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See detailSources of Labrador Sea sediments since the last glacial maximum inferred from Nd-Pb isotopes
Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Innocent, Christophe; Gariepy, Clément et al

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2002), 66(14), 2569-2581

Pb isotopes have been measured in the clay-size fraction of Late Glacial and Holocene deep-sea sediments recovered from two Labrador Sea piston cores that have been previously analyzed for Nd isotopes ... [more ▼]

Pb isotopes have been measured in the clay-size fraction of Late Glacial and Holocene deep-sea sediments recovered from two Labrador Sea piston cores that have been previously analyzed for Nd isotopes. The newly acquired Pb isotopic data allow us to better constrain the different source areas that supplied clay-size material during the last deglaciation, until 8.6 kyr (calendar ages). Nd-Pb data can be modeled mainly as a mixture between a Precambrian crust and Lower Palcozoic material originating from the denudation of the pan-African orogen. The old material originates mainly from the Archean, Lower Proterozoic, or both terranes of Greenland (and also probably corresponding terranes of Labrador), although minor input of other Precambrian material is recorded in some detrital carbonate-rich deglacial samples from Orphan Knoll. The Phanerozoic crustal end member consists of sediment material mainly originating from northwestern Europe. This source area is found to be the only significant source of young crustal material in early Holocene sediments from the Greenland Rise. No significant input from the mid-Atlantic volcanism is apparent. This study puts further constraints on the deep circulation pattern during the last deglaciation. It is concluded that at that time, European Phanerozoic material was carried from the Norwegian Sea through the Wyville Thompson Ridge into the Iceland Basin by the North East Atlantic Deep Water. No evidence for an overflow is found either south of the Iceland (Iceland-Scotland Ridge) or through the Denmark Strait. Copyright (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une agrégation en sciences : images d'une collaboration
Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg; Collignon, Viviane ULg; Cornélis, André ULg

in Puzzle (2002), 12

Bilan d'une collaboration entre les didacticiens des sciences physiques, biologiques et chimiques dans le cadre de la réforme de l'agrégation de l'enseignement secondaire supérieur. Deux expériences de ... [more ▼]

Bilan d'une collaboration entre les didacticiens des sciences physiques, biologiques et chimiques dans le cadre de la réforme de l'agrégation de l'enseignement secondaire supérieur. Deux expériences de formation sont racontées et analysées : représentations et démarche expérimentale sur les fruits et légumes en biologie et sur le fonctionnement d'une pile en chimie [less ▲]

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See detailNOD2/CARD15 does not influence response to infliximab in Crohn's disease
Vermeire, S.; Louis, Edouard ULg; Rutgeerts, P. et al

in Gastroenterology (2002), 123(1), 106-111

Background

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See detailQualité spectrales des tests standardisés universitaires - Mise au point d'indices édumétriques d'analyse de la qualité spectrale des évaluations des acquis des étudiants universitaires et application aux épreuves MOHICAN check up '99
Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg

Doctoral thesis (2002)

For several decades almost all European university institutions have been faced with a strong increase in their number of students whereas the allocated budgets have not increased in proportion (Gibbs ... [more ▼]

