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See detailA validated GC-MS method for the determination and quantification of residual solvents in counterfeit tablets and capsules
Deconinck, Eric; Canfyn, Michaël; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2012), 70

A fast headspace GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of residual solvents of all three ICH-classes in counterfeit tablets and capsules. The method was validated ... [more ▼]

A fast headspace GC-MS method was developed and validated for the detection and quantification of residual solvents of all three ICH-classes in counterfeit tablets and capsules. The method was validated for ten solvents, selected based on an initial screening of counterfeit medicinal products. The considered solvents were ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, ethylacetate, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, toluene, dichloromethane and ethylbenzene. The proposed method uses a Phenomenex 624 capillary column (60 m x 0.32 mm; 1.8 µm film thickness) (Phenomenex, Torrance, USA) with an oven temperature program from 60°C (held for 5 min) to 270°C at 25 °C/min. 270°C is held for 10 min. The total run time is 23.4 minutes. The obtained method was fully validated by applying the “total error” profile. Calibration lines for all components were linear within the studied ranges. The relative bias and the relative standard deviations for all components were smaller than 5%, the -expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of 10% and the relative expanded uncertainties were acceptable for all of the considered components. A method was obtained for the screening and quantification of residual solvents in counterfeit tablets and capsules, which will allow a fast screening of these products for the presence of residual solvents. [less ▲]

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See detailDroits fondamentaux en mouvement. Questions choisies d'actualité
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Van Drooghenbroeck, Sébastien

Book published by Anthemis (2012)

Les droits fondamentaux sont toujours en mouvement, bien souvent en progrès, mais aussi menacés. Pour rendre compte de façon utile au praticien de cette évolution, le présent ouvrage rassemble quatre ... [more ▼]

Les droits fondamentaux sont toujours en mouvement, bien souvent en progrès, mais aussi menacés. Pour rendre compte de façon utile au praticien de cette évolution, le présent ouvrage rassemble quatre contributions qui dressent le portrait de droits fondamentaux à la croisée des chemins. A côté des textes nationaux et internationaux éprouvés que sont la Constitution et la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme, les contributions analysent l'influence marquante d'autres instruments que sont le droit européen et la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l'Union européenne. Cette plongée au coeur de l'actualité des droits fondamentaux permet aux auteurs, tous spécialistes des questions qu'ils analysent, d'aborder quelques unes des libertés individuelles les plus importantes : la liberté d'expression, l'interdiction de la discrimination et la liberté de religion. Les différentes contributions s'attachent à préciser les contours d'une jurisprudence et d'une pratique mouvante, tout en dévoilant les enjeux concrets et en esquissant des réponses aux questions que la pratique devra affronter prochainement. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la qualité biologique des rivières wallonnes sur base des indices biologiques poissons. Support technique aux inventaires 2012.
Rimbaud, Gilles ULg; Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Dierckx, Arnaud ULg et al

Report (2012)

Ce rapport a pour objectif l’évaluation de la qualité biologique des eaux de surface basée sur les indices biologiques « poissons » dans un certain nombre de cours d’eau de Wallonie. Il résulte d’une ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport a pour objectif l’évaluation de la qualité biologique des eaux de surface basée sur les indices biologiques « poissons » dans un certain nombre de cours d’eau de Wallonie. Il résulte d’une convention entre le Service public de Wallonie et l’Université de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailGame species monitoring using road–based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers: a covariate analysis
Morelle, Kevin ULg; Bouché, Philippe; Lehaire, François ULg et al

