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See detailCharacterizing Lenses and Lensed Stars of High-magnification Single-lens Gravitational Microlensing Events with Lenses Passing over Source Stars
Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, S.-Y. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2012), 751

We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176 ... [more ▼]

We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of θ[SUB]E[/SUB] ~ 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t [SUB]E[/SUB] ~ 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of ~0.84 M [SUB]&sun;[/SUB] is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailThe HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXV. Super-Earths around the M-dwarf neighbors Gl433 and Gl667C
Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012), 553

Context. M dwarfs have often been found to have super-Earth planets with short orbital periods. These stars are thus preferential targets in searches for rocky or ocean planets in the solar neighborhood ... [more ▼]

Context. M dwarfs have often been found to have super-Earth planets with short orbital periods. These stars are thus preferential targets in searches for rocky or ocean planets in the solar neighborhood. Aims: Our research group recently announced the discovery of one and two low-mass planets around the M1.5V stars Gl 433 and Gl 667C, respectively. We found these planets with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory, from observations obtained during the guaranteed time observing program of that instrument. Methods: We obtained additional HARPS observations of those two stars, for a total of 67 and 179 radial velocity measurements for Gl 433 and Gl 667C, respectively, and present here an orbital analysis of these extended data sets and our main conclusions about both planetary systems. Results: One of the three planets, Gl 667Cc, has a mass of only M2sini ~ 4.25 M⊕ and orbits in the central habitable zone of its host star. It receives only 10% less stellar energy from Gl 667C than the Earth receives from the Sun. However, planet evolution in the habitable zone can be very different if the host star is a M dwarf or a solar-like star, without necessarily questioning the presence of water. The two other planets, Gl 433b and Gl 667Cb, both have M2sini of ~5.5 M⊕ and periods of ~7 days. The radial velocity measurements of both stars contain longer timescale signals, which we fit with longer period Keplerians. For Gl 433, the signal probably originates in a magnetic cycle, while data of longer time span will be needed before conclusive results can be obtained for Gl 667C. The metallicity of Gl 433 is close to solar, while Gl 667C is metal poor with [Fe/H] ~ -0.6. This reinforces the recent conclusion that the occurrence of super-Earth planets does not strongly correlate with the stellar metallicity. [less ▲]

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See detailAbstract numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May)

Abstract numeration systems were introduced in 2001 by P. Lecomte and M. Rigo. This new way to represent numbers generalizes that of usual positional numeration systems such as integer base numeration ... [more ▼]

Abstract numeration systems were introduced in 2001 by P. Lecomte and M. Rigo. This new way to represent numbers generalizes that of usual positional numeration systems such as integer base numeration systems and linear numeration systems. Some standard properties are preserved in this wider framework though some others are not. Yet, the advantages of these systems stem from their great generality: current research on this subject strives to highlight the properties that are independent of the target numeration system, such as properties related to the complexity of the numeration language. In this talk I will introduce this topic. In particular, I will present many open questions in the area and highlight the connections with combinatorics on words. [less ▲]

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See detailAn introduction to abstract numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May)

Abstract numeration systems were introduced in 2001 by P. Lecomte and M. Rigo. This new way to represent numbers generalizes that of usual positional numeration systems such as integer base numeration ... [more ▼]

Abstract numeration systems were introduced in 2001 by P. Lecomte and M. Rigo. This new way to represent numbers generalizes that of usual positional numeration systems such as integer base numeration systems and linear numeration systems. Some standard properties are preserved in this wider framework though some others are not. Yet, the advantages of these systems stem from their great generality: current research on this subject strives to highlight the properties that are independent of the target numeration system, such as properties related to the complexity of the numeration language. In this talk I will introduce this topic. In particular, I will present many open questions in the area and highlight the connections with combinatorics on words. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the numerical integration of rate independent single crystal behavior at large strain
Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed; Débordes, Olivier; Dogui, Abdelwaheb et al

