Such features persisted in the presence of nodal metastatic colonization. The inflammatory profile attested by CD8+, Foxp3, CD20 and PD-1expression was also significantly increased in pre-metastatic SLN. Remarkably, the densities of CD20+ B cells and PD-1 expressing germinal centers were positively correlated with LVD. All together, these data strongly support the existence of a pre-metastatic dialog between the primary tumor and the first nodal relay. Both lymphatic and immune responses contribute to the elaboration of a specific pre-metastatic microenvironment in human SLN. Moreover, this work provides evidence that, in the context of early cervical cancer, a pre-metastatic lymphangiogenesis occurs within the SLN (pre-metastatic niche) and is associated with a specific humoral immune response. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and indications on long-term forecasting of the Oceanic Niño Index with wavelet-induced components
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

in Pure and Applied Geophysics (2017), 174(4), 1815-1826

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main ... [more ▼]

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main periods of about 17, 31, 43, 61 and 140 months govern most of the variability of the signal, which is consistent with previous works. Then, this information enables us to derive a simple algorithm to model and forecast ONI. The model is based on the observation that the modes extracted from the signal are generally phased with positive or negative anomalies of ONI (El Niño and La Niña events). Such a feature is exploited to generate locally stationary curves that mimic this behavior and which can be easily extrapolated to form a basic forecast. The wavelet transform is then used again to smooth out the process and finalize the predictions. The skills of the technique described in this paper are assessed through retroactive forecasts of past El Niño and La Niña events and via classic indicators computed as functions of the lead time. The main asset of the proposed model resides in its long-lead prediction skills. Consequently, this approach should prove helpful as a complement to other models for estimating the long-term trends of ONI. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit du justiciable dans le cadre de la loi sur l'internement (y compris "pot-pourri III")
Jacques, Elodie ULg

in Masset, Adrien; Franssen, Vanessa (Eds.) Les droits du justiciable face à la justice pénale (2017)

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See detailIntroduction to the Laws of War - Reader (2016-2017)
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Learning material (2017)

This reader gathers introductory pieces of literature on how international law governs situations of armed conflict.

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See detailLa paix de Fexhe
Masson, Christophe ULg

Book published by Ville de Liège (2017)

Catalogue de l'exposition "La Paix de Fexhe" (Grand Curtius, 3 février-30 avril 2017)

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See detailCombattre le travail des enfants? Politiques et acteurs d'une lutte controversée au Burkina Faso
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

Book published by L'Harmattan (2017)

Malgré le renforcement de la législation depuis 1990 et la lutte engagée depuis 2000, le travail des enfants continue d’être une question préoccupante au Burkina Faso. Pourquoi ? Alors que la lutte pour ... [more ▼]

Malgré le renforcement de la législation depuis 1990 et la lutte engagée depuis 2000, le travail des enfants continue d’être une question préoccupante au Burkina Faso. Pourquoi ? Alors que la lutte pour son abolition, dans le pays, n’a jamais connu un tel intérêt, comment comprendre que de nombreux enfants continuent de travailler, souvent dans des conditions qui relèvent des « pires formes » de travail des enfants, selon les critères de l’OIT ? Que pensent et disent les enfants travailleurs sur cette lutte engagée contre leur travail ? Telles sont les questions que l’ouvrage se propose de développer. À partir d’une enquête de terrain de longue durée au Burkina Faso, cet ouvrage offre une analyse des conditions d’émergence, de traduction et d’application des politiques internationales de lutte contre le travail des enfants. En confrontant à un corpus empirique inédit les théories et les interprétations dominantes, l’ouvrage propose une relecture de la sociologie et de l’anthropologie de l’enfance et de l’analyse des politiques publiques. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypes to genetically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in dairying
de Haas, Yvette; Pszczola, Marcin; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2017), 100(2), 855-870

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as ... [more ▼]

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations. At present, methane emission is not included among breeding goals for dairy cattle worldwide. There is no incentive to include enteric methane in breeding goals, although global warming and the release of greenhouse gases is a much-debated political topic. However, if selection for reduced methane emission became a reality, there would be limited consensus as to which phenotype to select for: methane in liters per day or grams per day, methane in liters per kilogram of energy-corrected milk or dry matter intake, or a residual methane phenotype, where methane production is corrected for milk production and the weight of the cow. We have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of these traits, and discuss the methods for selection and consequences for these phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailIs langdurig ziekteverzuim voorspelbaar en meetbaar ?
Goorts, Kaat; Duchesnes, Christiane ULg; Vandenbroeck, Sofie et al

in Tijdschrift voor Bedrijfs- en Verzekeringsgeneeskunde (2017), 25(2), 59-62

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See detailApplication of design space optimization strategy to the developmentof LC methods for simultaneous analysis of 18 antiretroviral medicinesand 4 major excipients used in various pharmaceutical formulations
Habyalimana, Védaste ULg; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Yemoa, Loconon ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 139

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun ... [more ▼]

