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See detailCarbon cycle dynamics during recent interglacials
Kleinen, T.; Brovkin, V.; Munhoven, Guy ULg

in Climate of the Past Discussions (2015), 11(3), 1945-1983

Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials, the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, are investigated using an Earth system Model of Intermediate ... [more ▼]

Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials, the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11, are investigated using an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity, which we extended with modules to dynamically determine two slow carbon cycle processes – peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation (coral reef formation). For all three interglacials, model simulations considering peat accumulation and shallow water CaCO3 sedimentation substantially improve the agreement between model results and ice core CO2 reconstructions in comparison to a carbon cycle setup neglecting these processes. This enables us to model the trends in atmospheric CO2, with modelled trends similar to the ice core data, forcing the model only with orbital and sea level changes. During the Holocene, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are required to match the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 after 3 ka BP, but are not relevant before this time. Therefore our model experiments show for the first time how the CO2 evolution during the Holocene and two recent interglacials can be explained consistently using an identical model setup. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic synthesis of bio-based cyclic carbonates from CO2 and vegetable oils
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2015), 5

Bio-based cyclic carbonates were synthesized by coupling CO2 with epoxidized linseed oil using a catalytic platform composed of a bicomponent organocatalyst. A screening of the catalytic activity of a ... [more ▼]

Bio-based cyclic carbonates were synthesized by coupling CO2 with epoxidized linseed oil using a catalytic platform composed of a bicomponent organocatalyst. A screening of the catalytic activity of a series of organic salts and ionic liquids used in combination with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors was realized before highlighting the synergistic effect between the organocatalyst and the most efficient cocatalysts. These kinetics studies, followed by IR spectroscopy under pressure, enabled to optimize the reaction conditions and to provide quantitative formation of the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil in short reaction time without using any organic solvent. [less ▲]

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See detailFarocki/ Didi-Huberman. Lisibilité des images et pédagogie critique
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

in IMAGES, IMAGINI, IMAGES JOURNAL OF VISUAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES (2015), 5

How should one place oneself within the present iconosphere, at a time when everything seems to be hyper documented? What can be done with the plethora of images surrounding us? And is there anything left ... [more ▼]

How should one place oneself within the present iconosphere, at a time when everything seems to be hyper documented? What can be done with the plethora of images surrounding us? And is there anything left for us to read in these objects that have already been discussed over and over again? The filmmaker Harun Farocki hangs on to the belief that his documentaries can make images speak in new and different ways. Also, while traditional iconology sees the image as a crossword puzzle with only one possible interpretation, Georges Didi-Huberman argues for a critical montage aiming to restore the openness of the images in order to deploy their multiple meanings. What is at stake here is the very construction of "the eye of history," an alternative viewpoint allowing for a kind of reading that would free the document from the strictures of homogenizing interpretations. The montage as understood by Didi- Huberman restores the complexity of the visual, thus placing itself in stark opposition to traditional authoritarian ap- proaches. This paper explores the role of a "pedagogy of the document" in liberating knowledge from automatized modes of reading. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EChO science case
Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2015), 1502

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general ... [more ▼]

The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment, as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. A 1m class telescope is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision. The spectral coverage (0.5-11 micron, goal 16 micron) and SNR to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would enable a very accurate measurement of the atmospheric composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanets. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailUne étymologie qui se *corse* (adjectif et substantif)
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Retali-Medori, Stella (Ed.) Paroddi Varghji. Mélanges offerts à Marie-José Dalbera-Stefanaggi (2015)

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See detailL’irrigation de complément à partir de petits bassins individuels : Synthèse des travaux réalisés au Burkina Faso
Barbier, Bruno; Zongo, Bétéo ULg; Dugué, Patrice et al

in AGRIDAPE (2015)

Les petits bassins de cent à trois cent mètre-cubes collectent de l’eau de ruissellement et la stockent pendant quelques semaines afin de pouvoir irriguer les cultures lors des poches de sécheresses ... [more ▼]