in International Journal of Plasticity (2012), 32-33

This paper presents a new numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations of a single crystal for finite rate-independent elastoplastic strains. The algorithm addressed in this paper ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations of a single crystal for finite rate-independent elastoplastic strains. The algorithm addressed in this paper is dedicated to face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystal structures. Its first feature is a much more efficient and more accurate integration scheme of the constitutive equations compared to previous attempts. This scheme is based on a fully implicit integration procedure, yet it may be transformed easily into an explicit scheme. Determining the set of active slip systems is performed by the use of a combinatorial search procedure, and the determination of the slip rates of the different active slip systems is based on the fixed point method. The second feature of this algorithm stems from the original method used to solve the ambiguity of the possible non-uniqueness of the set of active slip systems. A robust method, based on a small positive perturbation of the critical shear stresses, is proposed to overcome this difficulty. It is worth mentioning that the algorithm developed in this paper is not limited to one particular hardening law or to FCC crystal structures. Rather, it can be used and extended to various hardening laws and crystal structures (e.g. BCC or HCP. . .) in a straightforward manner. The authors demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm and illustrate its accuracy and efficiency through various numerical simulations at the single crystal and polycrystal scales. The predicted results obtained from those simulations were compared with those obtained using other numerical techniques and algorithms (i.e., a pseudo-inversion technique and an explicit algorithm). Our numerical predictions are also compared with some numerical and experimental results from other papers. The response of the polycrystal was computed by using the proposed algorithm combined with Taylor’s homogenization scheme, which is used to compute the overall polycrystalline behavior. The paper ends with a statistical study of the influence of the perturbation technique on the response prediction for a single crystal and a polycrystal. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimal Lepton Flavor Violating Realizations of Minimal Seesaw Models.
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Degée, Audrey ULg; Kamenik, Jernej F.

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2012), JHEP 1207 (2012) 135(2012), 135-156

We study the implications of the global U(1)R symmetry present in minimal lepton flavor violating implementations of the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses. In the context of minimal type I seesaw ... [more ▼]

We study the implications of the global U(1)R symmetry present in minimal lepton flavor violating implementations of the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses. In the context of minimal type I seesaw scenarios with a slightly broken U(1)R, we show that, depending on the R-charge assignments, two classes of generic models can be identi fied. Models where the right-handed neutrino masses and the lepton number breaking scale are decoupled, and models where the parameters that slightly break the U(1)R induce a suppression in the light neutrino mass matrix. We show that within the fi rst class of models, contributions of right-handed neutrinos to charged lepton flavor violating processes are severely suppressed. Within the second class of models we study the charged lepton flavor violating phenomenology in detail, focusing on \ mu->e \gamma , \mu->3e and \mu- e conversion in nuclei. We show that sizable contributions to these processes are naturally obtained for right-handed neutrino masses at the TeV scale. We then discuss the interplay with the eff ects of the right- handed neutrino interactions on primordial B- L asymmetries,fi nding that sizable right-handed neutrino contributions to charged lepton flavor violating processes are incompatible with the requirement of generating (or even preserving preexisting) B-L asymmetries consistent with the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. [less ▲]

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See detailChicago, Vatican du gospel envers et contre tout
Sacré, Robert ULg

Article for general public (2012)

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See detailPhysical and mechanical properties of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood grown in Belgium
Pollet, Caroline; Verheyen, Cécile; Hebert, Jacques ULg et al

in Revue canadienne de recherche forestière (2012), 42(5), 831-840

The objective of this study was to characterize black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) wood on the basis of its physical and mechanical properties. The results are compared with those reported in the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to characterize black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) wood on the basis of its physical and mechanical properties. The results are compared with those reported in the literature for English oak (Quercus robur L.), teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), and afzelia (Afzelia sp.), since black locust is likely to be used for the same purposes as the former species. The variations between sites, trees, and radial positions in the trunk were also studied. The physical and mechanical properties of black locust wood were evaluated on clear wood specimens taken from 27 trees distributed over five sites in Wallonia (Belgium) according to Belgian and French standards. Most of the black locust’s mechanical properties are higher than those of oak and teak. The black locust is classified as a “mid-heavy” (734 kg·m–3) and “half-hard” (5.22) wood type with very high resilience (17.2 J·cm–2), modulus of elasticity (15 700 MPa), and tensile strength in static bending (138 MPa). Its resilience is exceptional, higher than that of teak and afzelia, while its modulus of elasticity and bending strength, which surpass those of teak, are comparable with those of afzelia. Black locust shows high total volumetric shrinkage (16%), placing it in the “nervous” class, average tangential (8.8%) and radial shrinkage (5.5%) as well as average axial compressive (63 MPa) and splitting strength (17.8 N·mm–1). No technological incompatibilities would prevent the use of this wood for many value-added purposes (floor, deck, exterior woodwork, and furniture); however, significant shrinkage makes it necessary to condition the wood to its service moisture. [less ▲]