in Animal Biodiversity and Conservation (2012), 35(2), 253-265

Monitoring of game species populations is necessary to adequately assess culling by hunters in areas where natural large predators are absent. However, game managers have to control several species and ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of game species populations is necessary to adequately assess culling by hunters in areas where natural large predators are absent. However, game managers have to control several species and they often lack of an efficient and convenient survey design method. Monitoring several species at that same time over large areas could thus be cost– and time–effective. We tested the influence of several factors during monitoring of three common game species, (wild boar, roe deer and red fox, using road–based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers. This pilot survey based on 20 night counts in five contrasting sites studied the effect of several covariates (species, thermal imaging, observer, group size, and habitat type) on the detection probabilities. No differences were observed between thermal imagers and group sizes , but we found differences between observers . Expected differences were also observed between species and between habitat type. Our results show that the detectability of low cost thermal imaging equipment is similar to that of more expensive methods, highlighting new possibilities for the use of thermal imagery by game managers. Although adjustments should be made to the study design our findings suggest that large–scale multi–species monitoring could be an efficient method for common game species. [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of the microbenthic loop in Posidonia oceanica meadows: the good, the bad and the ugly
Pete, Dorothée ULg; Quattrocchi, Loïc; Velimirov, Branko et al

in Creed, J.C.; Oigman-Pszczol, S.S. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Seagrass Biology Workshop (ISBW10), 25- 30 November 2012, Armação dos Búzios, Brazil (2012, November)

Posidonia oceanica is an endemic seagrass of the Mediterranean Sea. The ecosystem based on this plant is essential from an ecological and economical point of view (commercial species, touristic activities ... [more ▼]

Posidonia oceanica is an endemic seagrass of the Mediterranean Sea. The ecosystem based on this plant is essential from an ecological and economical point of view (commercial species, touristic activities, oxygen production), though very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To detect those perturbations, scientists are trying to find more efficient ecological indicators. Most of the time, those indicators are based on the plant itself. Unfortunately, this seagrass does not react very quickly to perturbations so, when a reaction is noticed, it is often too late to prevent irremediable damages to the ecosystem. The sedimentary compartment of P. oceanica meadows has been less studied than the canopy level. However, it could be a good source of ecological indicators because it is the final container of all the pollution. In this framework, the microbenthic loop has been studied. It is a major subsystem of those meadows and encompasses organic matter, bacteria, microphytobenthos and meiofauna. As those organisms have a rapid turnover and stay almost all their life inside the sediment, they seemed good potential indicators. This presentation will show what is useful or not inside the sediment and more specifically inside the microbenthic loop. Results of a comparison between a fish farm and a reference location will be used, as well as in situ experiments (shading and sediment loading) and small spatial scale variations. At the end of this presentation, you will know what are the good, the bad and the ugly in the sedimentary compartment of a P. oceanica meadow. [less ▲]

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See detailActes de la Conférence internationale de Géomatique et Analyse Spatiale 2012
Billen, Roland ULg; Binard, Marc ULg; Hallot, Pierre ULg et al

Book published by Unité de Géomatique (2012)

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See detailEuropean Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers inspired by Erasmus
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Rehrl, Jochen; Weisserth, Hans-Bernhard (Eds.) Handbook on CSDP (2012)

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See detailVocal Impact of a Prolonged Reading Task in Dysphonic Versus Normophonic Female Teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Berrué, Elise et al

in Journal of Voice (2012), 26(6), 8201-82013

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact on voice of a 2-hour reading task between 70-75 dB(A) in 16 normophonic and 16 dysphonic female teachers with vocal nodules. METHODS: Objective measurements (acoustic analysis, voice range measurements, aerodynamic measurements) and subjective self-ratings were collected before the task and every 30 minutes during the reading to determine the voice evolution in both groups. RESULTS: Fundamental frequency, lowest frequency, highest frequency (F-High), highest intensity and intensity range increase through the reading, whereas Shimmer decreases. Maximum phonation time decreases after 30 minutes. Estimated subglottal pressure (ESP) and sound pressure level increase during the first hour. Afterwards, ESP decreases. Self-ratings worsen through time. When comparing the normophonic and the dysphonic teachers, self-ratings reveal more complaints in the dysphonic group. Few differences in objective measurements are found between both groups: normophonic teachers show lower ESP, higher F-High and greater frequency range. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency modifications from acoustic analysis and voice range measurements suggest an increased laryngeal tension during vocal load, while subjects perceive a worsening of voice. Aerodynamic parameters depict first a deterioration of voice efficiency and then an adaptation to the prolonged reading. The comparison between both groups shows a discrepancy between objective measurements and self-ratings, suggesting that both approaches are necessary to have a complete view of vocal load effects. Surprisingly, both groups behave similarly through vocal load, without more or quicker deterioration of voice in the dysphonic group. [less ▲]

