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See detailFirst report of isolation and molecular characterization of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) from Argentinean water buffaloes
Maidana, Silvina; Konrad, José; Craig, Maria et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier ... [more ▼]

Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. However, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and related ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been reported to cross the species barrier. Bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1) is an alphaherpesvirus closely related to BoHV1 and BoHV5. According to the serological cross-relationships between ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV1-related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. Recent studies in Argentina showed an increase in serological prevalence against BoHV1 related viruses in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) population. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of related ruminant alphaherpesvirus in the Argentinean water buffalo population. BuHV1 was successfully isolated from 5 out of 225 buffaloes analyzed. One isolate was obtained from nasal secretions, and the others were from vaginal swabs. The buffaloes belonged to four different farms located in northeastern Argentina. The isolates were characterized as alphaherpesvirus by direct immunofluorescence using FITC-anti-BoHV1 IgG. Restriction analysis performed with BamHI and BstEII on the complete genome showed differences between the isolates and those from BoHV1 and BoHV5 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis on both UL27 and US6 showed similarity in tree topology. While three of the isolates grouped together with sequences of BoHV5, two other isolates clustered separately. Genetic analysis of eight concatenated sequences from all isolates and references strains showed high nucleotide sequence identity between BuHV1 and BoHV5. While three of the isolates clustered together with the BoHV5 reference strain, the last two isolates were closely related to an Australian BuHV1 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of BuHV1 in South America. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that two different BuHV1 lineages circulate in the Argentinean water buffalo population. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic heterogeneity of bovine noroviruses in Italy
Di Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 ... [more ▼]

By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 end of the capsid gene was generated for 7 of the 11 strains. Upon phylogenetic analysis, five strains were grouped with GIII.2 Newbury2-like viruses, and one strain was grouped with GIII.1 Jena-like noroviruses. Interestingly, one strain (80TE/IT) was genetically related to the GIII.1/Jena/80/De in the RdRp but resembled the GIII.2/Newbury2/76/UK in the capsid gene, suggesting a recombination event occurring in the ORF1/ORF2 junction region. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (in press)

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailBrazil – EU Partnership: from high expectations to limited results
Santander, Sébastian ULg; Saraiva, Miriam

in European Journal of International Relations (in press)

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See detailMeteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the Netherlands
Creemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario ULg

in Theoretical & Applied Climatology (in press)

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit–generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activityscheduling attributes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe way to agritourist development from constraints to opportunities
Dubois, Charline ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Cawley, Mary; Bicalho, Ana Maria; Laurens, Lucette (Eds.) The Sustainability of Rural Systems: global and local challenges and opportunities (in press)

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing ... [more ▼]

In the northwest European countryside, diversification is a common option in order to preserve a viable agricultural business, because many farmers have to restructure their activities to meet increasing pressures. Many choose a tourism business as a means of diversification. This chapter investigates the reasons for choosing farm tourism as a means of diversification, in order to examine the supply dimension of agritourism development. Some main reasons have been highlighted in the literature. Economic and financial factors like sourcing new income and employment, stability against agricultural market fluctuations or better use of farm resources, are often the first motivations to be mentioned. Also significant are social and external factors like sharing experiences, awareness of the success of other farmers, meeting people, educating the public and consumers, and personal interest as a hobby. Reasons for choosing tourism as a form of diversification may change over time, differ according to the characteristics of the farm, its development and its environment, or depend on gender. This chapter uses data from interviews conducted in agritourism accommodation premises in Wallonia and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to explore these motivations. The research is based on a content analysis aimed at a graphical representation of motivations using an adapted actantian model: a multi-scale analysis is used identifying the factors that support and constrain such motivations. The primary motivation stresses the response to a market opportunity; the potential to assign unused farm buildings to new purposes was also observed. Moreover it is shown that entrepreneurship and opportunities become as important as development based on survival of the farm. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'évolution du coût du Bonus Logement pour la Wallonie
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Revue de Fiscalité Régionale et Locale (in press)

En 2011, les dépenses fiscales relatives à l'acquisition de l'habitation propre atteignaient 1.941,83 milllions d'euros dans le budget fédéral belge, soit 0,53% du PIB national. Dès l'entrée en vigueur de ... [more ▼]

En 2011, les dépenses fiscales relatives à l'acquisition de l'habitation propre atteignaient 1.941,83 milllions d'euros dans le budget fédéral belge, soit 0,53% du PIB national. Dès l'entrée en vigueur de la sixième réforme de l'Etat, ces dépenses seront à charge des budgets régionaux. Au vu des montants importants qui sont en jeu, il est nécessaire d'amorcer une réflexion sur ces aides à l'acquisition. Cette réflexion doit avant tout porter sur l'adéquation de ces aides avec les enjeux actuels et futurs en matière de logement, ainsi que sur les effets réels de ces mécanismes. Si, malgré ces interrogations, les décideurs politiques choisissent de maintenir le système en l'état, il est utile d'estimer quels seront les coûts pour les années à venir. Cette contribution se concentre sur ce dernier aspect du problème, dans le cas de la Wallonie. [less ▲]