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun-terfeiting. For that, we developed screening and specific HPLC methods that can analyze 18 antiretroviralmedicines (ARV) and 4 major excipients. Design of experiments and design space methodology wereinitially applied for 15 ARV and the 4 excipients with prediction thanks to Monte Carlo simulations andfocusing on rapidity and affordability thus using short column and low cost organic solvent (methanol)in gradient mode with 10 mM buffer solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate. Two other specificmethods dedicated to ARV in liquid and in solid dosage formulations were also predicted and opti-mized. We checked the ability of one method for the analysis of a fixed-dose combination composedby emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz in tablet formulations. Satisfying validation results were obtainedby applying the total error approach taking into account the accuracy profile as decision tool. Then, thevalidated method was applied to test two samples coded A and B, and claimed to contain the tested ARV.Assay results were satisfying only for sample B. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'évaluation des Enseignements à la régulation des pratiques des enseignants: quels possibles et quelles conditions ?
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ceux produits sur le développement pédagogique des enseignants. Nous déterminons ensuite certains éléments du dispositif EEE favorisant une utilisation accrue et pertinente. [less ▲]

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See detailPédagogie universitaire et Evaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants 
Younes, Nathalie; Paivendi, Saeed; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

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See detailAn App-based Algorithmic Approach for Harvesting Local and Renewable Energy Using Electric Vehicles
Dubois, Antoine; Wehenkel, Antoine; Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2017) (2017, February)

The emergence of electric vehicles (EVs), combined with the rise of renewable energy production capacities, will strongly impact the way electricity is produced, distributed and consumed in the very near ... [more ▼]

The emergence of electric vehicles (EVs), combined with the rise of renewable energy production capacities, will strongly impact the way electricity is produced, distributed and consumed in the very near future. This position paper focuses on the problem of optimizing charging strategies for a fleet of EVs in the context where a significant amount of electricity is generated by (distributed) renewable energy. It exposes how a mobile application may offer an efficient solution for addressing this problem. This app can play two main roles. Firstly, it would incite and help people to play a more active role in the energy sector by allowing photovoltaic (PV) panel owners to sell their electrical production directly to consumers, here the EVs’ agents. Secondly, it would help distribution system operators (DSOs) or transmission system operators (TSOs) to modulate more efficiently the load by allowing them to influence EV charging behaviour in real time. Finally, the present paper advocates for the introduction of a two-sided market-type model between EV drivers and electricity producers. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer
Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg; Otten, Joël ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2017), 9

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases ... [more ▼]

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases in the upstream direction. This region is problematic in that due to the underlain superficial Continental Terminal aquifer bordered by the hypersaline estuary constitutes the unique fresh groundwater reservoir for water supply for its estimated 466,000 residents living in 18 rural districts (belonging to the regions of Fatick, Kaolack and Kaffrine). This is of high value given that the deep Maastrichtian aquifer (200-300m depth) is saline. This study aims to describe and understand temporal changes in the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater, the geochemical processes and especially the groundwater salinization. New hydrological insights for the region: The analytical data were discriminated into 3 groups on the basis of the water types. Na-Cl, Ca-Cl and Ca-SO4 rich waters derived from saline water intrusion at the vicinity of the Saloum River accompanied by ion exchange reactions and pollution dominate the first group. The second group located mainly in the centre and eastern parts of the region is featured fresh groundwater of Ca-HCO3 derived from calcite dissolution reactions. The third group of Na-HCO3 type and less mineralized indicates freshening processes by recently infiltrating rainwaters. Slight seasonal chemical variations are observed due to new infiltrating water reaching the water table. High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012) also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a community-based concession model in the DRC
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Karsenty, Alain

in International Forestry Review (2017)

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse ... [more ▼]

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse the abovementioned legislation with respect to participatory management of forests. The explicit recognition of the duality of a customary de facto local community forest and a modern legal entity (concession) is an innovation. However, viewed from the perspective of the long-established habits within the country, the question remains whether these legal measures can be sufficient for ensuring the sustainable development of these community-held forested areas. Allowing community concessions up to 50,000 ha demonstrated a shift in the government policy away from the industrial timber cultivation model. However, an area this size is much larger than the communities can monitor, particularly in the case of artisanal charcoal or wood exploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Martian diffuse aurora: a model of ultraviolet and visible emissions
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Shematovich, V.I. et al

in Icarus (2017), 288

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar ... [more ▼]

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions from the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and violet auroral emissions for initial electron energies extending from 0.25 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox–Duffendack–Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb production rates of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 50-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission below 75 km, in agreement with the MAVEN observations. We calculate the efficiency of photon production per unit precipitated electron power. The strongest emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and CO Cameron bands and the oxygen mission at 297.2 nm. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below about 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the Cameron band emission is expected to peak at a higher altitude than the CO2+ UVD and FDB bands. Collisional quenching also causes the intensity ratio of the CO2+ UVD to CO Cameron bands to increase below ∼100 km in the energetic diffuse aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement du pectus excavatum chez le chat
Hamon, Martin ULg; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) (2017), 166

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