Les petits bassins de cent à trois cent mètre-cubes collectent de l’eau de ruissellement et la stockent pendant quelques semaines afin de pouvoir irriguer les cultures lors des poches de sécheresses durant la saison des pluies. C’est une pratique ancienne en Asie, mais encore très peu répandue en zone soudanienne et sahélienne d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle permettrait de soutenir la production pluviale et sécuriser le revenu des agriculteurs familiaux soumis à une très grande variabilité des pluies. Mais, son coût et l’insuffisance de sensibilisation constitue les contrainte majeures à sa vulgarisation. Les actions de formation et d’information des paysans restent prioritaires en vue d’améliorer l’adoption de cette pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailSize nouns matter: a closer look at mass(es) of and extended uses of size nouns
De Clerck, Bernard; Brems, Lieselotte ULg

in Language Sciences (2015)

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See detailHuaweï v. ZTE: Judicial Conservatism at the Patent-Antitrust Intersection
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in CPI Antitrust Chronicles (2015), 10(2),

This paper argues that the judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Huaweï v ZTE is of conservative craft. Huaweï v ZTE only extends by a razor-thin margin the zone of antitrust liability for patent ... [more ▼]

This paper argues that the judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Huaweï v ZTE is of conservative craft. Huaweï v ZTE only extends by a razor-thin margin the zone of antitrust liability for patent owners. The Court appears reluctant to relax its traditional case-law that affirms antitrust liability on patent owners only in “exceptional circumstances.” To be sure, the Court admits that SEPs covered by a FRAND pledge generate “particular circumstances,” which justify an extension of antitrust liability. But on careful read, the Court only expands antitrust liability in relation to a slice of cases of injunctions on FRAND-pledged SEPs that lead to exclusionary leveraging. This, in turn, relieves a number of upstream licensing entities from antitrust liability. [less ▲]

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See detailLe solidarisme (et les droits de l'homme) au prisme d'une critique marxiste libertaire
Frère, Bruno ULg

in D'Hombres, Emmanuel (Ed.) Du solidarisme à l'économie solidaire (2015)

by focusing on the concept of world propsed by Boltanski and his pragmatic perspective which in previous work has enabled me to cast a critical eye on new social resistance movements. For Boltanski, what ... [more ▼]

by focusing on the concept of world propsed by Boltanski and his pragmatic perspective which in previous work has enabled me to cast a critical eye on new social resistance movements. For Boltanski, what matters is the potential for emancipation to be found in the everyday practices of social actors, directly engaged in the world. He assigns to the sociologist the role of discerning what practices have emancipatory potential because they resist dominant discourses, alter institutional, legitimate accounts of reality which can perhaps lead to social change. There is however a temptation in Boltanski’s work to return to an idealist perspective which shoehorns the emancipatory potential of the everyday practices of social actors into a conceptual and thus intellectual framework: le registre métacritique (ou métapragmatique) auquel seul le sociologue peut avoir accès. Ce registre est unable to give us new perspectives on what might concretely constitute emancipation. In other words, the danger is that even Boltanski’s work will not achieve critical renewal. En lieu et place d’une subjectivité ideale et transcendentale, Boltanski suggère de favoriser un point de vue transcendant sur les pratiques sociales, seul capable de véritablement comprendre la réalité et la façon dont elle nous aliène. Mais ce point de vue est tout aussi idéaliste. Bourdieu ou les théoriciens de Francfort, dans la tradition de l’idéalisme transcendantal kantienne, recherchent le sujet pur qui se cachent sous la conscience pratique des personnes. Boltanski identifie pour sa part un point de vue métapragmatique susceptible de juger les évènements auxquels sont confrontées les personnes de façon plus lucide et plus exhaustive que ces dernières, confinées à un simple point de vue pragmatique imédiat et sans recul. Ce faisant, il se contente de placer le jugement “vrai” au dessus de la conscience des personnes (posture transcendante) plutôt qu’en dessous (posture trenscendantale). Mais dans les deux cas ce jugement vrai apparaît comme une perfection extérieur inaccessible aux personnes en question, ici et maintenant. Therefore I will propose a way out of this impasse by refusing to evaluate emancipation against the test of a (re)turn to an ideal state (whether transcendental or transcendent), but instead embedded in the lived material existence of social actors. Because we cannot be certain where these actions will lead, as sociologists we must accept uncertainty and contingency comme nous l’enseigne Bruno Latour, cet autre auteur français qui se réclame également aujourd’hui du pragmatisme. Mais parce que ce dernier rejette complétement la possibilité de developper encore aujourd’hui une pensée critique, il rend impossible toute reflexion en terme d’émancipation. Or scruter l’emancipation potentielle que recellent ces pratiques est nécessaire si l’on veut évaluer which, amongst them, have the potential to yield social transformation. In sum, in what follows [less ▲]

