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See detailDu matérialisme historique au post-matérialisme
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

E-print/Working paper (2005)

Le matérialisme historique s'appuie sur le postulat fondamental que le moteur de l'histoire, ce qui "met les choses en mouvement" est à rechercher dans l'organisation concrète de la vie matérielle. Et en ... [more ▼]

Le matérialisme historique s'appuie sur le postulat fondamental que le moteur de l'histoire, ce qui "met les choses en mouvement" est à rechercher dans l'organisation concrète de la vie matérielle. Et en particulier, les idées et valeurs d'une époque reflètent fondamentalement les conditions de production de l'époque en question. Le politologue américain Ronald Inglehart, dans sa théorie du "postmatérialisme" ne dit finalement rien d'autre, alors qu'il est très loin par ailleurs d'être un marxiste. Mais il y a joute une solide nuance : l'explication matérialiste est "vouée à la loi des rendements décroissants". Autrement dit, les différences de condition matérielle expliquent beaucoup de chose lorsque les sociétés n'ont pas encore "décollé" mais elles expliquent de moins en moins à mesure que les sociétés deviennent plus riches. Lorsqu'un certain seuil de confort matériel est atteint, le lien se casse entre développement économique et évolution des valeurs. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes cardiac surgery in newborn infants compromise blood cell reactivity to endotoxin?
Schumacher, Katharina; Korr, Stefanie; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F et al

in Critical Care (2005), 9(5), 549-55

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal cardiac surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory reaction that might compromise the reactivity of blood cells against an inflammatory stimulus. Our prospective study was ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal cardiac surgery is associated with a systemic inflammatory reaction that might compromise the reactivity of blood cells against an inflammatory stimulus. Our prospective study was aimed at testing this hypothesis. METHODS: We investigated 17 newborn infants with transposition of the great arteries undergoing arterial switch operation. Ex vivo production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), of the regulator of the acute-phase response IL-6, and of the natural anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cell culture supernatant after whole blood stimulation by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide before, 5 and 10 days after the operation. Results were analyzed with respect to postoperative morbidity. RESULTS: The ex vivo production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 was significantly decreased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.002, respectively), whereas ex vivo production of IL-10 tended to be lower 5 days after the operation in comparison with preoperative values (P < 0.1). Ex vivo production of all cytokines reached preoperative values 10 days after cardiac surgery. Preoperative ex vivo production of IL-6 was inversely correlated with the postoperative oxygenation index 4 hours and 24 hours after the operation (P < 0.02). In contrast, postoperative ex vivo production of cytokines did not correlate with postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Our results show that cardiac surgery in newborn infants is associated with a transient but significant decrease in the ex vivo production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 together with a less pronounced decrease in IL-10 production. This might indicate a transient postoperative anti-inflammatory shift of the cytokine balance in this age group. Our results suggest that higher preoperative ex vivo production of IL-6 is associated with a higher risk for postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailPROMPT New means to PROMote Pedestrian Traffic in cities
Rauhala, Kari; Martincigh, Lucia; Hüsler, Willi et al

Report (2005)

The main objective of the PROMPT project was to develop new innovative tools and solutions to improve the conditions of walking in cities. Their scope ranges from the urban level to the detailed street ... [more ▼]

The main objective of the PROMPT project was to develop new innovative tools and solutions to improve the conditions of walking in cities. Their scope ranges from the urban level to the detailed street level. They are aimed at problem identification, design and planning as well as at the implementation of considered measures in widely different situations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of zooplankton stoichiometry on nutrient sedimentation in a lake system
Darchambeau, François ULg; Thys, I.; Leporcq, B. et al

in Limnology & Oceanography (2005), 50(3), 905-913

We explored rates and stoichiometry (C: N: P ratios) of sinking particles in a temperate reservoir during a 2-yr period. Plankton was sampled weekly, and a sediment trap placed below the metalimnion ... [more ▼]