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See detailSoutenir le développement des compétences des enseignants du supérieur par la documentation, l’investigation et le partage des pratiques en classe
Poumay, Marianne ULg; Georges, François ULg

in Dossiers des Sciences de l'Education (Les) (in press)

L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes ... [more ▼]

L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes du courant « SoTL ». Elle préconise une documentation de ses pratiques, une investigation de type scientifique de l’apprentissage des étudiants dans sa propre classe et une production de connaissance par le partage de ses avancées. Les articles de régulation rédigés à l’issue de la formation par une cohorte de dix participants montrent leur réelle inscription dans ce courant « SoTL » ; une enquête donne par ailleurs des indices d’efficacité de la formation sur ces mêmes critères à moyen terme. [less ▲]

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See detailAn algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis in Europe and internationally: A report from a task force of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO)
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, C; Pelletier, JP et al

in Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (in press)

Objectives: Existing practice guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) analyze the evidence behind each proposed treatment but do not prioritize the interventions in a given sequence. The objective was to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Existing practice guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) analyze the evidence behind each proposed treatment but do not prioritize the interventions in a given sequence. The objective was to develop a treatment algorithm recommendation that is easier to interpret for the prescribing physician based on the available evidence and that is applicable in Europe and internationally. The knee was used as the model OA joint. Methods: ESCEO assembled a task force of 13 international experts (rheumatologists, clinical epidemiologists, and clinical scientists). Existing guidelines were reviewed; all interventions listed and recent evidence were retrieved using established databases. A first schematic flow chart with treatment prioritization was discussed in a 1-day meeting and shaped to the treatment algorithm. Fine-tuning occurred by electronic communication and three consultation rounds until consensus. Results: Basic principles consist of the need for a combined pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment with a core set of initial measures, including information access/education, weight loss if overweight, and an appropriate exercise program. Four multimodal steps are then established. Step 1 consists of background therapy, either non-pharmacological (referral to a physical therapist for re-alignment treatment if needed and sequential introduction of further physical interventions initially and at any time thereafter) or pharmacological. The latter consists of chronic Symptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs for OA (e.g., prescription glucosamine sulfate and/or chondroitin sulfate) with paracetamol at-need; topical NSAIDs are added in the still symptomatic patient. Step 2 consists of the advanced pharmacological management in the persistent symptomatic patient and is centered on the use of oral COX-2 selective or non-selective NSAIDs, chosen based on concomitant risk factors, with intra-articular corticosteroids or hyaluronate for further symptom relief if insufficient. In Step 3, the last pharmacological attempts before surgery are represented by weak opioids and other central analgesics. Finally, Step 4 consists of end-stage disease management and surgery, with classical opioids as a difficult-to-manage alternative when surgery is contraindicated. Conclusions: The proposed treatment algorithm may represent a new framework for the development of future guidelines for the management of OA, more easily accessible to physicians. © 2014 The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailConditioning materials with biomacromolecules: composition of the adlayer and influence on cleanability
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Genet, J. Michel; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine et al

in Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (in press)

The influence of substrate hydrophobicity and biomacromolecules (dextran, bovine serum albumin - BSA) adsorption on the cleanability of surfaces soiled by spraying aqueous suspensions of quartz particles ... [more ▼]

The influence of substrate hydrophobicity and biomacromolecules (dextran, bovine serum albumin - BSA) adsorption on the cleanability of surfaces soiled by spraying aqueous suspensions of quartz particles (10 to 30 µm size), then dried, was investigated using glass and polystyrene as substrates. The cleanability was evaluated using radial flow cell (RFC). The surface composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The interpretation of XPS data allowed the complexity due to the ubiquitous presence of organic contaminants to be coped with, and the surface composition to be expressed in terms of both the amount of adlayer and the mass concentration of adlayer constituents. When soiled with a suspension of particles in water, glass was much less cleanable than polystyrene, which was attributed to its much lower water contact angle, in agreement with previous observations on starch soil. Dextran was easily desorbed and did not affect the cleanability. The presence of BSA at the interface strongly improved the cleanability of glass while the contact angle did not change appreciably. In contrast, soiling polystyrene with quartz particles suspended in a BSA solution instead of water did not change markedly the cleanability, while the contact angle was much lower and the aggregates of soiling particles were more flat. These observations are explained by the major role of capillary forces developed upon drying, which influence the closeness of the contact between the soiling particles and the substrate and, thereby, the adherence of particles. The capillary forces are proportional to the liquid surface tension and depend in a more complex way on contact angles of the particles and of the substrate. The dependence of cleanability on capillary forces, and in particular on the liquid surface tension, is predominant as compared with its dependence on the size and shape of the soiling aggregates, which influence the efficiency of shear forces exerted by the flowing water upon cleaning. [less ▲]