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See detailL'animal dans le soin : entre théories et pratiques
Delfour, Fabienne ULg; Servais, Véronique ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2012), 24 - tome II(117), 199-205

In this small form of clear text, we propose an argument that could allow our view to develop scientific research less mutilating and more fruitful in the vast area of the animal care. Having highlighted ... [more ▼]

In this small form of clear text, we propose an argument that could allow our view to develop scientific research less mutilating and more fruitful in the vast area of the animal care. Having highlighted and commented on the most prominent of the various oral and written presentations that are likely to contribute to this change, we discuss the merits of the use of anthropology and constructivist ethology in their situated perspective. What we propose involves three major changes from the previously dominant research traditions: a true recognition of the animal as a subject, the return of their voice to practitioners and the development of attentive and creative methods of observation and investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECT OF PARECOXIB, A SELECTIVE COX-2 INHIBITOR, IN THE PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE ADHESIONS IN A RAT MODEL
Arung Kalau, Willy ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; CHERAMY-BIEN, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2012, May), 112(3), 8444

Objectives: Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are frequent after abdominal surgery. Many preventive agents have been tried in animal models and in clinical trials, but up to now, there has been no ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are frequent after abdominal surgery. Many preventive agents have been tried in animal models and in clinical trials, but up to now, there has been no definitive strategy to prevent their formation. In this study, the effectiveness of parecoxib (Dynastat®), a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in preventing experimental intra-abdominal adhesions in rats was studied. Methods: Thirty male rats who underwent a primary surgical procedure aiming at inducing peritoneal injury to produce intraabdominal adhesion, were randomized in three groups: (A) control group, no therapy; (B) intraperitoneal (IP) parecoxib group; (C) intramuscular (IM) parecoxib group. Ten days later, a xyphopubic midline incision was performed and the whole abdominal cavity was explored to score the peritoneal adhesions. Results: Twenty-three rats developed adhesions, 9 (100%) in group A, 7 (70%) in group B and 4 (40%) in group C (P=0.01). The extent and severity scores of adhesion were significantly lower in groups B and C than those in control group (p<0.001). Type of adhesions was measured at 2.25 ± 0.67 in group A, 1.20 ± 0.86 in group B and 0.82 ± 0.80 in group C. This was significantly different between group A and B (p<0.001), between A and C (p<0.001). But no significant difference was found between group B and C (p=0.17). Conclusions: In this study, we found a significant effect on parecoxib in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. But, without avoiding completely the formation of adhesion, parecoxib reduces significantly extent and severity of postoperative adhesions in rats treated with IP or IM parecoxib administration. [less ▲]

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See detailLaparoscopic liver resection: a single center experience
SZECEL, Delphine ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2012, May), 112(3), 631

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See detailINTRAPERITONEAL ADHESIONS AFTER OPEN OR LAPAROSCOPIC ABDOMINAL PROCEDURE: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN THE RAT
Arung, Willy; Drion, Pierre ULg; CHERAMY-BIEN, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2012, May), 112(3), 8546

Objectives: Adhesion formation is common after abdominal surgery. The incidence and severity of adhesion formation following open or laparoscopic surgery remain controversial. The role of CO2 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Adhesion formation is common after abdominal surgery. The incidence and severity of adhesion formation following open or laparoscopic surgery remain controversial. The role of CO2 pneumoperitoneum is also largely discussed. This study aimed to compare adhesion formation following peritoneal injury by electrocoagulation performed through open or laparoscopic procedures in a rat model. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomized to undergo a 1.5cm peritoneal injury with unipolar cautery under general anesthesia: open surgery (group A, n=20), laparoscopic surgery with CO2 pneumoperitoneum (group B, n=20) and laparoscopic surgery with air pneumoperitoneum (group C, n=20). Duration of the procedures was fixed at 90 minutes in all groups, and pneumoperitoneum pressure at 10mmHg. Ten days later, the animals underwent a secondary laparotomy to score peritoneal adhesions using qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Forty-five rats developed at least one adhesion, respectively 95% in group A, 83% in group B and 55% in group C (P<0.01; Group C vs Group A, P<0.01). According to number, thickness, tenacity, vascularization, extent, type, and grading according to Zühkle classification, no significant difference was observed between groups A and B. The distribution of adhesions after open surgery was significantly different than after laparoscopic surgery (P<0.001). Interestingly, group C rats developed significantly less adhesions at the traumatized site, and their adhesions had less severe qualitative scores compared to open surgery (P<0.01). Conclusions: In this animal model, CO2 laparoscopic surgery did not decrease the formation of postoperative adhesion, compared to open surgery. The difference with the animals operated with air pneumoperitoneum emphasizes the role of CO2 in peritoneal injury leading to adhesion formation. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the potential increase of the heart graft pool by cardiac donation after circulatory death?
NOTERDAEME, Timothée; HANS, Marie-France ULg; NELLESSEN, Eric ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2012, May), 112(3), 668

