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See detailEvaluation des processus de mise en oeuvre des plans de cohésion sociale: rapport final
Italiano, Patrick ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg; Thiry, Aline ULg et al

Report (in press)

Ce rapport synthétise la recherche d'évaluation des plans de cohésion sociale de la région Wallonne quant à leur mise en oeuvre locale. Il couvre les aspects de gouvernance locale, de construction de ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport synthétise la recherche d'évaluation des plans de cohésion sociale de la région Wallonne quant à leur mise en oeuvre locale. Il couvre les aspects de gouvernance locale, de construction de partenariats public-associatif, d'évaluation participative, et d'une manière plus générale de l'articulation entre politique régionale et autonomie communale [less ▲]

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See detailSmallholder pig production systems along a periurban-rural gradient in the Western provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (in press)

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little ... [more ▼]

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), pigs are raised almost exclusively by smallholders either in periurban areas of major cities such as Kinshasa or in rural villages. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding pig production in the Western part of the DRC, wherefore a survey was carried out to characterize and compare 319 pig production systems in their management and feeding strategies, along a periurban - rural gradient in Western provinces of the DRC. Pig breeding was the main source of income (43 %) and half of respondent were active in mixed pig and crop production, mainly vegetable garden. Depending on the location, smallholders owned on average 18 pigs, including four sows. Piglet mortality rate varied from 9.5 to 21.8% while average weaned age ranged between 2.2 and 2.8 months. The major causes of mortality reported by the farmers were African swine fever 98%, Swine erysipelas (60%), erysipelas trypanosomiasis (31 %), Swine worm infection (17 %), and diarrhoea (12 %). The majority of the pigs were reared in pens without free roaming and fed essentially with locally available by-products and forage plants whose nature varied according with the location of the farm. The pig production systems depended on the local environment; particularly in terms of workforces, herd structure and characteristics, production parameters, pig building materials, selling price and in feed resources. It can be concluded that an improvement of Congolese pig production systems should consider (1) a reduction of inbreeding, (2) an improvement in biosafety to reduce the incidence of African swine fever and the spread of other diseases, and (3) an improvement in feeding practices. [less ▲]

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See detailMesoporous amorphous tungsten oxide electrochromic films: a Raman analysis of their good switching behavior
Chatzikyriakou, Dafni ULg; Krins, Natacha ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

in Electrochimica Acta (in press)

The intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium cations in electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films are significantly influenced by their structural and surface characteristics. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

The intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium cations in electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films are significantly influenced by their structural and surface characteristics. In this study, we prepared two types of amorphous films via the sol-gel technique: one dense and one mesoporous in order to compare their response upon lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. According to chronoamperometric measurements, Li+ intercalates/de-intercalates faster in the mesoporous film (24s/6s) than in the dense film (48s/10s). The electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) also showed worse reversibility for the dense film compared to the mesoporous film, giving rise to important Li+ trapping and remaining coloration of the film. Raman analysis showed that the mesoporous film provides more accessible and various W-O surface bonds for Li+ intercalation. On the contrary, in the first electrochemical insertion and de-insertion in the dense film, Li+ selectively reacts with a few surface W-O bonds and preferentially intercalates into pre-existing crystallites to form stable irreversible LixWO3 bronze. [less ▲]

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See detailIon homeostasis in the chloroplast
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Bernal, Maria; Urzica, Eugen

in Wollman, Francis-Andre; Theg, Steve M. (Eds.) Plastid Biology (in press)

The chloroplast is an organelle of high demand for macro- and micro-nutrient ions, which are required for the maintenance of the photosynthetic process. To avoid deficiency while preventing excess ... [more ▼]

The chloroplast is an organelle of high demand for macro- and micro-nutrient ions, which are required for the maintenance of the photosynthetic process. To avoid deficiency while preventing excess, homeostasis mechanisms must be tightly regulated. Here, we describe the needs for nutrient ions in the chloroplast and briefly highlight their functions in the chloroplastidial metabolism. We further discuss the impact of nutrient deficiency on chloroplasts and the acclimation mechanisms that evolved to preserve the photosynthetic apparatus. We finally present what is known about import and export mechanisms for these ions. Whenever possible, a comparison between cyanobacteria, algae and plants is provided to add an evolutionary perspective to the description of ion homeostasis mechanisms in photosynthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jeunehomme, Olivier; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (in press)

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See detailSpline approximation to conditional Archimedean copula
Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Stat (in press)

We propose a flexible copula model to describe changes with a covariate in the dependence structure of (conditionally exchangeable) random variables. The starting point is a spline approximation to the ... [more ▼]

