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See detailAperçu du régime alimentaire du Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) dans les eaux intérieures du Pas-de-Calais (France)
Libois, Roland ULg

in Aves (2001), 38(2), 49-59

The stomach contents of 40 great cormorants shot during "regulation" operations in the Pas-de-Calais have been analysed. Eight stomachs were empty and 426 fishes belonging to 15 species were recovered in ... [more ▼]

The stomach contents of 40 great cormorants shot during "regulation" operations in the Pas-de-Calais have been analysed. Eight stomachs were empty and 426 fishes belonging to 15 species were recovered in the others. The dominant prey is the roach. Other regular prey are the common bream and the perch. Other fish (Salmonids, pike, pikeperch, ruffe, rudd, lamprey) appear in less than 5 stomachs. Most of the prey are small sized fish, less than 12 cm (total length). The biomass of 80% of the preys is less than 20g. However, the role of the greater fish in the diet must be emphasized: those weighing more than 200g (1% in numbers) reprensent 20% of the ingested biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro tubulogenesis of endothelial cells by relaxation of the coupling extracellular matrix-cytoskeleton.
Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Lapiere, C. M.; Nusgens, Betty ULg

in Cardiovascular Research (2001), 49(3), 647-58

OBJECTIVE: This investigation aimed at determining the importance of the rigidity of the adhesive support and the participation of the cytoskeleton in tubulogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. METHODS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This investigation aimed at determining the importance of the rigidity of the adhesive support and the participation of the cytoskeleton in tubulogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. METHODS: The morphotype, biosynthetic phenotype and cytoskeleton organization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were analyzed on supports of variable mechanical resistance. RESULTS: Western blot analysis revealed a strong reduction of the expression of actin and focal-adhesion plaque (FAP) proteins in HUVEC organized in tube-like structures (TLS) on soft matrigel or on matrigel co-polymerized with heat-denatured collagen as compared to HUVEC remaining in a monolayer pattern on rigid matrigel-coat or on matrigel co-polymerized with type I collagen. Human skin fibroblasts morphotype was not altered in these culture conditions and the pattern of FAP proteins and actin was not modulated. By using polyacrylamide gels polymerized with various concentrations of bis-acrylamide to modulate the mechanical resistance of the support and cross-linked to a constant amount of gelatin to provide an equal density of attachment sites, it was shown that the less rigid the support, the more endothelial cells switched to a tube-like pattern. Collagen type I-induced tubulogenesis was accompanied by a profound and reversible remodeling of the actin-FAP complex suggesting a weakening of the bridging between extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoskeleton. Human skin fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, used as control cells, adhered strongly to the collagen, did not form TLS and their network of actin stress fibers was not remodeled. The inhibition of collagen type I-induced tubulogenesis by agents altering the actin cytoskeleton-FAP complex including calpain type I inhibitor, orthovanadate, KT5720 and jasplakinolide, further supports the determinant role of mechanical coupling between the cells and the matrix in tubulogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: A reduced tension between the endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix, originating in the support or within the cells is sufficient to trigger an intracellular signaling cascade leading to tubulogenesis, an event mimicking one of the last steps of angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detail33 RENO: A European surveillance registry of coronary brachytherapy with the NovosteTM Beta-CathTM System
Coen, V.; Sauerwein; Orrechia et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2001), 60(supp 1), 12

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See detailRegime alimentaire du Grand-Duc du désert, Bubo ascalaphus, dans la réserve naturelle de Mergueb (M'Sila, Algérie)
Biche, Mohamed; Sellami, Medhi; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Alauda (2001), 69(4), 554-557

The diet of Bubo ascalaphus was studied in a steppe at the Mergueb nature reserve. The analysis of 141 pellets indicated that mammals were most abundant (89 %). The most frequent prey, on a numerical ... [more ▼]