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See detailDéfinition du profil écologique de l'azobé, Lophira alata, une espèce ligneuse africaine de grande importance : synthèse bibliographique et perspectives pour des recherches futures
Biwole, Achille ULg; Bourland, Nils ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(2), 217-228

Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber ... [more ▼]

Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber species are no more studied, this complicates long-term sustainable forest management. This literature review related to the ecology and silviculture of ekki, Lophira alata Banks ex C.F.Gaertn. (Ochnaceae), a main African timber species recorded as “vulnerable” in the IUCN Red List, will serve as a study’s case. The planned literature review reveals the doubt about its taxonomy, as well as the lack of understanding concerning its reproductive biology, growth conditions, population dynamics parameters, and the spatial distribution of its genetic diversity. The deficiency of knowledge about its ecological needs and the factors which have historically influenced its population dynamics explain why most silvicultural trails provide hazardous and uncertain results. Remedying these gaps in order to improve its ecological characterization and innovative silvicultural trails, would be a significant contribution to the sustainable management of its populations. [less ▲]

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See detailDREAM 2012: DEVELOPMENT OF LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY AT THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL OF KINSHASA, DRC
Nsadi Fwene, Berthier ULg; Veyi, D; Kazadi, J et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2012, May), 112(3), 8240

Objectives: The technical nature of laparoscopy, and the required specific laparoscopic tools and medical skills, may render this approach difficult in developing countries. We hypothesized that ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The technical nature of laparoscopy, and the required specific laparoscopic tools and medical skills, may render this approach difficult in developing countries. We hypothesized that laparoscopy may be developed in the Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa (CUK), and may be cost-effective. The final aim of this program is to bring the benefits of laparoscopy to the DRC population, by allowance of adequate training on the UNIKIN personnel, including anaesthetists, surgeons and nurses, who in the future will have to locally form the DRC medical and nursery students. Methods: With the financial support from Wallonie-Bruxelles International (WBI), a complete CUK team, including a surgeon (2 years training in Belgium), an anaesthetist and nurses, were trained in Belgium and then afterwards in DRC. The laparoscopic equipment was sent to Kinshasa, and three theoretical and practical missions of Belgian teams were organised. Results: Over a 2 year period, 116 laparoscopic procedure were performed, including 32 appendectomies, 41 cholecystectomies, 11 hernia repairs, 9 laparoscopy explorations for peritoneal carcinoma assessment and biopsy, 8 procedures for catheter of dialysis peritoneal, 5 gynecologics procedures, and 10 other miscellaneous procedures. Conclusions: A joined approach, taking into account on one hand the training of the skills locally trained to adapt itself to some difficulties, on the other hand institutions of scientific support and a real program and local will of development of this new procedure are the wages of development, accessibility and durability of such news approach in developing countries. All University and non-University team willing to join such a project are welcome. [less ▲]

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See detailCentimeter-scale secondary information on hydraulic conductivity using a hand-held air permeameter on borehole cores
Rogiers, Bart; Winters, P.; Huysmans, Marijke et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-1794-1 (2012, May)

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. Determining the small ... [more ▼]