For several decades almost all European university institutions have been faced with a strong increase in their number of students whereas the allocated budgets have not increased in proportion (Gibbs & Jenkins, 1992). The universities of the French Community of Belgium do not escape this heavy tendency: compared with the 1972 situation, the number of students has increased to 150% and, in constant francs, subsidies have remained unchanged (Debry & al., 1998). This situation leads in the first cycles of studies, where the students are most numerous, to a massive use of standardized examinations with multiple choice questions (MCQ) which makes the assessment of great groups of students possible within reasonable time delays. The confidence degrees technique associated to the MCQ makes it possible to bypass the "binary" character of students assessment performance (the selected proposal is either correct, or incorrect) provided that a series of methodological rules are followed called "admissible probability measurement procedures" by Shufford & al. (1966). Among those rules: ask the students to express their confidence in a numerical (probabilistic) scale. The one adopted offers 6 degrees of subtlety: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of confidence. By inviting the student to accompany his choice by the percentage of chances to be correct he attributes to his answer, we allow more subtleties in the analysis of his performances. At one extreme, the choice of a wrong answer accompanied by the maximal percentage of certainty (100%) presents the worst situation, in which the student provides an erroneous answer by estimating that he has a maximal chances to be correct. On the other hand, the student who answers correctly with a maximal certainty shows an assured performance. Between these two extremes, other zones can be identified in the "spectral analysis" of the performances. Jans & Leclercq (1999) propose a specific terminology. They distinguish "ignorance" (correct answer and weak certainty), from "partial knowledge" (correct answer and average certainty), and "perfect knowledge" (correct answer and high certainty). Such spectral gradations were also considered by these authors in the case of an incorrect answer ("mistaken knowledge" and " fallacious knowledge" or "dangerous knowledge"). Usually, the confidence percentages which accompany the MCQ answers are used to deliver more subtler feedback on each student's spectral performances. The innovative aspect of our approach lies in the fact that we have exploited the confidence percentages provided by the students to provide spectral information on the quality of the questions (as opposed to information on the quality of students performances). Our research thus led to the development of a series of original indices for the analysis of assessments' spectral quality. These spectral indices are intended to be used when the assessor must highlight problematic MCQ and, within those, the proposals which contain anomalies. Our starting intuition for the construction of these new indices is as follows: logically the students who answer a question correctly should provide percentages of certainty higher than the students who answer incorrectly. Thus, for a multiple choice question which functions normally from the point of view of the certainty percentages use, we should observe among the students who choose the correct answer a tendency to answer with higher percentages of certainty and, in parallel, among the students who choose a wrong proposal a tendency to answer with lower percentages of certainty. We will then say that there is "spectral coherence". In the case where this situation does not arise, for example when students choose higher certainty percentages for one of the incorrect answers rather than for the correct answer, we are confronted with a problem of inconsistency in the use of the percentages of certainty, we will then speak of "spectral inconsistency". To measure spectral coherence we created two new types of indices starting from the classical point bi serial correlation coefficient (classical rpbis) calculation principle. Let us recall that in the case of the rpbis, the choices or the rejections (1 or 0) of each proposal of a MCQ are correlated with the numbers of correct answers obtained to the whole test. The classical rpbis makes it possible to evaluate up to what extent each proposed alternatives solutions of each MCQ discriminates the students according to the criterion of the number of correct answers. Logically, one expects that the students who collect a high number of correct answers tend to choose the correct answer for a given question and that the students which collect a lower number have a tendency to choose an incorrect proposal. The two new types of spectral coherence indices of measurement are: (1) the Spectral Contrasted rpbis (rpbis SC) and (2) the Spectral Contrasted rpbis calculated after Turbo analysis (rpbis SCT). During a former research we had already used information related to the confidence degrees to calculate a new type of rpbis, the Spectral rpbis or rpbis S (Gilles, 1998). The rpbis S was developed in order to analyze the tendency to use higher certainty in case of correct answers than in case of incorrect answers. Within the framework of this thesis we propose a first improvement of the rpbis S by implementing a "contrasted treatment" for the MCQ incorrect proposals. We use the name "rpbis SC" to indicate the rpbis S is constructed with a "Contrasted treatment" which consists in the computation of the rpbis SC of an incorrect answer by using the data of the students who choose this wrong response in contrast with the data restricted to the students who choose the correct answer excluding the data from the students who choose an other incorrect answer. The advantage lies in the elimination of the data of the students who have chosen the other incorrect answers. This avoids introducing into the measurement of spectral coherence, the "background noise" generated by the data of the other incorrect answers. The principle of "turbo analysis", consists in operating a selection in the data used for rpbis SC calculation on the basis of the level of realism reached by the students. We can thus increase the reliability of information related to the spectral indices by restricting the data to the students who make less errors in their self-assessments (in their use of certainty percentages). We measure the level of errors of self-assessments made by the students by using the index of realism which varies from 0 to 100 (Leclercq & al, 2000). The name rpbis SCT indicates rpbis SC calculated with a Turbo analysis. The word "turbo" refers to the rise to power of the instrument in terms of the quality of information provided as one restricts oneself progressively to data from sets of students who make less and less errors in their self-assessments. We mention in the index's name the threshold of realism used to select the data. For instance rpbis SCT80 was calculated starting from the data of the students whose realism is equal to or higher than 80 (those who make between 0% and 20% of errors in their self-assessments). The new indices rpbis SC and rpbis SCT, which are in the heart of this research, are designed for the