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See detailMechanical based circular notch hinge design
Merken, Patrick; Smal, Olivier; Debongnie, Jean-François ULg et al

Report (2007)

At the microscale, classical bearings such as ball bearings, sliding bearings and other pivots may be difficult to manufacture. Among all possible solutions to replace them, the notch hinge seems to be ... [more ▼]

At the microscale, classical bearings such as ball bearings, sliding bearings and other pivots may be difficult to manufacture. Among all possible solutions to replace them, the notch hinge seems to be very attractive through its many advantages. The major limitation is on the rotation angle. This paper presents a new simplified analytical model for the prediction of the maximum angular displacement and the angular stiffness of a notch hinge. To validate our model, an experimental set-up has been developed. Finally, the results are compared to other theories. [less ▲]

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See detailActualites therapeutiques en diabetologie
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Philips, J. C.; Radermecker, Régis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6, May-Jun), 317-23

The recent epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the recognition that achieving specific glycemic goals can reduce morbidity have made the effective treatment of hyperglycemia a priority. The new therapeutic ... [more ▼]

The recent epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the recognition that achieving specific glycemic goals can reduce morbidity have made the effective treatment of hyperglycemia a priority. The new therapeutic agents and the development of algorithms for the adjustment of therapy might contribute to an improved management of the disease. Moreover, type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with other co-morbidities (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, prothrombotic state). The appropriate management of patients with type 2 diabetes requires a global approach targeting each risk factor in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This challenge represents a major public health issue. In type 1 diabetes patients, intensive therapy such as in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) has been shown to obtain long-term beneficial effects on the reduction of the risk of progressive retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy and of the risk of cardiovascular disease. This benefit reinforces the original DCCT message that intensive therapy should be implemented as early as possible in people with type 1 diabetes. The recent development of new insulin analogues and the technical improvements of portable insulin pumps might contribute to obtain such a better metabolic control. [less ▲]

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See detailActualites therapeutiques en gynecologie: pathologies organiques
HERMAN, Philippe ULg; Lifrange, Eric ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(5-6, May-Jun), 414-22

Over the last ten years, progress in evidence-based medicine coupled with technological and surgical breakthroughs have deeply changed the management of our patients. Uterine bleeding is the first cause ... [more ▼]

Over the last ten years, progress in evidence-based medicine coupled with technological and surgical breakthroughs have deeply changed the management of our patients. Uterine bleeding is the first cause of gynaecological consultation and the intrauterine progestin delivery system as well as new hysteroscopic procedures have optimized the therapeutic approach to this problem. Introduction of magnetic resonance imaging and interventional procedures have improved breast disease diagnosis and management; likewise sentinel node localization, introduction of aromatase and growth factors inhibitors, new radiotherapy procedures and pharmacogenomics, have helped to ameliorate breast cancer treatment. Pelvic surgery has been switching more and more towards laparoscopic procedures not only in the field of benign lesions (eg endometriosis), of surgery of prolapse and incontinence with new prosthetic materials, but also for an improved management of gynaecological cancers. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation between Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin's lymphoma in Belgium: A pathological and virological study
Trimeche, M.; Bonnet, Christophe ULg; Korbi, S. et al

in Leukemia & Lymphoma (2007), 48(7), 1323-1331

The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) varies according to the geographic location. In this work we sought to characterize EBV involvement in a series of ... [more ▼]

The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) varies according to the geographic location. In this work we sought to characterize EBV involvement in a series of 111 cHL cases diagnosed in Belgium. The overall prevalence of EBV infection detected by in situ hybridization in Reed-Sternberg cells was 33%. EBV positivity correlated with older age at diagnosis (454 years; p = 0.01), mixed cellularity subtype (p = 0.000001), male gender (p = 0.004) and tended to be associated with higher clinical stage (III/IV; p = 0.02). The molecular features of the virus in EBV-positive cHL were studied by comparison with a series of reactive tonsils. A 30-bp deletion within the LMP-1 gene was in 15/28 (53.6%) EBV-positive cHL cases, and in 41.7% of reactive tonsil samples. This variant did not correlate with any clinical or pathological feature. The EBV strain was type A in all cHL and reactive samples. [less ▲]