We explored rates and stoichiometry (C: N: P ratios) of sinking particles in a temperate reservoir during a 2-yr period. Plankton was sampled weekly, and a sediment trap placed below the metalimnion collected sinking particles. There were no significant relationships between the stoichiometry of entrapped material and seston or zooplankton stoichiometry. However the differences in the entrapped C: P and N: P ratios between consecutive trap samplings were negatively correlated with the time variations of the zooplankton C: P and N: P ratios. Zooplankton C: P and N: P ratios were positively correlated with the percentage of copepod biomass in total zooplankton biomass > 250 mu m and negatively correlated with the percentage of cladocerans. Zooplankton biomass > 250 mu m reduced the fraction of N and P primary production lost to sinking (export ratio). The residuals of the N export ratio versus zooplankton biomass relationship were negatively correlated with the zooplankton N: P ratio, whereas there was a positive relationship with the residuals of the P export ratio relationship. These observations support the hypothesis that the regulation of elemental homeostasis in the herbivorous zooplankton consumers occurs at least partly at the assimilation/egestion level. Elements ingested in excess-P for the herbivorous copepods and N for many cladocerans-are concentrated into sinking feces, whereas the deficient elements are captured into biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage de J.M. Klinkenberg : Petites mythologies belges
Curreri, Luciano ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2005), 26-27

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See detailDé-transposition et décalage interdisciplinaire : l'exemple de l'élasticité de la demande
Henry, Valérie ULg

in Repères : Revue des Instituts de Recherche sur l'Enseignement des Mathématiques (2005), 141

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See detailL'impact des changements vécus par les travailleurs sur le bien-être au travail : Analyse de la base de données Flexihealth.
Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Grisard, Anne; De Keyser, Véronique ULg et al

in Battistelli, A.; Depolo, M.; Fraccaroli, F. (Eds.) La qualité de vie au travail dans les années 2000. (2005)

La recherche ‘Flexihealth’, portant sur 4961 travailleurs belges, vise à établir un lien entre les changements majeurs, la perception des modifications des conditions de travail qu’ils impliquent et le ... [more ▼]

La recherche ‘Flexihealth’, portant sur 4961 travailleurs belges, vise à établir un lien entre les changements majeurs, la perception des modifications des conditions de travail qu’ils impliquent et le bien-être des travailleurs. Les résultats montrent que les changements vécus ont un impact négatif significatif non seulement sur les conditions de travail mais aussi sur le bien-être des travailleurs. Ce résultat doit toutefois être nuancé selon le type de changement vécu. En ce sens, le changement de supérieur et le changement de tâches sont davantage préjudiciables pour les travailleurs. L’âge et la catégorie professionnelle des travailleurs sont également des variables considérées pour nuancer ces résultats. Ainsi, les travailleurs âgés de 46 à 55 ans ainsi que les ouvriers constituent des groupes à risques. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mise en oeuvre de réseaux écologiques en Wallonie
Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Lumaret, J.-P.; Jaulin, S.; Soldati, F. (Eds.) et al Conservation de la biodiversité dans les paysages ruraux européens (2005)

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See detailTravel time simulation of radionuclides in a 200 m deep heterogeneous clay formation locally disturbed by excavation
Huysmans, Marijke; Berckmans, Arne; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Seventh International Geostatistics Congress (2005)

In the North of Belgium the Boom Clay Formation, at a depth of 200m below surface, is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of vitrified nuclear waste. The aim of this study is to ... [more ▼]