detection of problems located at the "alternatives level" inside the MCQ. We also adapted other spectral indices initially planned for the analysis of students performances so that these indices deliver information on the MCQ performances, at a "question level". On one hand, the index of Realization of the predictions by question (Rq) or the quantity of errors of self-assessment contained in the results for a question and, on the other hand, the index of Centration per question (Cq) or the level of over or under confidence in the results for a question. Lastly, we also measured the level of spectral coherence of a question (NCSq) by taking into account the rpbis SC of the various proposals of a MCQ. The "turbo analysis" principle was also applied to the calculation of these spectral indices. We tried to test these new spectral indices designed for detection of suspect alternatives within suspect MCQ using the data of several thousands of answers and certainty percentages collected during the ten standardized tests of the MOHICAN project (Leclercq & al., 2001). They consisted in ten tests of knowledge of the principal subjects at the level of the end of secondary education which were submitted to groups of students entering first year studies in eight of the nine university institutions of the French Community of Belgium (the number of questioned students varied between 1.392 and 3.846 according to tests). These standardized tests consisted of MCQ for which students were invited to choose one answer and systematically accompany it with a percentage of certainty. The students had, not only to state which was their correct proposal, but also which was the percentage of chances to be correct that they granted to each one of their answers. No academic scores were delivered for these (Check up) MOHICAN tests (each student received a diagnostic feedback and the assessors a global feedback). Anonymity was guaranteed. The choice of the percentages of certainty was thus influenced neither by a scale of tariff of points nor by granting a final score which could have affected the later academic course of the student. The total number of MCQ for the ten MOHICAN tests was 173. For two MCQ among them, the 3rd and the 20th question of the general knowledge test in History and Socio-Economy, the values obtained with the spectral rpbis indicate situations of marked spectral inconsistency, the students tending to give lower percentages of certainty for the answers considered as correct and higher percentages of certainty for the incorrect answers. Studying the proposals of the two problematic MCQ by using the classical rpbis indices, we notice that the two MCQ do not function correctly from the point of view of classical discrimination. When we ask for the opinion of the experts of the contents, they confirm that the two MCQ display problematic results: for one of the questions a wrong proposal could also be regarded as being a correct answer and for the other, there is an error in the encoding of the correct answer. For these two questions there is thus convergence of three different perspectives: (1) that of the classical rpbis, (2) that of the experts and, (3) that of the spectral coherence measured using the spectral rpbis. In the case of the MOHICAN tests, the spectral analysis thus allows to highlight two questions that a more qualitative analysis (posterior opinions of the experts) as well as a classical analysis of discrimination (classical rpbis) also indicate as questions with problems. Does the spectral analysis make it possible to perform better than the classical analysis of discrimination (classical rpbis) for locating the problematic questions and the proposals which contain anomalies? This issue has been tested. We analyzed the 173 MCQ of the 10 MOHICAN tests by using the spectral rpbis (rpbis SC, rpbis SCT80 and rpbis SCT90) as well as the classical rpbis indices. We also reviewed the comments formulated by the experts of the contents in connection with each question. From these analyses it comes out that in addition to the two MCQ already discovered previously, 14 other questions are highlighted. The classical rpbis indicates anomalies in each one of these 14 MCQ. Six MCQ present abnormal values at rpbis SC. Only one MCQ obtains an abnormal rpbis SCT80. No MCQ obtains an abnormal rpbis SCT90. Among these 14 questions, only 3 are pointed as problematic by the experts. With regard to the three questions singled out by the experts, they lead to a set of proposals that only the rpbis SC designates, whereas for the rpbis SCT80 and the rpbis SCT90, they are not highlighted. As far as the classical rpbis is concerned one only of the two problematic proposals for only one of the three questions appears. Therefore, from the point of view of "detection", rpbis SC were more effective to highlight the problems raised by the experts than were the other indices. This analysis shows that the various types of rpbis induce also "false alarms", abnormal values collected by proposals whereas the experts of the contents do not detect particular problems. From this point of view, the rpbis SC, with 7 false alarms, is less effective than the rpbis SCT80 which causes only one of them and less than the rpbis SCT90 which starts none, but rpbis SCT80 and rpbis SCT90 fail by "undetecting" the three questions pointed by the experts. On the other hand the rpbis SC starts less false alarms than the classical rpbis which has 10 false alarms. These qualities of lower "undetection" and less "false alarms" are crucial when the question arises of highlighting a problematic MCQ. When we correct the anomalies contained in certain answers within the MCQ, we can, from now on, not only evaluate the spectral impact of these corrections on the answers ("alternatives level"), but also on the whole question by comparing the values obtained with the indices of NCSq, Rq and Cq before and after changes are operated (at the "question level"). We did this for the two most problematic questions of the general knowledge test in History and Socio Economy and quantified the gains in spectral coherence. The improvement of the spectral coherence of the test was also measured by calculating the average values of the spectral indices at the "question level". These average indices thus made it possible to evaluate the spectral impact on a third "test level" of the assessment. In parallel, we also observed an improvement of the fidelity of the test using the classical Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Using the spectral indices developed within the framework of our thesis and usable with three levels of spectral analysis: "ALTERNATIVES", "MCQ" and "TEST", we open a new way for the analysis of the quality of standardized tests and their regulation. We are now able to evaluate the spectral quality of higher education standardized tests using confidence degrees, to highlight possible anomalies in the questions; and, after corrections, to evaluate the spectral impact of the improvements. This is the main contribution of our thesis to the improvement of procedures that control the quality of standardized tests and, by extension, to the improvement of the reliability of the students scores, which, in fine, constitutes the stake of our edumetric concerns. [less ▲]