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See detailDose-dependent effect of experimental Schmallenberg virus infection in sheep
Poskin, A; Martinelle, Ludovic ULg; Mostin, L et al

in Veterinary Journal (in press)

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See detailOrganic Rankine Cycles including fluid selection
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg

in Handbook of Clean Energy Systems (in press)

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ... [more ▼]

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ebullition temperature than that of water. Hence lower temperature heat sources can be exploited such as solar energy, geothermal energy and waste heat recovery from many different processes. During the design phase of an ORC system, the selection of the working fluid must be conducted in parallel with the selection and the sizing of the components (mainly the expansion machine, the pump and the heat exchangers) and with the definition of the cycle architecture. This approach allows taking into consideration all technical constraints. Relevant properties of working fluids that should be considered during their selection are listed. Major characteristics of available displacement and turbo-expander technologies are described. The impact of the pump performance on the overall performance is discussed and strategies to increase the available NPSH are proposed. Finally, improved cycle architectures are introduced. Major applications of ORC systems are described: geothermal power plants, biomass CHP plants, waste heat recovery in industry, waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines and solar power plants. All these applications differ by the nature of the heat source and heat sink, the integration of the ORC with these sources and sinks, and the range of installed capacities. These differences yield specific designs, which are described. Performance achieved by systems in operation or prototypes are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailA note on the equivalence between observed and expected information functions with polytomous IRT models
Magis, David ULg

in Journal of Educational & Behavioral Statistics (in press)

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating scale and nominal response models), but not for the class of difference models (including the graded response and modified graded response models). Yet, observed information function remains positive in both classes. Straightforward connections with dichotomous IRT models and further implications are outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailPSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians
Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Bailleul, Benjamin ULg; Berne, Nicolas et al

in New Phytologist (in press)

• Photosynthetic organisms have evolved various photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms to cope with changing and high light intensities. The nature and relative amplitude of these mechanisms is matter ... [more ▼]

• Photosynthetic organisms have evolved various photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms to cope with changing and high light intensities. The nature and relative amplitude of these mechanisms is matter of debate in dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians. In this work, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction, mitochondrial respiration) and PSI cyclic electron flow were investigated in Symbiodinium clades A1, B1 and F1. • Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained semi-continuously under identical environmental conditions. Joint measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission, and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). • A light-dependent and O2-dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This ETR involved PSII and PSI and was insensitive to addition of mitochondrial and carbon fixation inhibitors. • These results demonstrate that photoreduction of oxygen downstream of PSI by the so-called Mehler reaction is the main alternative electron sink at the onset and steady state of photosynthesis in all strains. This mechanism in Symbiodinium sustains significant levels of photosynthetic electron flux under high light, thus acting as a photoprotective mechanism and increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio by the electron transfer chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDétection automatique de réminiscences potentielles de Xénophon chez Arrien
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg; Vandersmissen, Marc ULg

in Etudes Classiques (Namur, Belgium) (in press)

Depuis des siècles, les spécialistes et les savants des littératures grecque et latine se sont attachés à repérer les citations et les reprises d’un auteur chez un autre en raison de l’importance de ... [more ▼]

Depuis des siècles, les spécialistes et les savants des littératures grecque et latine se sont attachés à repérer les citations et les reprises d’un auteur chez un autre en raison de l’importance de l’imitatio et de l’aemulatio dans le processus de création littéraire des œuvres anciennes. Arrien de Nicomédie en est un parfait exemple puisqu’il s’inspira abondamment de son modèle admiré, Xénophon. C’est pourquoi, après avoir répertorié le plus grand nombre possible de réutilisations déjà mises au jour entre les deux historiens par les philologues de manière livresque, notre projet a pour but de détecter et de commenter de nouvelles réminiscences potentielles de Xénophon dans l’œuvre d’Arrien grâce à un logiciel développé spécifiquement à l’Université de Liège sur base de fichiers de textes lemmatisés en collaboration avec le LASLA. [less ▲]

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See detailAdolescentes victimes d'abus sexuel et trajectoire délinquante : quels facteurs de résilience ?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg; Buzitu, Rachel

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence (in press)