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See detailBistouri ultracision en chirurgie thyroïdienne
COIMBRA MARQUES, Carla ULg; Defechereux, thierry; Meurisse, Nicolas ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62 Spec No

The thyroid gland is highly vascularized and, in all Thyroid surgery, a special attention must be paid to haemos. tasis and coagulation. Any carelessness in the control of thyroid vessels can indeed ... [more ▼]

The thyroid gland is highly vascularized and, in all Thyroid surgery, a special attention must be paid to haemos. tasis and coagulation. Any carelessness in the control of thyroid vessels can indeed entail serious consequences. In this respect, the ultrasonic scalpel represents a significant progress. In this paper, the ultrasonic dissector will first be presented. Then a prospective, randomized trial comparing the results obtained with this apparatus to those obtained with the conventional method of hemostasis in a series of 34 patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter will be summarized. Without increasing the costs, the ultrasonic dissector allows a saving of operative time as well as a reduction of peroperative bleeding and of postoperative use of antalgics. Finally, the results of 1696 total thyroidectomies performed with the use of the ultrasonic dissector will be briefly outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Perspectives on the Black Atlantic: Scientific Report
Cuder-Dominguez, Pilar; Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

Report (2007)

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See detailCatamenial Pneumothorax: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Pappalardo, E.; LAUNGANI, Alexis ULg; DURIEUX, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2007), 107(6, Nov-Dec), 695-6

Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare condition that is often misdiagnosed. It is defined as spontaneous pneumothorax occuring within 72 hours before or after onset of menstruation. Etiology is unknown but ... [more ▼]

Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare condition that is often misdiagnosed. It is defined as spontaneous pneumothorax occuring within 72 hours before or after onset of menstruation. Etiology is unknown but could be linked to endometriosis. Treatment is medicosurgical: thoracoscopy for pleural abrasion and hormonotherapy to avoid recurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of cross-field pitting in fresh, dried and charcoalified softwoods
Gerards, Thomas ULg; Damblon, Freddy ULg; Wauthoz, B. et al

in Iawa Journal (2007), 28(1), 49-60

Cross-field pitting is one of the most reliable characters for softwood identifi cation. During charcoalification, a range of severe qualitative and quantitative modifications may occur in cross-field ... [more ▼]

Cross-field pitting is one of the most reliable characters for softwood identifi cation. During charcoalification, a range of severe qualitative and quantitative modifications may occur in cross-field pitting. As most fossil or archaeological wood remains are preserved as charcoal (fusain), the question arises whether these modifications hamper the accurate identification of some taxa. This work is a systematic biometric study of a wide range of gymnosperm cross-field pitting after experimental charcoalification. We focused on the window-like, piceoid, taxodioid, cupressoid, araucarioid and podocarpoid cross-field pitting types. Our main results are the following: 1) Cross-field pits of wood specimens dried out before charcoalification are hidden by a thin closing wall; in this case, it is often impossible to discriminate between the various types of cross-field pitting. 2) Piceoid cross-field pitting becomes taxodioid-like after charcoalification. 3) Biometric study of charred softwood cross-field pitting dimensions shows that the ratios between height and width of pit aperture and border allow us to distinguish and characterise four types of pitting (window-like, piceoid, taxodioid, cupressoid + araucarioid + podocarpoid [= CAP]). The discrimination within the CAP type requires further investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailGeophysical validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data
Cortesi, U.; Lambert, J. C.; De Clercq, C. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2007), 7(18), 4807-4867

The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), on-board the European ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT) launched on 1 March 2002, is a middle infrared Fourier Transform spectrometer ... [more ▼]