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See detailL'abord de l'enfant vu aux urgences pédiatriques
Battisti, Oreste ULg

Conference (2002, June 08)

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See detailPhosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus IE63 protein by casein kinases influences its cellular localization and gene regulation activity
Bontems, Sébastien ULg; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(23), 21050-21060

During the early phase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, Immediate Early protein 63 (IE63) is expressed rapidly and abundantly in the nucleus, while during latency, this protein is confined ... [more ▼]

During the early phase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, Immediate Early protein 63 (IE63) is expressed rapidly and abundantly in the nucleus, while during latency, this protein is confined mostly to the cytoplasm. Because phosphorylation is known to regulate many cellular events, we investigated the importance of this modification on the cellular localization of IE63 and on its regulatory properties. We demonstrate here that cellular casein kinases I and II are implicated in the in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of IE63. A mutational approach also indicated that phosphorylation of the protein is important for its correct cellular localization in a cell type-dependent fashion. Using an activity test, we demonstrated that IE63 was able to repress the gene expression driven by two VZV promoters and that phosphorylation of the protein was required for its full repressive properties. Finally, we showed that IE63 was capable of exerting its repressive activity in the cytoplasm, as well as in the nucleus, suggesting a regulation at the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional level. [less ▲]

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See detailA diagnostic m-test for distributional specification of parametric conditional heteroscedasticity models for financial data
Lejeune, Bernard ULg

Conference (2002, June 06)

This paper proposes a convenient and generally applicable diagnostic m-test for checking the distributional specification of parametric conditional heteroscedasticity models for financial data such as the ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a convenient and generally applicable diagnostic m-test for checking the distributional specification of parametric conditional heteroscedasticity models for financial data such as the customary Student t GARCH model. The proposed test is based on the moments of the probability integral transform of the innovations of the assumed model. Monte-Carlo evidence indicates that our suggested test performs well both in terms of size and power. [less ▲]

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See detailBulletin agrométéorologique
Tychon, Bernard ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Eerens, H. et al

in Bulletin Agrométéorologique (2002)

Le mois de mai a été caractérisé par des conditions climatiques normales tant pour les précipitations que pour les températures. En revanche, le rayonnement a été largement déficitaire. La situation des ... [more ▼]

Le mois de mai a été caractérisé par des conditions climatiques normales tant pour les précipitations que pour les températures. En revanche, le rayonnement a été largement déficitaire. La situation des cultures est globalement favorable, avec des rendements qui s’annoncent supérieurs à ceux de 2001 à la possible exception du colza et du maïs fourrager. [less ▲]

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See detailConfigurations and modulation schemes trade-off (invited)
Absil, Olivier ULg

Scientific conference (2002, June 05)

During the preliminary phase A of GENIE, a number of interferometric configurations have been studied, in the cases of exo-zodiacal cloud and hot Jupiter detection. Their expected performances have been ... [more ▼]