Introduction: This study concerns resilience related to juvenile delinquency among victims of sexual abuse: sexual abuse has been recognized as a powerful risk factor for the emergence of deviant and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: This study concerns resilience related to juvenile delinquency among victims of sexual abuse: sexual abuse has been recognized as a powerful risk factor for the emergence of deviant and criminal behavior. Objective: Our study aims to explore and highlight the protective factors that prevent victims of sexual abuse from engaging in a delinquent trajectory. Method: The sample consists of teenage girls who have revealed at minimum last year, their intergenerational abuse. These girls, all between 12 and 18 years old, are divided into sub-groups: the non-offender victims and the victims who are also offenders. Each teenage victim is compared to a normative population on different psychological functioning dimensions : self-esteem (Harter's self-perception profile for adolescents), aggressiveness (the Buss-Perry Aggression questionnaire) and Post-Traumatic Stress, with the Impact of Event scale-Revised, (IES-R)-Horowitz. We analyze family characteristics such as familial attachment and family climate, social characteristics such as associations with peers, and environmental factors such as reactions to revelations of sexual abuse, the presence of family and extra-familial resources, psychological care. Results and conclusion: The results show that teenage victims of sexual assault present lower self-esteem and a negative self-perception in all fields, except for the perception of their attractiveness. Over-investment of this single dimension of self-perception can lead to a sexualization of their relationships with others and expose them to the risk of sexual revictimisation. The comparative analyses between the adolescent delinquent and non-delinquent victims highlight risk factors in connection with setting them off on a delinquent trajectory and protective factors supporting their resilience. The results highlight specific characteristics to the offender juvenile victims supporting a delinquent trajectory : aggressiveness, PTSD, defensive strategy of avoidance and characteristics of abuse (chronicity of abuse). The victim committed in delinquent trajectories presented more aggressiveness, consumeristic behaviour, post-traumatic stress and defensive strategy of avoidance than non-offender victims. Delinquent behaviour, just like substance abuse, could be a strategy of risk avoidance in connection with reliving sexual trauma, which hinders the process of resilience. Compared to the process of resilience, immediate and differed paternal support (during and after the revelations) seems the most important factor of protection. Being able to benefit from psychological councelling and having an extra-familial resource (a significant relationship with someone in the social environment) also constitute factors that support the resilience of these teenagers and prevent them from going down the path of delinquency. The interventions should aim at establishing a therapeutic alliance with these young girls during the early process of revealing the sexual abuse and mobilize and activate the support of the father (when he is not the abuser) or of a meaningful paternal figure as early as possible during the revealing phase and to accompany him in this restructuring function. [less ▲]

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See detailL’auteur de la Passio sanctae Salsae a-t-il aussi écrit la Passio sancti Fabii ?
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Meyers, Jean; Fialon, Sabine (Eds.) La Passio sanctae Salsae. Recherches sur une passion tardive d’Afrique du Nord. Avec une nouvelle édition critique d’A. M. Piredda et une traduction annotée du G.R.A.A. (in press)

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See detailCompatibility of using TiO2 and the faecal near-infrared reflectance spectrometry for estimation of cattle intake
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULg; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Ramirez-Restrepo, Carlos Alberto et al

in EGF at 50: the future of European Grasslands. Proceedings of the 25th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Aberystwyth, Wales, U.K., 7 - 11th September 2014 (in press)

Combining titanium dioxide (TiO2) as indigestible marker to faecal near-infrared reflectance spectrometry (F-NIRS) can be used to determine cattle feed intake and quality of ingested forage if F-NIRS ... [more ▼]

Combining titanium dioxide (TiO2) as indigestible marker to faecal near-infrared reflectance spectrometry (F-NIRS) can be used to determine cattle feed intake and quality of ingested forage if F-NIRS spectra are not modified by the marker. This study aimed at determining the compatibility of TiO2 with F-NIRS. Three dry cows were fed a standard hay-based diet for three weeks supplemented with a daily dose of 0.1 % (10g) TiO2 during the last two weeks of the experiment. Faeces samples were collected every day and analysed for TiO2 and F-NIRS. Results suggest that TiO2 did not interfere with F-NIRS analyses. The calculations of crude protein, NDF, ADL contents, as well as dry matter intake did not change over time with increasing TiO2 in the faeces (P > 0.05). Slight differences observed for other predicted parameters seemed to be independent from TiO2. The higher Mahalanobis distance (H) for chemical composition (H = 7.2) independent from TiO2 inclusion could indicate that faecal spectra did not correspond exactly to the prediction database. Although 0.1% incorporation of TiO2 seem not to interfere with F-NIRS measurements, caution must be taken with higher levels of TiO2 as nothing indicates that interference could not appear. [less ▲]

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