In the North of Belgium the Boom Clay Formation, at a depth of 200m below surface, is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of vitrified nuclear waste. The aim of this study is to model the transport of radionuclides through the clay, taking into account the geological heterogeneity and the excavation induced fractures around the galleries in which the waste will be stored. This is achieved by combining a transport model with geostatistical techniques used to simulate the geological heterogeneity and fractures of the host rock formation. In a first phase, 100 simulations of the hydraulic conductivity of the clay are generated by conditional stochastic simulation, using measurements of hydraulic conductivity and 4 types of secondary variables: resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, grain size measurements and descriptions of the lithology. Thereafter, 100 simulations of the fractures around the excavation are generated based on information about the extent, orientation, spacing and aperture of excavation induced fractures, measured around similar galleries. Subsequently, the hydraulic conductivity simulations and the fracture simulations are randomly combined and used as input for a transport model that calculates the transport by advection, diffusion, dispersion, adsorption and decay through the heterogeneous and fractured medium. The effect of “self healing” of the clay formation as a function of time after excavation is taken into account. Finally, this results in 100 breakthrough curves of radionuclides in the aquifers surrounding the Boom Clay, reflecting the uncertainty of travel time through the clay resulting from the uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity and the fracture distribution. The breakthrough curves can serve as a risk management tool in the evaluation of the suitability of the Boom Clay Formation as a host rock for vitrified nuclear waste storage. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of radionuclide mass fluxes in a heterogeneous clay formation locally disturbed by excavation
Huysmans, Marijke; Berckmans, Arne; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Renard, Philippe; Demougeot-Renard, H.; Froidevaux, R. (Eds.) Geostatistics for Environmental Applications (Proc. of GEOENV’2004) (2005)

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See detailDermatoses photo-aggravées.
Goffin, Véronique ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60 Suppl 1

A series of viral and bacterial diseases are photoaggravated. Some autoimmune connective tissue disorders including lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis are also affected. This category of ... [more ▼]

A series of viral and bacterial diseases are photoaggravated. Some autoimmune connective tissue disorders including lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis are also affected. This category of photoexacerbated diseases also encompasses some cases of atopic dermatitis, lichen and rosacea. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of varicella-zoster virus DNA and gene products in tissues of a first-trimester varicella-infected fetus.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Delbecque, Katty ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2005), 191(4), 540-5

Precise information about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in first-trimester fetuses remains sketchy. After varicella infection was diagnosed in a woman, her 12-week-old fetus was aborted and was ... [more ▼]

Precise information about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in first-trimester fetuses remains sketchy. After varicella infection was diagnosed in a woman, her 12-week-old fetus was aborted and was investigated, by histological examination, virus culturing, polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), for the presence of VZV infection. Only the results of the histological examination suggested the presence of alpha -herpesvirus infection, in the gastrointestinal tract and liver; results of ISH were positive for VZV, and results of IHC staining were positive for intermediate early protein 63 (IE63) but negative for glycoprotein E (gE), in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), meninges, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, smooth muscle, liver, and placental trophoblast, indicating the presence of a nonproductive, latency-like VZV infection. Only the gastrointestinal tract and liver exhibited simultaneous staining for IE63 and gE, a result suggesting that active replication of VZV was present. In conclusion, widespread nonproductive VZV infection in the absence of histological clues is an early event in VZV infection in fetuses. The observed gene-expression pattern in most tissues resembles that of latent VZV infection in DRG. Latency-like infection in nonneural cell types may potentially reactivate, leading to multifocal necrosis, fibrosis, and dystrophic calcifications, as observed in advanced congenital varicella syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailProduct Specialization, Efficiency and Productivity Change in the Spanish Insurance Industry
Fuentes, Hugo; Griffel-Tatjé, Emili; Perelman, Sergio ULg

Report (2005)

In this paper we analyze the levels of technical efficiency and productivity growth attained by Spanish insurance companies during a period of deregulation. We compute Malmquist productivity indexes using ... [more ▼]

In this paper we analyze the levels of technical efficiency and productivity growth attained by Spanish insurance companies during a period of deregulation. We compute Malmquist productivity indexes using the estimates of parametric distance function for several specialized insurance branches. In this way, we show that branch specialization matters a great deal and that firms combining two or three product lines (Health, Property-Liabilities and Life) perform better than firms operating in one insurance line exclusively. In the light of these results, we recommend that the remaining restrictions coming from the European Third Directives on the operations of multi-branch firms should be removed. Moreover, from a management point of view, it would be appropriate to encourage the creation of multi-branch insurance firms. However, in all cases, the estimated scores indicate low productivity growth (less than 2% per year) compared with a huge increase in insurance activity (premiums were multiplied by nearly 3 in a decade) [less ▲]