During the preliminary phase A of GENIE, a number of interferometric configurations have been studied, in the cases of exo-zodiacal cloud and hot Jupiter detection. Their expected performances have been computed in light of the measured or expected performances of the VLTI sub-systems. A simple Bracewell nulling interferometer, formed of two Unit Telescopes and working in the L' or N bands, has been identified as a good candidate configuration for exo-zodiacal cloud detection. External or internal chopping, fringe tracking and amplitude matching will be critical issues for this configuration. In the case of hot Jupiter detection, a double Bracewell with internal modulation in the L' band seem well appropriate, and should allow to carry out low resolution spectroscopy on a few bright exoplanets. The basic assumptions and computations which have lead to these candidate configurations will be described in this talk. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalies hypophysaires chez le sujet age avec insuffisance renale chronique
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Magis, Delphine ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 375-381

Chronic renal failure (CRF) in the elderly is a cause of multiple endocrine dysfunctions. The three most common pituitary axes involved are the thyrotrope, lactotrope and gonadotrope axes. Thyroid ... [more ▼]

Chronic renal failure (CRF) in the elderly is a cause of multiple endocrine dysfunctions. The three most common pituitary axes involved are the thyrotrope, lactotrope and gonadotrope axes. Thyroid dysfunction may be the consequence of thyroid or pituitary failure. Hyperprolactinemia results in gonadal failure and is present in 30% of patients. Early presentation of menopause and andropause are common in patients with CRF. Sexual hormonal replacement is controversial and must be individually tailored. We propose a systematic screening in the elderly with CRF: determination of TSH, TPO antibodies and cervical palpation, measures of PRL, LH, FSH and testosterone to explore lactotrope and gonadotrope axis. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural basis of alpha-amylase activation by chloride
Aghajari, N.; Feller, Georges ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2002), 11(6), 1435-1441

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism ... [more ▼]

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 Angstrom, as well as the structure of the mutants Lys300Gln (2.5 Angstrom) and Lys300Arg (2.25 Angstrom). Nitrate binds strongly to alpha-amylase but is a weak activator. Mutation of the critical chloride ligand Lys300 into Gln results in a chloride-independent enzyme, whereas the mutation into Arg mimics the binding site as is found in animal alpha-amylases with, however, a lower affinity for chloride. These structures reveal that the triangular conformation of the chloride ligands and the nearly equatorial coordination allow the perfect accommodation of planar trigonal monovalent anions such as NO3-, explaining their unusual strong binding. It is also shown that a localized negative charge such as that of Cl-, rather than a delocalized charge as in the case of nitrate, is essential for maximal activation. The chloride-free mutant Lys300Gln indicates that chloride is not mandatory for the catalytic mechanism but strongly increases the reactivity at the active site. Disappearance of the putative catalytic water molecule in this weakly active mutant supports the view that chloride helps to polarize the hydrolytic water molecule and enhances the rate of the second step in the catalytic reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of sexual genotype on the behaviour of females (genotype WZ) and pseudofemales (genotype ZZ) in the tilapia Oreochromis aureus
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Desprez, Damien; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquatic Living Resources (2002), 15(3), 163-167

17alpha-ethynylestradiol sex-reversed males of Oreochromis aureus (pseudofemales, DeltaF, genotype ZZ) are used in aquaculture to produce a male monosex population by crossing with ZZ homogametic normal ... [more ▼]

17alpha-ethynylestradiol sex-reversed males of Oreochromis aureus (pseudofemales, DeltaF, genotype ZZ) are used in aquaculture to produce a male monosex population by crossing with ZZ homogametic normal males. When placed with males (M) and females (F) in the same spawning tank, the spawning rate of F is higher than for DeltaF. In order to understand this phenomenon, comparisons were made between the behaviour of 18 F (446 +/- 96 mm) and 18 DeltaF (401 +/- 59 mm). DeltaF showed a more aggressive behaviour and were significantly more dominant than normal F in fighting pair experiments (F x DeltaF) or in fighting group experiments in four different stocking densities (8, 12, 16 and 83 fish 10(-3) l with F/DeltaF ratio = 1). DeltaF were also more aggressive towards males than F were. The results support the idea that behavioural differences exist between F and DeltaF These differences are probably due to the effect of the sexual genotype on behaviour. (C) 2002 Ifremer/CNRS/Inra/IRD/Cemagref/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHolographic interferometers based on photorefractive crystals for vibration measurements
Georges, Marc ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Ryhon, Sébastien et al

Conference (2002, June)

Photorefractive crystals offer many advantages over other classical holographic recording media. They allow fast in-situ processable holographic recording as well as indefinite reusability. Moreover high ... [more ▼]