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See detailOutils didactiques et (in)égalités. Texte de cadrage et présentation succincte des contributions.
Simons, Germain ULg

in Didactiques en Pratique (2015), (1), 4-7

Ce texte présente la thématique abordée lors de l'Université d'été du Cifen 2014 : "Outils didactiques et (in)égalités". Il propose également un bref résumé de chacune des contributions proposées lors des ... [more ▼]

Ce texte présente la thématique abordée lors de l'Université d'été du Cifen 2014 : "Outils didactiques et (in)égalités". Il propose également un bref résumé de chacune des contributions proposées lors des conférences de la matinée ou lors des ateliers de l'après-midi. [less ▲]

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See detailLe tournant de la théorie critique
Frère, Bruno ULg

Book published by Desclée de Brouwer (2015)

Aujourd’hui, le nombre de personnes précaires ne cesse de s’accroître. Elles composent une catégorie sociale qui recouvre à la fois les exclus et ceux qui connaissent un enchaînement de situations ... [more ▼]

Aujourd’hui, le nombre de personnes précaires ne cesse de s’accroître. Elles composent une catégorie sociale qui recouvre à la fois les exclus et ceux qui connaissent un enchaînement de situations professionnelles éphémères et faiblement rémunérées. On observe à ce sujet au retour, parmi un grand nombre d’inégalités prégnantes (genres, races, etc.), d’une inégalité fondamentale entre classes sociales. Face à cet effrayant constat, et alors même que d’aucun la croyaient enterrée avec la « fin des idéologies » proclamée dans les années 80, la théorie critique se trouve remise au goût du jour. Le présent volume entend bien s’inscrire dans cette renaissance. L’enjeu singulier qu’il s’est fixer est de tenir compte des traditions allemande (l’école de Francfort) et française (la sociologie critique de Bourdieu), les tentatives de synthèses actuelles omettant toujours l’une ou l’autre d’entre-elles. Car si ces traditions doivent être impérativement tenue ensembles, c’est pour révéler ce qu’elles possèdent en commun et qui, précisément, doit à présent être dépassé, sans pour autant se départir de l’élan marxiste initial s’attaquant à toutes les formes de domination. De Lukács à Bourdieu, en effet, tout se passe comme si la tradition critique européenne avait travaillé sur un seul schème de pensée : les individus reproduisent inconsciemment les structures sociales du capitalisme qui pourtant les aliènent. Ils acceptent les conditions qui leur sont faites et ne cherchent plus à se rebeller contre un système qui appauvrit leur travail, leur culture, leur âme elle-même. Pire : ils assurent la reproduction dudit système en cherchant à tout prix à s'adonner à la consommation de masse ou en glorifiant les valeurs dominantes. Les textes rassemblés ici entendent bien fonder le renouveau de la critique. Il s’agit pour eux de chercher à saisir l’homme existant ici et maintenant, comme étant potentiellement autre chose qu’un être profondément abâtardi, corrompu, dénaturé, perverti, altéré ou sali par le capitalisme et la domination. Car sans une telle transition au cœur même de la théorie critique, il s’avèrera à l’avenir extrêmement difficile de traiter des nouvelles formes de résistances à la domination (indignés, anonymous, mouvements des « sans », femen, casseurs de pubs, économie alternative, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detail3-dimensional Continued Fraction Algorithms Cheat Sheets
Labbé, Sébastien ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