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See detailThe benefits of separating early retirees from the unemployed: simulation results for Belgian wage earners
Desmet, Raphaël; Jousten, Alain ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

Report (2005)

The pool of early retirees is characterized by a large heterogeneity along several criteria. The present paper focuses on the key distinction between those in forced early retirement and those who retire ... [more ▼]

The pool of early retirees is characterized by a large heterogeneity along several criteria. The present paper focuses on the key distinction between those in forced early retirement and those who retire early by individual choice. We start by estimating a retirement probit model for older workers in Belgium. Based on these estimates, we then perform micro-simulations relating to a hypothetical actuarial reform of a pension system, i.e., a reform imposing on average actuarial neutrality with respect to the time of retirement. We explore two scenarios, one where the entire population is subjected to the actuarial system, and one where a duly screened sub-sample of the unemployed is shielded against these actuarial adjustment factors, a group we call the truly unemployed. We evaluate the impact on the average retirement age, the pension budgets as well as indicators of redistribution within the group of the elderly. We find that the extra budgetary gain of exposing this subgroup to the full-blown reform is modest, while the distributional cost is rather high. Our results thus comfort the idea that the budgetary cost of a focused unemployment system are moderate, and that returning the unemployment insurance to its primary role might be a desirable strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Security in Belgium: Distributive Outcomes
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg et al

Report (2005)

The paper analyzes the link between old-age income programs and economic outcomes in Belgium. We use a simulation methodology to construct an average pension generosity variable. Our regression analysis ... [more ▼]

The paper analyzes the link between old-age income programs and economic outcomes in Belgium. We use a simulation methodology to construct an average pension generosity variable. Our regression analysis explores the link with distributional outcomes in income, consumption and more subjective indicators. Results document the weak link between average generosity and distributional outcomes across a heterogeneous population. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit de la concurrence et recours en annulation à l'ere post-modernisation
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Européen (2005)

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See detailRaising the age of retirement: an example of political ratchet effect
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Vidal, Jean-Pierre et al

Report (2005)

Political resistance to a progressive increase in the retirement age is widespread in a number of European countries. We present a simple model explaining why such a reform can be opposed even when it is ... [more ▼]

Political resistance to a progressive increase in the retirement age is widespread in a number of European countries. We present a simple model explaining why such a reform can be opposed even when it is profitable to a majority of citizens. Then, we try to explain the existence of wide differences in the average length of retirement across countries and over time. [less ▲]

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See detailVieillissement, qualité de l’encodage et faux souvenirs.
Dehon, Hedwige ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Taconnat, Laurence; Vanneste, Sandrine; Clarys, David (Eds.) et al Manifestations cognitives du vieillissement psychologique. Actes des VIIème Journées d’étude du Vieillissement Cognitif (2005)

The current experiment explored the effect of enhancing the quality of encoding on the creation of false memories in older participants. Three groups of participants (1 group of younger adults and two ... [more ▼]

The current experiment explored the effect of enhancing the quality of encoding on the creation of false memories in older participants. Three groups of participants (1 group of younger adults and two groups of older adults) were presented with a modified version (Brédart, 2000) of the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) which permitted to elicit false recall. We used a short interstimuli interval (ISI of 1.5 sec) in the younger and the older control group. A slower rate of presentation was used in the experimental older group (ISI of 3 seconds). The comparison of younger and older controls confirmed a greater susceptibility to false memories in the elderly. In addition, supporting our predictions, when both older groups were compared, lengthening of the ISI led to : a) an improvement of the quality of the encoding, b) an improvement of the source monitoring. These data suggest that the deficits in source monitoring, resulting in the higher sensibility to false memories in older adults, might be related to a differential encoding of the material that would not allow the correct binding of items and their presentation context durant the learning phase. [less ▲]

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