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. Determining the small-scale variability of this parameter is key to evaluate implications on effective parameters at the larger scale. Moreover, for stochastic simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, accurate models on the spatial variability of Ks are very much needed. While several well-established laboratory methods exist for determining Ks, investigating the small-scale variability remains a challenge. If several tens to hundreds of metres of borehole core has to be hydraulically characterised at the centimetre to decimetre scale, several hundreds to thousands of Ks measurements are required, which makes it very costly and time-consuming should traditional methods be used. With reliable air permeameters becoming increasingly available from the late 80’s, a fast and effective indirect method exists to determine Ks. Therefore, the use of hand-held air permeameter measurements for determining very accurate small-scale heterogeneity about Ks is very appealing. Very little is known, however, on its applicability for borehole cores that typically carry a small sediment volume. Therefore, the method was tested on several borehole cores of different size, originating from the Campine basin, Northern Belgium. The studied sediments are of Miocene to Pleistocene age, with a marine to continental origin, and consist of sand to clayey sand with distinct clay lenses, resulting in a Ks range of 7 orders of magnitude. During previous studies, two samples were taken from borehole cores each two meters for performing constant head lab permeameter tests. This data is now used as a reference for the air permeameter measurements that are performed with a resolution of 5 centimetres. Preliminary results indicate a very good correlation between the previously gathered constant head Ks data and the air permeability measurements, but a systematic bias seems to exist. A geostatistical analysis with cross-validation is performed to assess the predictive uncertainty on Ks, using both types of data. We conclude that performing hand-held air permeameter measurements on undisturbed borehole cores provides a very cost-effective way to obtain very detailed information in the framework of stochastic simulation and conditioning of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields. [less ▲]

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See detailAir permeametry on outcrop analogues: a composite image of the Neogene aquifer, Belgium
Rogiers, Bart; Beerten, K.; Smekens, T. et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-1788-1 (2012, May)

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. While several well ... [more ▼]

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. While several well-established laboratory methods exist for determining Ks, in-situ measurements of this parameter remain very complex. Since the 50’s, and increasingly from the late 80’s, air permeameters are being used effectively as an indirect method to determine Ks on outcrop sediments. In this paper, the heterogeneity within outcrop sediments that are analogues for the Neogene aquifer hydrostratigraphic units in northern Belgium is studied with a hand-held air permeameter. This aquifer, representing a major groundwater source, consists of several sandy geological units from Miocene to Pleistocene age with a marine to continental origin. Moreover, it plays an important role in the Belgian deep geological radwaste disposal studies, and is the subject of a safety assessment for a future low-level radwaste surface repository. To characterise the variability between and within the different lithostratigraphical aquifer units, 804 air permeability measurements at cm-scale were performed on several outcrops that are analogues for the sandy aquifer sediments and a highly heterogeneous aquitard. Equivalent meter-scale Ks tensors were calculated numerically through the law of flow conservation to obtain the vertical anisotropy factor. The off-diagonal tensor components were shown to be negligible. To validate the air permeametry data, 18 additional constant head permeameter tests on 100 cm3 cores and 27 grain size analyses based Ks assessments were performed on outcrop material. The comparison indicates that hand-held air permeameters are very effective and useful tools to characterise the magnitude of hydraulic conductivity, as well as it’s small-scale variability and anisotropy, on a broad range of sediment types. However, a comparison with data from a previous borehole campaign on similar though not identical aquifer sediments reveals that the Ks values predicted at the outcrops are systematically higher by at least a factor of 10 than the corresponding Ks distributions determined from the borehole cores. One explanation is the weathering state of several-cm thick clay lenses, i.e. much less weathered in the aquitard than in the analogous outcrop with correspondingly lower conductivities for the aquitard. This shows that transferring outcrop data to the subsurface should be done with care because of different degrees of compaction, weathering states, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailQue sont les fachos devenus ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULg; Claisse, Frédéric ULg

Article for general public (2012)

L'article analyse la transformation de l'extrême-droite en Europe en mettant en avant sa diversifisation et sa rupture avec le fascisme historique. L'extrême-droite a été longtemps politiquement contenue ... [more ▼]

L'article analyse la transformation de l'extrême-droite en Europe en mettant en avant sa diversifisation et sa rupture avec le fascisme historique. L'extrême-droite a été longtemps politiquement contenue au prix de la diffusion dans une partie du champ démocratique de l'essentiel de ses conceptions idéologiques, à la faveur du "backlash" dénoncé par le démographe français Hugues Lagrange. [less ▲]

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