The diet of Bubo ascalaphus was studied in a steppe at the Mergueb nature reserve. The analysis of 141 pellets indicated that mammals were most abundant (89 %). The most frequent prey, on a numerical basis (82 %) as well as in term of biomass (96 %) was Meriones shawi trouessarti (Gerbillidae). Other preys included Jaculus orientalis (Dipodidae), and two insectivores: Crocidura russula and Hemiechinus aethiopicus. Among the avifauna, only the Spanish sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis) was a significant part of the Eagle owl dietn especially in spring. Arthropods were represented by Scarabeidae in spring and Scorpionidae in summer but they played a minor role in the food of the Eagle owl. The originality of this diet lies in the absence of Brown hare (Lepus capensis) and the presence of only one specimen of the desert hedgehog. Although its food spectrum was very narrow in this site, the Eagle owl can be regarded as opportunistic as it concentrated on the most available prey: Meriones shawi. [less ▲]

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See detailGénéralisation de l'apprentissage d'une langue moderne à l'école primaire ; première analyse de la situation
Straeten, M.; Blondin, Christiane ULg

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 19

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See detailDiblock polyampholytes at the silicon/water interface: adsorption at various modified silicon substrates
Mahltig, Boris; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Stamm, Manfred

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2001), 3(19), 4371-4375

The adsorption behaviour of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, was investigated on differently prepared silicon surfaces ... [more ▼]

The adsorption behaviour of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, was investigated on differently prepared silicon surfaces. All adsorption experiments were performed from aqueous solutions as a function of pH. The polyampholyte amount adsorbed was determined ellipsometrically, while the topographies of the adsorbed polymer were investigated using scanning force microscopy (SFM). Three polyampholyte systems with similar molecular weight around 60000 g mol–1 and different block ratios were adsorbed on three different types of silicon substrates. Depending on the pretreatment the silicon substrates contained different isoelectric points (IEP) and hydrophobicity. The adsorbed amount, as a function of pH, was characterized by maxima and minima near the IEP of the polyampholytes. In the case of polyampholytes containing an IEP close to the IEP of the silicon substrates, the nature of the substrate strongly influenced the adsorption behaviour. Even a complete erasure of one adsorption maximum could be observed in some cases. In contrast to this, polyampholytes with an IEP in a pH area far away from the IEP of the substrates adsorbed in a quite similar manner on the different substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailA learning algorithm for synfire chains
Sougné, Jacques ULg

in French, R. (Ed.) Connectionist models of learning : Development and Evolution (2001)

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See detailA New Design of Equilibrator to Monitor Carbon Dioxide in Highly Dynamic and Turbid Environments
Frankignoulle, M.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Biondo, Renzo ULg

in Water Research (2001), 35(5), 1344-7

A new design of equilibrator for carbon dioxide monitoring in natural waters is described. It consists in a vertical tube filled with marbles through which water is flowing while equilibrating with a ... [more ▼]

A new design of equilibrator for carbon dioxide monitoring in natural waters is described. It consists in a vertical tube filled with marbles through which water is flowing while equilibrating with a closed air circuit. It offers several advantages compared with classical equilibrators, among which is a fast response time (half-life constant approximately 30 s) and the potential to work in very turbid water. The proposed equilibrator is of particular interest to monitor carbon dioxide in coastal ecosystems, such as estuaries, which are known to be turbid and highly dynamic. Two performance tests and some field results are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed system. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial Intestinal Flora Associated with Enterotoxaemia in Belgian Blue Calves
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Pirson, Vincianne et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 81(1), 1-12

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of ... [more ▼]