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See detailCharacterization of Nest Sites of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Kibira National Park, Burundi
Hakizimana, Dismas; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Brotcorne, Fany ULg et al

in African Primates (2015), 10

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites by chimpanzees is available for other locations of the species’ range, this information is lacking for Kibira National Park. This is mainly due to the political troubles that prevailed in the country from 1993 until 2007, making study there difficult. To better protect this chimpanzee population, it is crucial to survey nest sites to identify the tree species, physical characteristics of the trees and habitat type that chimpanzees preferentially use for nesting. Therefore, in this study, we investigated: 1) the tree species used by chimpanzees for building their nests; 2) nest tree availability in the study area; 3) whether chimpanzee selection of a nest tree is based on physical characteristics such as diameter at breast height, lowest branch height, tree size and crown height; and 4) whether chimpanzees choose their nest sites according to topography and canopy types. We collected data monthly along 16 transects of 3 km each, from September 2011 to February 2013 (18 months). However, data related to the measurements of nests and nest trees were collected for only the last 12 months, from March 2012 to February 2013. We identified tree species used for nesting, and measured physical characteristics of trees used as opposed to surrounding trees unused. The results showed that chimpanzees select certain tree species to build their nests. Among the 32 species of trees bearing nests, chimpanzees used 12 species significantly more frequently than expected and 11 species significantly less frequently than expected. In addition, trees bearing nests were significantly larger and taller than the surrounding trees and had higher lowest branch and bigger canopies. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical and Political Stakes of a Philosophy of Norms, Part II : Theory of Norms and Social Criticism
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

in de Beistegui, Miguel; Bianco, Giuseppe; Gracieuse, Marjorie (Eds.) The Care of Life : Transdisciplinary perspectives in Bioethics and Biopolitics (2015)

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See detailRelations entre gain baro-réflexe et autres marqueurs de risque chez le patient diabétique de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg; MARCHAND, Monique ULg; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angeiologie (2015), 64(s1),

André J. Scheen, Monique Marchand, Jean-Christophe Philips (1) (1) Service de Diabétologie, Nutrition et Maladies métaboliques, CHU Sart Tilman, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique. Relations entre gain ... [more ▼]