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See detailAgonistes des récepteurs du GLP-1 ou inhibiteurs de la DPP-4 : comment orienter le choix du clinicien ?
SCHEEN, André ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Le traitement pharmacologique du diabète de type 2 s’est enrichi, ces dernières années, de l’apport des médicaments à effet incrétine ciblant le glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ces médicaments ... [more ▼]

Le traitement pharmacologique du diabète de type 2 s’est enrichi, ces dernières années, de l’apport des médicaments à effet incrétine ciblant le glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ces médicaments comprennent soit des agonistes des récepteurs au GLP-1, à courte (injection 1 ou 2 x par jour : exénatide, liraglutide, lixisénatide) ou longue durée d’action (injection hebdomadaire : exénatide à libération prolongée, albiglutide, dulaglutide, taspoglutide) ; soit des agents inhibant l’enzyme inactivant le GLP-1, la dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), actifs par voie orale, les gliptines (sitagliptine, vildagliptine, saxagliptine, linagliptine, alogliptine). Bien que ces approches pharmacologiques ciblent toutes deux le GLP-1, elles se différencient par leur mode d’administration (injection sous-cutanée versus prise orale), leur efficacité (meilleure avec les GLP-1 agonistes), leurs effets sur le poids corporel et sur la pression artérielle systolique (diminution avec les agonistes versus neutralité avec les gliptines), leur profil de tolérance (risque de nausées ou vomissements avec les agonistes) et leur coût (supérieur avec les agonistes du GLP-1). Toutes deux pourraient être bénéfiques sur le plan cardiovasculaire. Il apparaît qu’une gliptine est une excellente alternative à un sulfamide ou une glitazone après échec d’une monothérapie par metformine alors qu’un analogue des récepteurs au GLP-1 est une bonne alternative à l’insuline (surtout chez les sujets obèses) après échec d’une bithérapie orale. Ce schéma est sans doute trop restrictif et les modalités d’utilisation sont nombreuses, à quasi tous les stades du diabète de type 2. Le choix pourra s’orienter selon les caractéristiques cliniques, les objectifs fixés ou simplement les préférences du patient. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j’explore …Une différence de risque de survenue d’un événement dans les études cliniques
SCHEEN, André ULg; ERNEST, Philippe ULg; JANDRAIN, Bernard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2012), 67(11), 597-602

Evidence-based medicine often requires the comparison of two therapeutic interventions in controlled clinical trials with the demonstration of a superiority (versus a placebo or an active comparator) or ... [more ▼]

Evidence-based medicine often requires the comparison of two therapeutic interventions in controlled clinical trials with the demonstration of a superiority (versus a placebo or an active comparator) or at least a non-inferiority (versus an active reference) concerning a primary endpoint that has been defined a priori (occurrence of a major clinical event, for instance). The difference in the occurrence of such an event between two treatments may be statistically analyzed by absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, hazard ratio or odds ratio. The present article discusses the nuances, sometimes of importance, concerning the significance of these various indices and analyses the cautions to be taken and the pitfalls to be avoided in their interpretation and use in practice. The clinician is, indeed, increasingly confronted to results of clinical trials, but is generally poorly informed regarding the nuances of these various statistical analyses. [less ▲]

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See detail"Penser en images. Notes sur Gustav Deutsch"
Belloi, Livio ULg

in Trafic (2012), 84(Hiver), 89-98

Ce texte se veut une introduction à "Film ist.", l'œuvre majeure du cinéaste autrichien Gustav Deutsch. Après une brève description de la structure à laquelle cette ample trilogie obéit, il s'agit de ... [more ▼]