The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), on-board the European ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT) launched on 1 March 2002, is a middle infrared Fourier Transform spectrometer measuring the atmospheric emission spectrum in limb sounding geometry. The instrument is capable to retrieve the vertical distribution of temperature and trace gases, aiming at the study of climate and atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and at applications to data assimilation and weather forecasting. MIPAS operated in its standard observation mode for approximately two years, from July 2002 to March 2004, with scans performed at nominal spectral resolution of 0.025 cm(-1) and covering the altitude range from the mesosphere to the upper troposphere with relatively high vertical resolution (about 3 km in the stratosphere). Only reduced spectral resolution measurements have been performed subsequently. MIPAS data were re-processed by ESA using updated versions of the Instrument Processing Facility (IPF v4.61 and v4.62) and provided a complete set of level-2 operational products (geo-located vertical profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratio of H2O, O-3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2) with quasi continuous and global coverage in the period of MIPAS full spectral resolution mission. In this paper, we report a detailed description of the validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data, that was based on the comparison between MIPAS v4.61 (and, to a lesser extent, v4.62) O-3 VMR profiles and a comprehensive set of correlative data, including observations from ozone sondes, ground-based lidar, FTIR and microwave radiometers, remote-sensing and in situ instruments on-board stratospheric aircraft and balloons, concurrent satellite sensors and ozone fields assimilated by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting. A coordinated effort was carried out, using common criteria for the selection of individual validation data sets, and similar methods for the comparisons. This enabled merging the individual results from a variety of independent reference measurements of proven quality (i.e. well characterized error budget) into an overall evaluation of MIPAS O-3 data quality, having both statistical strength and the widest spatial and temporal coverage. Collocated measurements from ozone sondes and ground-based lidar and microwave radiometers of the Network for the Detection Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) were selected to carry out comparisons with time series of MIPAS O-3 partial columns and to identify groups of stations and time periods with a uniform pattern of ozone differences, that were subsequently used for a vertically resolved statistical analysis. The results of the comparison are classified according to synoptic and regional systems and to altitude intervals, showing a generally good agreement within the comparison error bars in the upper and middle stratosphere. Significant differences emerge in the lower stratosphere and are only partly explained by the larger contributions of horizontal and vertical smoothing differences and of collocation errors to the total uncertainty. Further results obtained from a purely statistical analysis of the same data set from NDACC ground-based lidar stations, as well as from additional ozone soundings at middle latitudes and from NDACC ground-based FTIR measurements, confirm the validity of MIPAS O-3 profiles down to the lower stratosphere, with evidence of larger discrepancies at the lowest altitudes. The validation against O-3 VMR profiles using collocated observations performed by other satellite sensors (SAGE II, POAM III, ODIN-SMR, ACE-FTS, HALOE, GOME) and ECMWF assimilated ozone fields leads to consistent results, that are to a great extent compatible with those obtained from the comparison with ground-based measurements. Excellent agreement in the full vertical range of the comparison is shown with respect to collocated ozone data from stratospheric aircraft and balloon instruments, that was mostly obtained in very good spatial and temporal coincidence with MIPAS scans. This might suggest that the larger differences observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere with respect to collocated ground-based and satellite O-3 data are only partly due to a degradation of MIPAS data quality. They should be rather largely ascribed to the natural variability of these altitude regions and to other components of the comparison errors. By combining the results of this large number of validation data sets we derived a general assessment of MIPAS v4.61 and v4.62 ozone data quality. A clear indication of the validity of MIPAS O-3 vertical profiles is obtained for most of the stratosphere, where the mean relative difference with the individual correlative data sets is always lower than +/- 10%. Furthermore, these differences always fall within the combined systematic error (from 1 hPa to 50 hPa) and the standard deviation is fully consistent with the random error of the comparison (from 1 hPa to similar to 30-40 hPa). A degradation in the quality of the agreement is generally observed in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, with biases up to 25% at 100 hPa and standard deviation of the global mean differences up to three times larger than the combined random error in the range 50-100 hPa. The larger differences observed at the bottom end of MIPAS retrieved profiles can be associated, as already noticed, to the effects of stronger atmospheric gradients in the UTLS that are perceived differently by the various measurement techniques. However, further components that may degrade the results of the comparison at lower altitudes can be identified as potentially including cloud contamination, which is likely not to have been fully filtered using the current settings of the MIPAS cloud detection algorithm, and in the linear approximation of the forward model that was used for the a priori estimate of systematic error components. The latter, when affecting systematic contributions with a random variability over the spatial and temporal scales of global averages, might result in an underestimation of the random error of the comparison and add up to other error sources, such as the possible underestimates of the p and T error propagation based on the assumption of a 1 K and 2% uncertainties, respectively, on MIPAS temperature and pressure retrievals. At pressure lower than 1 hPa, only a small fraction of the selected validation data set provides correlative ozone data of adequate quality and it is difficult to derive quantitative conclusions about the performance of MIPAS O-3 retrieval for the topmost layers. [less ▲]