Photorefractive crystals offer many advantages over other classical holographic recording media. They allow fast in-situ processable holographic recording as well as indefinite reusability. Moreover high signal-to-noise ratio can be reached as well as high resolutions. We present several types of holographic instruments using such materials. Here we will emphasize their applications in vibration measurements. A first one is based on the classical stroboscopic technique, a second one uses a pulsed laser. [less ▲]

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See detailOvarian endometriosis and peritoneal endometriosis: are they different entities from a fertility perspective?
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2002), 14(3), 283-288

This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its natural evolution. Indeed, the main concern in endometriosis is the choice of ... [more ▼]

This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its natural evolution. Indeed, the main concern in endometriosis is the choice of treatment in cases of infertility problems: medical or surgical. This concern could hypothetically be avoided if endometriosis were considered as a spontaneously regressive phenomenon. The present paper also discusses the risk of recurrence and the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in cases of ovarian endometriosis. Whatever type of surgery is performed, the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer are not impaired, especially if damage to the ovarian cortex is avoided. Further studies are required to determine if oocytes from endometriosis patients are altered and could be responsible for the development of lower quality embryos. [less ▲]

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See detailEpimerization study on [18F]FDG produced by an alkaline hydrolysis on solid support under stringent conditions
Mosdzianowski, C.; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Simoens, F. et al

in Applied Radiation & Isotopes (2002), 56(6), 871-875

Since 1998, routine [18F]FDG syntheses are being carried out by alkaline hydrolysis on a solid support, i.e. the labeled intermediate is trapped on a tC18 solid phase extraction cartridge, purified and ... [more ▼]

Since 1998, routine [18F]FDG syntheses are being carried out by alkaline hydrolysis on a solid support, i.e. the labeled intermediate is trapped on a tC18 solid phase extraction cartridge, purified and finally hydrolyzed within the cartridge, at room temperature, using sodium hydroxide. The present study demonstrated that no epimerization of [18F]FDG to [18F]FDM occurs even when 12 N NaOH is used and when the hydrolysis time is extended up to 1 h. The alkaline hydrolysis on solid support appears to be a simple method leading to [18F]FDG with high purity. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Desinsertion d'anneau mitral prothetique dans les suites d'une plastie mitrale
Nellessen, Eric ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Yans, T. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 361-2

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See detailThe GENIE nulling experiment
Absil, Olivier ULg; Gondoin, Ph; den Hartog, R. et al

in Combes, F. (Ed.) SF2A-2002: Semaine de l'Astrophysique Francaise (2002, June)

Within the frame of the Darwin program, the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) intend to build a ground-based technology demonstrator called Darwin-GENIE, using the Very ... [more ▼]

Within the frame of the Darwin program, the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) intend to build a ground-based technology demonstrator called Darwin-GENIE, using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The main objective of GENIE is to gain experience in the manufacture and operation of a nulling interferometer representative of the ESA IRSI-Darwin space mission. GENIE will prepare the Darwin science programme through a systematic search for exo-zodiacal dust clouds around Darwin candidate targets. GENIE also aims to perform Darwin related science including the detection of low-mass companions (if possible, hot Jupiters) around nearby stars. The prospective performances of some candidate configurations are presented in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recherche en matière de faillite d’entreprise : un état de sa situation et de ses perspectives d'avenir
Van Caillie, Didier ULg; Dighaye, Andrée

Conference (2002, June)

This paper proposes a state-of-the-art of the research on business failure and discusses some promising avenues for research and evolution perspectives.

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See detailL'évolution de l'activité de contrôle de gestion en contexte PME : une focalisation sur le suivi des marges et le pilotage du changement
Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in Working Paper du CEPE (2002, June), 2002(01),

L'activité de contrôle de gestion menée en contexte PME est aujourd'hui devenue véritablement bicéphale, intégrant à la fois un contrôle de gestion opérationnel dominé par la volonté de maîtrise à court ... [more ▼]

L'activité de contrôle de gestion menée en contexte PME est aujourd'hui devenue véritablement bicéphale, intégrant à la fois un contrôle de gestion opérationnel dominé par la volonté de maîtrise à court terme des coûts et surtout des marges qui traversent la vie quotidienne de l'entreprise au travers de toutes ses activités et un contrôle de gestion stratégique dominé par la volonté de permettre le pilotage effectif du changement dans l'entreprise, changement lui-même issu de l'impérieuse nécessité de continuellement adapter chaque PME aux nouvelles contraintes et opportunités offertes par son environnement. [less ▲]

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