Ce texte se veut une introduction à "Film ist.", l'œuvre majeure du cinéaste autrichien Gustav Deutsch. Après une brève description de la structure à laquelle cette ample trilogie obéit, il s'agit de dégager diverses formules de montage récurrentes et emblématiques, telles que la série, la collision et la gravitation. La fin de l'article se concentre quant à elle sur des variations autour de ces trois équations de montage. [less ▲]

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See detailCautious operation planning under uncertainties
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Fliscounakis, Stéphane; Panciatici, Patrick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2012), 27(4), 1859-1869

This paper deals with day-ahead power systems security planning under uncertainties, by posing an optimization problem over a set of power injection scenarios that could show up the next day and modeling ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with day-ahead power systems security planning under uncertainties, by posing an optimization problem over a set of power injection scenarios that could show up the next day and modeling the next day's real-time control strategies aiming at ensuring security with respect to contingencies by a combination of preventive and corrective controls. We seek to determine whether and which day-ahead decisions must be taken so that for scenarios over the next day there still exists an acceptable combination of preventive and corrective controls ensuring system security for any postulated contingency. We formulate this task as a three-stage feasibility checking problem, where the first stage corresponds to day-ahead decisions, the second stage to preventive control actions, and the third stage to corrective post-contingency controls. We propose a solution approach based on the problem decomposition into successive optimal power flow (OPF) and security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) problems of a special type. Our approach is illustrated on the Nordic32 system and on a 1203-bus model of a real-life system. [less ▲]

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See detailGreening the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The Analysis of Developments
Habran, Maxime ULg

in Punctul Critic, Quarterly social, political and cultural diagnostic (2012), 6

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See detailLes théories de la réception en SIC
Servais, Christine ULg

in Cahiers de la Sfsic (2012), 8(1),

Ce court texte présente un panorama des différentes approches de la réception en SIC.

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See detailMean Expression of the X-Chromosome is Associated with Neuronal Density.
Swingland, James T.; Durrenberger, Pascal F.; Reynolds, Richard et al

in Frontiers in Neuroscience (2012), 6

Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by key features such as loss of neurons, astrocytosis, and microglial activation/proliferation. These changes cause differences in the density of ... [more ▼]

Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by key features such as loss of neurons, astrocytosis, and microglial activation/proliferation. These changes cause differences in the density of cell types between control and disease subjects, confounding results from gene expression studies. Chromosome X (ChrX) is known to be specifically important in the brain. We hypothesized the existence of a chromosomal signature of gene expression associated with the X-chromosome for neurological conditions not normally associated with that chromosome. The hypothesis was investigated using publicly available microarray datasets from studies on Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Data were analyzed using Chromowave, an analytical tool for detecting spatially extended expression changes along chromosomes. To examine associations with neuronal density and astrocytosis, the expression of cell specific reporter genes was extracted. The association between these genes and the expression patterns extracted by Chromowave was then analyzed. Further analyses of the X:Autosome ratios for laser dissected neurons, microglia cultures and whole tissue were performed to detect cell specific differences. Results: We observed an extended pattern of low expression of ChrX consistent in all the neurodegenerative disease brain datasets. There was a strong correlation between mean ChrX expression and the pattern extracted from the autosomal genes representing neurons, but not with mean autosomal expression. No chromosomal patterns associated with the neuron specific genes were found on other chromosomes. The chromosomal expression pattern was not present in datasets from blood cells. The X:Autosome expression ratio was also higher in neuronal cells than in tissues with a mix of cell types. Conclusions: The results suggest that neurological disorders show as a reduction in mean expression of many genes along ChrX. The most likely explanation for this finding relates to the documented general up-regulation of ChrX in brain tissue which, this work suggests, occurs primarily in neurons. If validated, this cell specific ChrX expression warrants further research as understanding the biological reasons and mechanisms for this expression, may help to elucidate a connection with the development of neurodegenerative disorders. [less ▲]

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