André J. Scheen, Monique Marchand, Jean-Christophe Philips (1) (1) Service de Diabétologie, Nutrition et Maladies métaboliques, CHU Sart Tilman, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgique. Relations entre gain baro-réflexe et autres marqueurs de risque chez le patient diabétique de type 2 Relationships between baroreflex gain and other risk markers in patients with type 2 diabetes Objectifs : Le gain baro-réflexe (GBR) est un marqueur de la neuropathie autonome cardiovasculaire (NAC) qui s’avère plus discriminant que le classique R-R E/I ratio. Le but du travail est d’étudier les relations entre le GBR et d’autres marqueurs de risque comme la pression pulsée (PP) et la diminution du débit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) chez le patient diabétique de type 2 (DT2). Méthodes : Au total, 64 patients DT2 ont été étudiés par enregistrement continu de la pression artérielle (PA) et de la fréquence cardiaque (FC) lors d’un test postural standardisé (test de «squatting» : 1min debout – 1min accroupi – 1min debout). GBR est calculé par la pente de la relation entre les espaces R-R et PA systolique lors du redressement. PP (PAS-PAD) est analysée pendant tout le test et par son augmentation durant l’accroupissement (delta PP). Le DFG est calculé par la formule MDRD avant et après un suivi moyen de 12±5 années. Résultats : Les patients ont été séparés en deux groupes en fonction de la valeur médiane du GBR : G1 (n=34) : </=1,36 msec/mm Hg (moyenne ± SD : 0,77±0,40) vs G2 (n=30) : >1,36 (3,05±0,35). Les sujets de G1 sont légèrement plus âgés (58±7 vs 54±8 ans; p=0,04), mais ont un sexe ratio, une durée du DT2, un taux d’HbA1c et des valeurs de PA comparables aux valeurs de G2. Les patients de G1 ont une FC de base plus élevée (88±15 vs 82±14 bpm; p=0,0462) et un DFG plus bas (79±19 vs 95±19 ml/min; p=0,0479). Si la PP en position debout est comparable (59±15 vs 54±15 mmHg; p=0,1983), elle devient plus élevée en position accroupie (73±18 vs 65±16 mmHg; p=0,0395) chez G1 que chez G2. Lors du redressement, la chute de PA moyenne est significativement plus importante (-46±12 vs -38±12 mmHg; p=0,0079), avec un retard à la récupération des valeurs de base (29±19 vs 21±19 sec; p=0,0107) et une tachycardisation moindre (17±8 vs 23±9 bpm; p=0,0359) chez G1. Par contre, la diminution du DFG durant le suivi est comparable chez G1 vs G2 (-13±21 vs -13±21 ml/min; p=0,8561). Conclusion : Un GBR abaissé, marqueur de la NAC, est associé à une PP élevée en position accroupie (un marqueur indirect de rigidité artérielle) et une diminution du DFG. Par contre, la seule valeur de GBR ne permet pas de prédire l’ampleur de la dégradation de la fonction rénale lors d’un suivi ultérieur de 12 années [less ▲]

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See detailMembrane Topology and Biochemical Characterization of the Escherichia coli BacA Undecaprenyl-Pyrophosphate Phosphatase.
Manat, Guillaume; El Ghachi, Meriem ULg; Auger, Rodolphe et al

in PloS one (2015), 10(11), 0142870

Several integral membrane proteins exhibiting undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate (C55-PP) phosphatase activity were previously identified in Escherichia coli that belonged to two distinct protein families: the ... [more ▼]

Several integral membrane proteins exhibiting undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate (C55-PP) phosphatase activity were previously identified in Escherichia coli that belonged to two distinct protein families: the BacA protein, which accounts for 75% of the C55-PP phosphatase activity detected in E. coli cell membranes, and three members of the PAP2 phosphatidic acid phosphatase family, namely PgpB, YbjG and LpxT. This dephosphorylation step is required to provide the C55-P carrier lipid which plays a central role in the biosynthesis of various cell wall polymers. We here report detailed investigations of the biochemical properties and membrane topology of the BacA protein. Optimal activity conditions were determined and a narrow-range substrate specificity with a clear preference for C55-PP was observed for this enzyme. Alignments of BacA protein sequences revealed two particularly well-conserved regions and several invariant residues whose role in enzyme activity was questioned by using a site-directed mutagenesis approach and complementary in vitro and in vivo activity assays. Three essential residues Glu21, Ser27, and Arg174 were identified, allowing us to propose a catalytic mechanism for this enzyme. The membrane topology of the BacA protein determined here experimentally did not validate previous program-based predicted models. It comprises seven transmembrane segments and contains in particular two large periplasmic loops carrying the highly-conserved active site residues. Our data thus provide evidence that all the different E. coli C55-PP phosphatases identified to date (BacA and PAP2) catalyze the dephosphorylation of C55-PP molecules on the same (outer) side of the plasma membrane. [less ▲]

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See detailSalariat et chômage des artistes en Belgique
Levaux, Christophe ULg; Lowies, Jean-Gilles ULg

in Revue de la Société liégeoise de Musicologie (2015), 31-33

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