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See detailVaccinia virus strain Western Reserve protein B14 is an intracellular virulence factor.
Chen, Ron A-J; Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Smith, Geoffrey L

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2006), 87(Pt 6), 1451-8

A characterization of the B14R gene from Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve (WR) is presented. Computational analyses of the B14R gene indicated high conservation in orthopoxviruses but no ... [more ▼]

A characterization of the B14R gene from Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve (WR) is presented. Computational analyses of the B14R gene indicated high conservation in orthopoxviruses but no orthologues outside the Poxviridae. To characterize the B14 protein, the B14R gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant protein was purified and used to generate a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. This antiserum recognized a 15 kDa cytoplasmic protein in mammalian cells that were transfected with the B14R gene or infected with VACV WR, but not from cells infected with a VACV mutant (vdeltaB14) from which the B14R gene was deleted. Compared to wild-type and revertant virus controls, vdeltaB14 had normal growth kinetics in cell culture. The virulence of vdeltaB14 was assessed in two in vivo models. Mice infected intranasally with vdeltaB14 had similar weight loss compared to the controls, but in C57BL/6 mice infected intradermally vdeltaB14 induced a smaller lesion size compared with controls. Moreover, intradermal infection with vdeltaB14 caused an increased infiltration of cells into the infected lesion despite the smaller lesion size. Therefore, B14 is an intracellular protein that is non-essential for virus replication in cell culture but contributes to virus virulence in vivo and affects the host response to infection. [less ▲]

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See detailIntradermal immune response after infection with Vaccinia virus.
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Chen, Ron A-J; Gubser, Caroline et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2006), 87(Pt 5), 1157-61

Although Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used to eradicate smallpox by dermal vaccination, there is little information available about the immune response induced at the vaccination site. Previously, an ... [more ▼]

Although Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used to eradicate smallpox by dermal vaccination, there is little information available about the immune response induced at the vaccination site. Previously, an intradermal murine model that mimics smallpox vaccination was established. Here, this model was used to investigate which leukocytes are recruited to the infected lesion and what are the kinetics of recruitment. Data presented show that VACV infection induced the infiltration of macrophages, followed by granulocytes and lymphocytes. Up to 4 days post-infection, the major lymphocyte population was TCRgammadelta T cells, but thereafter, there was a large recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, the majority of T cells expressed the natural killer-cell marker DX5. This report is the first to characterize the local immune response sequence to VACV infection and represents a benchmark against which the responses induced by genetically modified VACVs may be compared. [less ▲]

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See detailAsthme et tabac.
Gusbin, N.; Garzaniti, N.; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(2), 81-6

Roughly 40% of asthmatics are or have been smokers. These smoking asthmatics have been largely overlooked in the past. Tobacco is today considered as a risk factor for asthma and it seems that smoking ... [more ▼]

Roughly 40% of asthmatics are or have been smokers. These smoking asthmatics have been largely overlooked in the past. Tobacco is today considered as a risk factor for asthma and it seems that smoking asthmatics exhibit a different phenotype as compared to non smoking asthmatics. The inflammatory substrate differs widely, not only with respect to the type of cells present in the airways, but also with respect to the mediators brought into play. On the clinical point of view the asthma of smokers is also more severe that in non smokers, both at the symptomatic and the functional level. The asthma severity in smokers is partly linked to a resistance to inhaled corticoids, the cornerstone of maintenance treatment in asthma. This makes urgent to assess alternative treatment to inhaled corticoids for this asthma phenotype, but also emphasizes the need to support smoking cessation in asthmatics. [less ▲]

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See detailL'eotaxine, une chemokine importante dans l'asthme.
Hemelaers, L.; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(4), 223-6

We know that the eosinophil plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. This polynuclear cell is attracted into the airways by several chemokines. Eotaxin is one of them. Endothelial cells, smooth ... [more ▼]

We know that the eosinophil plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. This polynuclear cell is attracted into the airways by several chemokines. Eotaxin is one of them. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and eosinophils can produce eotaxin. In asthmatic airways, eotaxin production is increased in bronchial airway lumen and mucosa. Eotaxine actively participates in asthma pathogenesis by activating eosinophil recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Le syndrome de Pierre-Marie Bamberger.[Clinical case of the month. Pierre Marie Bamberger syndrome]
Rouers, A.; Radermecker, Maurice ULg; Duysinx, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(3), 142-4

We report the case of a lung adenocarcinoma revealed by clubbing and secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy or Pierre-Marie Bamberger syndrome.