We propose a flexible copula model to describe changes with a covariate in the dependence structure of (conditionally exchangeable) random variables. The starting point is a spline approximation to the generator of an Archimedean copula. Changes in the dependence structure with a covariate x are modelled by flexible regression of the spline coefficients on x. The performances and properties of the spline estimate of the reference generator and the abilities of these conditional models to approximate conditional copulas are studied through extensive simulations. Inference is made using Bayesian arguments with posterior distributions explored using importance sampling or adaptive MCMC algorithms. The modelling strategy is illustrated with the analysis of bivariate growth curve data. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst report of isolation and molecular characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) from Argentinean water buffaloes
Maidana, Silvina; Konrad, José; Craig, Maria et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier ... [more ▼]

Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier. Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is an alphaherpesvirus closely related to BoHV1 and BoHV5. According to the serological cross-relationships between ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV1-related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. Recent studies in Argentina showed an increase in serological prevalence against BoHV1 related viruses in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) population. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of related ruminant alphaherpesvirus in the Argentinean water buffalo population. BuHV1 was successfully isolated from 5 out of 225 buffaloes analyzed. One isolate was obtained from nasal secretions, and the others were from vaginal swabs. The buffaloes belonged to four different farms located in northeastern Argentina. The isolates were characterized as alphaherpesvirus by direct immunofluorescence using FITC-anti-BoHV1 IgG. Restriction analysis performed with BamHI and BstEII on the complete genome showed differences between the isolates and those from BoHV1 and BoHV5 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis on both UL27 and US6 showed similarity in tree topology. While three of the isolates grouped together with sequences of BoHV5, two other isolates clustered separately. Genetic analysis of eight concatenated sequences from all isolates and references strains showed high nucleotide sequence identity between BuHV1 and BoHV5. While three of the isolates clustered together with the BoHV5 reference strain, the last two isolates were closely related to an Australian BuHV1 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of BuHV1 in South America. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that two different BuHV1 lineages circulate in the Argentinean water buffalo population. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic heterogeneity of bovine noroviruses in Italy
Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 ... [more ▼]

By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 end of the capsid gene was generated for 7 of the 11 strains. Upon phylogenetic analysis, five strains were grouped with GIII.2 Newbury2-like viruses, and one strain was grouped with GIII.1 Jena-like noroviruses. Interestingly, one strain (80TE/IT) was genetically related to the GIII.1/Jena/80/De in the RdRp but resembled the GIII.2/Newbury2/76/UK in the capsid gene, suggesting a recombination event occurring in the ORF1/ORF2 junction region. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (in press)

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailBrazil – EU Partnership: from high expectations to limited results
Santander, Sébastian ULg; Saraiva, Miriam

in European Journal of International Relations (in press)

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See detailMeteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the Netherlands
Creemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario ULg

in Theoretical & Applied Climatology (in press)

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit–generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activityscheduling attributes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe way to agritourist development from constraints to opportunities
Dubois, Charline ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Cawley, Mary; Bicalho, Ana Maria; Laurens, Lucette (Eds.) The Sustainability of Rural Systems: global and local challenges and opportunities (in press)

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing ... [more ▼]

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing pressures. Many choose a tourism business as a means of diversification. This chapter investigates the reasons for choosing farm tourism as a means of diversification, in order to examine the supply dimension of agritourism development. Some main reasons have been highlighted in the literature. Economic and financial factors like sourcing new income and employment, stability against agricultural market fluctuations or better use of farm resources, are often the first motivations to be mentioned. Also significant are social and external factors like sharing experiences, awareness of the success of other farmers, meeting people, educating the public and consumers, and personal interest as a hobby. Reasons for choosing tourism as a form of diversification may change over time, differ according to the characteristics of the farm, its development and its environment, or depend on gender. This chapter uses data from interviews conducted in agritourism accommodation premises in Wallonia and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to explore these motivations. The research is based on a content analysis aimed at a graphical representation of motivations using an adapted actantian model: a multi-scale analysis is used identifying the factors that support and constrain such motivations. The primary motivation stresses the response to a market opportunity; the potential to assign unused farm buildings to new purposes was also observed. Moreover it is shown that entrepreneurship and opportunities become as important as development based on survival of the farm. [less ▲]

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See detailSoutenir le développement des compétences des enseignants du supérieur par la documentation, l’investigation et le partage des pratiques en classe
Poumay, Marianne ULg; Georges, François ULg

in Dossiers des Sciences de l'Education (Les) (in press)

L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes ... [more ▼]

L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes du courant « SoTL ». Elle préconise une documentation de ses pratiques, une investigation de type scientifique de l’apprentissage des étudiants dans sa propre classe et une production de connaissance par le partage de ses avancées. Les articles de régulation rédigés à l’issue de la formation par une cohorte de dix participants montrent leur réelle inscription dans ce courant « SoTL » ; une enquête donne par ailleurs des indices d’efficacité de la formation sur ces mêmes critères à moyen terme. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis in Europe and internationally: A report from a task force of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO)
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, C; Pelletier, JP et al

in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (in press)