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See detailLe traitement du diabète de type 2: entre insulinosensibilisateurs et insulinosécrétagogues
Scheen, A. J.; Radermecker, R. P.; Philips, J. C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62 Spec No

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease characterized by a dual defect of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, which may vary from patient to patient, but also along the natural history of the disease ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease characterized by a dual defect of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, which may vary from patient to patient, but also along the natural history of the disease in a particular patient. Besides the lifestyle changes, the treatment strategy comprises the administration of agents that promote insulin secretion and/or that improve insulin sensitivity. Drugs facilitating weight loss also improve glucose control by reducing insulin resistance. A global approach should be recommended to reduce the high cardiovascular risk of diabetic patients. The present article aims at summarizing our contribution to the development of drugs designed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Pneumothorax catamenial: a propos d'un cas
Kolan, Christophe ULg; Massin, Yannick ULg; Giner, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(7-8, Jul-Aug), 487-91

Catamenial pneumothorax is an unusual and rarely recognized entity that belongs to the thoracic endometriosis syndrome. The increase a number of published cases over the last years allows a more frequent ... [more ▼]

Catamenial pneumothorax is an unusual and rarely recognized entity that belongs to the thoracic endometriosis syndrome. The increase a number of published cases over the last years allows a more frequent diagnosis and understanding. We describe the story of a young woman with a recurrent right sided pneumothorax and discuss the different pathogenic mechanisms and current therapies. The rarity of the disease makes a prospective study very difficult. To this day, there is no consensus on a standardized therapeutic attitude. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a mass spectrometry method for the determination of a melanoma biomarker, 5-S-cysteinyldopa, in human plasma using solid phase extraction for sample clean-up.
Martin, Gaëlle ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2007), 1156(1-2), 141-8

5-S-cysteinyldopa is a well-known pigment intermediate and analysis of its plasma concentration is interesting for the early diagnosis, as well as for evaluation of treatment and follow-up of malignant ... [more ▼]

5-S-cysteinyldopa is a well-known pigment intermediate and analysis of its plasma concentration is interesting for the early diagnosis, as well as for evaluation of treatment and follow-up of malignant melanoma. A determination method of 5-SCD in human plasma was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) on disposable cartridges and liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Compound's sensitivity to light and oxidation requires the addition of anti-oxidative agents (AO), to work in acidic media at 4 degrees C and to avoid light exposure of samples since blood collection. Different solid phases involving covalent binding to phenylboronic groups or dual retention mechanisms were evaluated and extraction cartridges containing both hydrophobic and strong cation exchange functionalities were finally selected. The LC separation of 5-SCD from endogenous catecholamines was achieved by gradient elution on a C18 stationary phase. 5-SCD was detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) performed on ES(+) generated ions. Finally, the method was prevalidated in the lower ng/ml range. Good results with respect to accuracy, trueness and precision were obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailRecensement exhaustif des activités hydro-agricoles du Bassin du Kou
Wellens, Joost ULg; Sawadogo, Idrissa; Diallo, Mamadou et al

Report (2007)

En Mai 2007, un recensement hydro-agricole du bassin du Kou a été organisé par le projet et l’AEDE, et effectué par les agents de la Direction Provinciale de l’Agriculture, de l’Hydraulique et des ... [more ▼]