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See detailPourquoi et comment structurer ses acquis en sciences à l'école primaire ?
Giot, Bernadette ULg; Quittre, Valérie ULg

in Site du Ministère de la Communauté française de Belgique (2006)

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See detailBiological Image Classification with Random Subwindows and Extra-Trees
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

Conference (2006)

We illustrate the potential of our image classification method on three datasets of images at different imaging modalities/scales, from subcellular locations up to human body regions. The method is based ... [more ▼]

We illustrate the potential of our image classification method on three datasets of images at different imaging modalities/scales, from subcellular locations up to human body regions. The method is based on random subwindows extraction and the combination of their classification using ensembles of extremely randomized decision trees. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Expository Teaching to First e-Learning Course Production: Capture in a 17 Online Course Sample of a Pedagogical Pattern Facilitating Transition
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Poumay, Marianne ULg; Delcomminette, Séverine ULg et al

in Advanced Learning Technologies (2006)

This paper discusses an activity structure, RQAT, mined from a study of 17 on-line courses. It formats this structure as a pedagogical pattern and presents it as an abstraction to support staff ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses an activity structure, RQAT, mined from a study of 17 on-line courses. It formats this structure as a pedagogical pattern and presents it as an abstraction to support staff development, especially faculty willing to incorporate first online components to enhance face to face courses. [less ▲]

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See detailG-quadruplexes in telomeric repeats are conserved in a solvent-free environment
Baker, Erin Shammel; Bernstein, Summer L; Gabelica, Valérie ULg et al

in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2006), 253(3), 225-237

The structural properties of G-quadruplex forming sequences. such as the human telomeric repeat d(T(2)AG(3))(n), are of great interest due to their role in cancer and cellular aging. To determine if G ... [more ▼]

The structural properties of G-quadruplex forming sequences. such as the human telomeric repeat d(T(2)AG(3))(n), are of great interest due to their role in cancer and cellular aging. To determine if G-quadruplexes are present in a solvent-free environment. different lengths of the telomeric repeat d(T(2)AG(3))(n) (where n = 1, 2, 4 and 6) and dTG(4)T were investigated with mass specteometry, ion mobility and molecular dynamics calculations. Nano-ESI-MS illustrated quadruples stoichiometries compatible with G-quadruplex Structure.; for each sequence, with dT(2)AG(3) and dTG(4)T forming 4-strand complexes with two and three NH4+ adducts. d(T(2)AG(3))(2) a 2-strand complex. and d(T(2)AG(3))(4) and d(T(2)AG(3))(6) remaining single-stranded. Experimental cross sections were obtained for all species using ion mobility method.,. In all case.,. these could be quantitatively matched to model cross sections with specific strand orientations (parallel/antiparallel) and structures. For each species, the solvent-free structures agreed with the solution CD measurements, but the ion mobility/modeling procedure often gave Much more detailed structural information. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the non-linearity of the aerodynamic coefficients on the skewness of the buffeting drag force
Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg

in Wind and Structures (2006), 9(6), 457-471

This paper is devoted to the non linear quasi-steady aerodynamic loading. A linear approximation is often used to compute the response of structures to buffeting forces. Some researchers have however ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the non linear quasi-steady aerodynamic loading. A linear approximation is often used to compute the response of structures to buffeting forces. Some researchers have however shown that it is possible to account for the non linearity of this loading. This non linearity can come (i) from the squared velocity or (ii) from the shape of the aerodynamic coefficients (as functions of the wind angle of attack). In this paper, it is shown that this second origin can have significant implications on the design of the structure, particularly when the non linearity of the aerodynamic coefficient is important or when the transverse turbulence is important. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive and negative ion mode ESI-MS and MS/MS for studying drug-DNA complexes
Rosu, Frédéric ULg; Pirotte, Sophie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2006), 253(3), 156-171

We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium ... [more ▼]

We report systematic investigation of duplex DNA complexes with minor groove binders (Hoechsts 33258 and 33342, netropsin and DAPI) and intercalators (daunomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, ethidium, cryptolepine, neocryptolepine, m-Amsacrine, proflavine, ellipticine and mitoxantrone) by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS in the negative ion mode and in the positive ion mode. The apparent solution phase equilibrium binding constants can be determined by measuring relative intensities in the ESI-MS spectrum. While negative ion mode gives reliable results, positive ion mode gives a systematic underestimation of the binding constants and even a complete suppression of the complexes for intercalators lacking functional groups capable of interacting in the grooves. In the second part of the paper we systematically compare MS/MS fragmentation channels and breakdown curves in the positive and the negative modes, and discuss the possible uses and caveats of MS/MS in drug-DNA complexes. In the negative mode, the drugs can be separated in three groups: (1) those that leave the complex with no net charge; (2) those that leave the complex with a negative charge; and (3) those that remain attached on the strands upon dissociation of the duplex due to their positive charge. In the positive ion mode, all complexes fragment via the loss of protonated drug. Information on the stabilization of the complex by drug-DNA noncovalent interactions can be obtained straightforwardly only in the case of neutral drug loss. In all other cases, proton affinity (in the positive ion mode), gas-phase basicity (in the negative ion mode) and coulombic repulsion are the major factors influencing the fragmentation channel and the dissociation kinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-American Sentiment and America’s Perceived Intent to Dominate: An 11-Nation Study
Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T; Abrams, Dominique et al

in Basic & Applied Social Psychology (2006), 28(4), 363-173

Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in ... [more ▼]

Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in 11 nations indicated their perceptions of the personality traits of, intentions of, and emotional reactions to the United States as well as their reactions to relevant world events (e.g., 9/11). The United States was generally perceived as competent but cold and arrogant. Although participants distinguished between the United States’ government and its citizens, differences were small. Consistent with the SCM and IT, viewing the United States as intent on domination predicted perceptions of lack of warmth and of arrogance but not of competence and status. The discussion addresses implications for terrorist recruitment and ally support. [less ▲]

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See detailDisused Palaeozoic regional stages from Belgium: Devillian, Revinian, Salmian, Gedinnian and Burnotian.
Dejonghe, L.; Herbosch, A.; Steemans, Philippe ULg et al

in Geologica Belgica (2006), 9(1-2), 191-197

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See detailEnigmatic Givetian palynomorphs
Steemans, Philippe ULg

Report (2006)

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See detailDetection of diverse mould species growing on building materials by gas sensor arrays and pattern recognition
Kuske, Martyna; Padilla, M.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2006), 119(1), 33-40

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array. Four moulds species have been considered. Pattern classification provides detection ... [more ▼]

This work explores the detection of moulds growing in different building materials by using a metal oxide sensor array. Four moulds species have been considered. Pattern classification provides detection rates on the order of 80-85% for different species. Drift degrades only slightly these values subsequent test 4 months later. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of odor emission rate from landfill areas using the sniffing team method
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Craffe, Flavien; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

in Waste Management (2006), 26(11), 1259-1269

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the ... [more ▼]

The monitoring of the odor annoyance generated by a landfill area is difficult, since it is a multi-area-sources problem, with a discontinuous odor emission. This paper proposes an adaptation of the method of sniffing team campaigns to the particular case of fresh waste odors. The method is based on the field determination of odor perception points, followed by data processing with a bi-Gaussian-type model, adapted to handle the odors. In a first step, field observers delineate the region in which odor impact is experienced and then the emission rate is manipulated in a dispersion model until the predicted size of the impact zone matches that observed in the field. In a second step the adjusted emission rate is entered into the model to calculate the percentiles corresponding to the average annoyance zone. The originality of the proposed method is the introduction of all observation points and of all recorded meteorological data into the model. The paper discusses the method limitations and the errors induced on the results, i.e. the odor emission rate and the percentile lines (or iso-concentration lines) which are used to describe the odor concentrations on a map of the surroundings of the plant.The proposed method proves to be reliable for diffuse sources, such as landfill areas. The obtained results are coherent with other results found in the literature with other techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailL’analyse du travail : centrale ou simplement utile ?
De Keyser, Véronique ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

in Vallery, Gérard; Amalberti, René (Eds.) L’analyse du travail en perspective – Influences et évolutions. (2006)

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See detailThe electronic nose as a warning device of the odour emergence in a compost hall
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Ledent, Catherine

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2006), 116(1-2), 95-99

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as ... [more ▼]

A self-made electronic nose consisting in a sensor array of six commercial tin oxide gas sensors is used to monitor the odour emission from a compost facility. Supervised data processing tools, such as discriminant analysis, are able to recognize, in real time, the odour of compost with respect to other possible sources in the hall. The paper shows that with unsupervised methods, such as principal component analysis, it is not essential to identify all the possible odour sources during the learning phase. The closeness to the compost group centroid could be used as an indicator of the compost odour level. Alternatively, by a suitable calibration from olfactory measurements, the signals generated by the sensor array can be used to estimate the odour emission rate from the compost hall. Such real time monitoring should allow to assess and to anticipate the annoyance in the surrounding. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout automatic learning for advanced sensing, monitoring and control of electric power systems
Wehenkel, Louis ULg; Glavic, Mevludin; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Second Carnegie Mellon Conference in Electric Power Systems: Monitoring, Sensing, Software and its Valuation for the Changing electric Power Industry (2006)

The paper considers the possible uses of automatic learning for improving power system performance by software methodologies. Automatic learning per se is first reviewed and recent developements of the ... [more ▼]

The paper considers the possible uses of automatic learning for improving power system performance by software methodologies. Automatic learning per se is first reviewed and recent developements of the field are highlighted. Then the authors’ views of its main actual or potential applications related to power system operation and control are described, and in each application present status and needs for further developments are discussed. [less ▲]

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