Objectives: Existing practice guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) analyze the evidence behind each proposed treatment but do not prioritize the interventions in a given sequence. The objective was to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Existing practice guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) analyze the evidence behind each proposed treatment but do not prioritize the interventions in a given sequence. The objective was to develop a treatment algorithm recommendation that is easier to interpret for the prescribing physician based on the available evidence and that is applicable in Europe and internationally. The knee was used as the model OA joint. Methods: ESCEO assembled a task force of 13 international experts (rheumatologists, clinical epidemiologists, and clinical scientists). Existing guidelines were reviewed; all interventions listed and recent evidence were retrieved using established databases. A first schematic flow chart with treatment prioritization was discussed in a 1-day meeting and shaped to the treatment algorithm. Fine-tuning occurred by electronic communication and three consultation rounds until consensus. Results: Basic principles consist of the need for a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment with a core set of initial measures, including information access/education, weight loss if overweight, and an appropriate exercise program. Four multimodal steps are then established. Step 1 consists of background therapy, either non-pharmacological (referral to a physical therapist for re-alignment treatment if needed and sequential introduction of further physical interventions initially and at any time thereafter) or pharmacological. The latter consists of chronic Symptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs for OA (e.g., prescription glucosamine sulfate and/or chondroitin sulfate) with paracetamol at-need; topical NSAIDs are added in the still symptomatic patient. Step 2 consists of the advanced pharmacological management in the persistent symptomatic patient and is centered on the use of oral COX-2 selective or non-selective NSAIDs, chosen based on concomitant risk factors, with intra-articular corticosteroids or hyaluronate for further symptom relief if insufficient. In Step 3, the last pharmacological attempts before surgery are represented by weak opioids and other central analgesics. Finally, Step 4 consists of end-stage disease management and surgery, with classical opioids as a difficult-to-manage alternative when surgery is contraindicated. Conclusions: The proposed treatment algorithm may represent a new framework for the development of future guidelines for the management of OA, more easily accessible to physicians. © 2014 The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailStylistic Approaches to Nigerian Fiction
Tunca, Daria ULg

Book published by Palgrave Macmillan (in press)

The combination of the words 'language' and 'Anglophone African literatures' generally brings to mind an aesthetic based on the use of proverbs and phrases borrowed from the writers' mother tongues. Such ... [more ▼]

The combination of the words 'language' and 'Anglophone African literatures' generally brings to mind an aesthetic based on the use of proverbs and phrases borrowed from the writers' mother tongues. Such culturally specific features also characterize Nigerian fiction – but can this rich literary tradition really be reduced to its reliance on local languages and folklore? Answering this question in the negative, this book claims that the analysis of style in Nigerian fiction needs to be broadened to account for the range of linguistic techniques deployed by contemporary writers. Drawing on the discipline of stylistics, this study introduces a series of methodological tools to demonstrate how sustained attention to form can foster understanding of content in selected works by some of the most widely celebrated Nigerian writers of recent times – Chris Abani, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Uzodinma Iweala and Ben Okri. Among the key issues addressed are the link between style and characterization, the interplay between aesthetics and ideology, and the relationship between language and representation. These different thematic approaches converge to suggest that, while the cultural specificity of Nigerian fiction cannot – and should not – be ignored, this body of works also needs to be freed from the straightjacket of critical and disciplinary orthodoxy that has too often restricted its interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Grecs ont-ils étudié le latin ? Quelques témoignages datrant du Haut-Empire
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Sans, Benoît; Foubert, Frédéric; Vanhalme, Charlotte (Eds.) Hommages à Ghislaine Viré (in press)

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See detailDose-dependent effect of experimental Schmallenberg virus infection in sheep
Poskin, A; Martinelle, Ludovic ULg; Mostin, L et al

in Veterinary Journal (in press)

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See detailOrganic Rankine Cycles including fluid selection
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg

in Handbook of Clean Energy Systems (in press)

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ... [more ▼]

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ebullition temperature than that of water. Hence lower temperature heat sources can be exploited such as solar energy, geothermal energy and waste heat recovery from many different processes. During the design phase of an ORC system, the selection of the working fluid must be conducted in parallel with the selection and the sizing of the components (mainly the expansion machine, the pump and the heat exchangers) and with the definition of the cycle architecture. This approach allows taking into consideration all technical constraints. Relevant properties of working fluids that should be considered during their selection are listed. Major characteristics of available displacement and turbo-expander technologies are described. The impact of the pump performance on the overall performance is discussed and strategies to increase the available NPSH are proposed. Finally, improved cycle architectures are introduced. Major applications of ORC systems are described: geothermal power plants, biomass CHP plants, waste heat recovery in industry, waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines and solar power plants. All these applications differ by the nature of the heat source and heat sink, the integration of the ORC with these sources and sinks, and the range of installed capacities. These differences yield specific designs, which are described. Performance achieved by systems in operation or prototypes are presented. [less ▲]

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