En Mai 2007, un recensement hydro-agricole du bassin du Kou a été organisé par le projet et l’AEDE, et effectué par les agents de la Direction Provinciale de l’Agriculture, de l’Hydraulique et des Ressources Halieutiques. Les compétences en appui-conseil sur le terrain de la DPAHRH-Houet ainsi que la confiance dont profitent ses encadreurs dans le milieu agricole étaient indispensables pour le bon déroulement des enquêtes. L’AEDE et le projet ont assumé les besoins en formation et en matériel au niveau de la DPAHRH. Le traitement des enquêtes a été fait par le projet, les résultats et la base de données résultante ont été restitués au niveau de l’administration. Pour les différentes zones agricoles du bassin du Kou, les données suivantes ont été recensées par exploitant : données d’identification & coordonnées (GPS) ; données de cultures : superficie, calendrier, ... ; points d’exhaure : prise en rivière, puisard, ... ; caractéristiques du moyen d’exhaure ; calendrier d’irrigation ; caractéristiques du puisard & coordonnées GPS. Plus de 1.200 exploitants et groupements ont été identifiés dans les 11 différentes zones agricoles. Une base de données a été élaborée à partir de ces enquêtes. Les cartes suivantes ont été établies : occupations agricoles du bassin du Kou ; utilisation des eaux de surface vs. eaux souterraines ; moyens d’exhaure ; efficiences en irrigation ; positionnement par rapport aux berges. Les superficies potentielles irrigables sont déjà atteintes dans certaines régions, mais l’expansion est loin d’être freinée. Le grand enjeu pour le développement de l’irrigation se situe dans la gestion de la ressource en eau. La sensibilisation des agriculteurs sur les bonnes pratiques de l’irrigation permettrait de limiter les pertes lors de l’application de l’eau sur les parcelles et de réduire les inégalités d’accès à la ressource qui existent entre les utilisateurs situés en amont et en aval du cours d’eau. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovations technologiques en radiothérapie-oncologie
Coucke, Philippe ULg; Louis, Céline ULg; Bolle, Stéphanie

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62 (5-6)

InnovatIve technologIes In radIatIon oncology SUMMARY : At present, radiation oncology is again flourishing thanks to the development of highly accurate techniques as intensity modulated radiation therapy ... [more ▼]

InnovatIve technologIes In radIatIon oncology SUMMARY : At present, radiation oncology is again flourishing thanks to the development of highly accurate techniques as intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy and hadrontherapy. These therapeutic modalities are made possible by the advent of image guided radiation therapy and respiratory gating that allows a better patient repositioning during the irradiation and between fractions. Nowadays, thanks to these recent technological advances, one can more easily conceive dose escalation, hypofractionation and combined treatment of radiation with sensitizing drugs and this together with a better protection of normal tissue aiming at, simultaneously, improved tumour control and better quality of life. This article describes these innovative technologies that, when integrated to other anti-tumoral therapeutic modalities, seem to be very promising. Keywords : - [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent approaches to measure environmental odours emitted by landfill areas
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Delva, Julien ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2007)

This paper presents different methods to assess the odour emission and the odour annoyance in the surroundings. It is shown, on the example of landfill areas and composting facilities, that chemical ... [more ▼]

This paper presents different methods to assess the odour emission and the odour annoyance in the surroundings. It is shown, on the example of landfill areas and composting facilities, that chemical analyses are helpful to identify key compounds of the odour release, and to set up the specification of a monitoring instrument. Sensitive methods, like dynamic olfactometry or sniffing team investigation, are mainly applicable to provide a global odour plume or an average annoyance zone. And the electronic nose can supply a warning signal to the plant manager or a real time estimation of the annoyance zone. [less ▲]

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See detailA Reputation-Based Approach for Securing Vivaldi Embedding System
Saucez, Damien; Donnet, Benoît ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier

in 13th Conference on Dependable and Adaptable Networks and Services (2007)

Many large-scale Internet applications optimize their overlay network to reduce latencies. Embedding coordinate systems like Vivaldi are valuable tools for this new range of applications since they ... [more ▼]

Many large-scale Internet applications optimize their overlay network to reduce latencies. Embedding coordinate systems like Vivaldi are valuable tools for this new range of applications since they propose light-weight algorithms that permit to estimate the latency between any pair of nodes without having to contact them first. It has been recently demonstrated that coordinate systems in general and Vivaldi in particular are sensible to attacks. Typically, nodes can lie about their coordinate and distort the coordinate space. In this paper, we propose a formal reputation model to detect misbehaving nodes and propose a reputation adaptation of Vivaldi called RVivaldi. We evaluate the performance of RVivaldi using the King dataset and show that RVivaldi is less sensitive to malicious nodes than Vivaldi. [less ▲]

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