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of other clinical signs but its cause has not been yet identified. As a first step in this identification, the aerobic and anaerobic intestinal flora of a population of 78 calves, originating from farms located in southern Belgium and that died in circumstances defined as "calf enterotoxaemia" (study population) and of 64 calves that died in other circumstances (control population) were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. The colonies were identified after subcultures with appropriate API sugar sets. Anaerobically Clostridium perfringens was isolated in higher numbers (mean values of 10(7)-10(7.5) colony forming units (CFU) versus 10(4)-10(5) CFU per ml of intestinal content) and from more animals (79 versus 19%) in the study population than in the control population, although individual results from both populations could overlap. Other clostridial species, i.e. mainly urease-negative C. sordellii and C. bifermentans, were isolated in high numbers (>10(6) CFU per ml of intestinal content) from a few animals in the study population only. All but one of the 705 C. perfringens isolates from both populations belonged to the A toxin type and none of the urease-negative C. sordellii was toxigenic. Gram-negative anaerobes were not isolated in high numbers from any of the samples. Aerobically beta-haemolytic E. coli were significantly more frequent among the study population, but were isolated from only 25% of the animals. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from only two animals in the study population. Less than 1% of the E. coli isolated were verotoxigenic and one-third were necrotoxigenic. At this stage only non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens are thus statistically associated with the enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves and fulfil the first of the Koch's postulates. [less ▲]

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See detailDes outils pour évaluer les compétences transversales
Hubert, Sylviane; Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Le point sur la recherche en éducation en Communauté française : actes du 1er congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Bruxelles, 24-25 mai 2000 (2001)

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See detailLe dispositif d'évaluation externe en Communauté française de Belgique
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 195-218

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See detailLe projet Mohican-Check up : quelles connaissances chez les étudiants entrant à l'université ?
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Georges, François ULg; Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Le point sur la recherche en éducation en Communauté française : actes du 1er congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Bruxelles, 24-25 mai 2000 (2001)

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See detailL'impact de la readaptation cardiaque sur la qualite de vie apres un pontage aorto-coronaire : Une etude belge
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg; Dupuis, Gilles et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2001), 6(2), 15-25

The aim of this study was to measure the quality of life of coronary artery bypass surgery patients enrolled or not in a rehabilitation program. The study was prospective and longitudinal and used ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to measure the quality of life of coronary artery bypass surgery patients enrolled or not in a rehabilitation program. The study was prospective and longitudinal and used patients’ self selection as the allocation strategy to constitute the two groups: rehabilitation and no-rehabilitation. Forty first coronary bypass surgery patients (38 men and 2 women, mean age 59 +/-8) were recruited from four hospitals in a French area of Belgium. Patients were evaluated before and after surgery with: the Quality of Life Systemic Inventory (QLSI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Anxiety Inventory, a somatic symptoms questionnaire, a physical activities questionnaire, and a medical questionnaire. Both groups improved on the QLSI global score of quality of life, but the effect size (eta squared) was greater in the rehab group (0.5) compared to the no rehab group (0.25) [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of varicella zoster virus immediate-early proteins in latency and their potential use as components of vaccines
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Gershon, A. A.; Calisher, C. H.; Arvin, A. M. (Eds.) Immunity to and Prevention of Herpes Zoster (2001)

Varicella zoster virus immediate-early (IE) proteins are intracellular regulators of viral gene expression. Some of them (IE62 and IE63) are found in large amounts in infected cells but are also ... [more ▼]

Varicella zoster virus immediate-early (IE) proteins are intracellular regulators of viral gene expression. Some of them (IE62 and IE63) are found in large amounts in infected cells but are also components of the virion tegument. Several IE and early genes are transcribed during latency, while late genes are not. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of protein IE 63 in dorsal root ganglia of persistently infected rats as well as in normal human ganglia; other IE proteins have been found since in human ganglia. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to IE 62 has been evidenced. We found both humoral immunity and CMI to IE 63 in immune adults. In elderly zoster-free individuals, CMI to IE 63 remained high. The differences in the CMI to IE 63 among young adults, elderly people and immunocompromized patients have to be analyzed according to their status relative to zoster, to determine whether the decrease in CMI, particularly to IE proteins, could be responsible for viral reactivation and for the onset of shingles. Hopefully, the waning of the CMI to VZV IE 63 and perhaps to other IE proteins could become a predictive marker for herpes zoster and reimmunization, not only with the vaccine strain, but also with purified IE proteins could help prevent zoster at old age. [less ▲]

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See detailPleiotropic Mutants Hypersensitive to Heavy Metals and to Oxidative Stress in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii
Hanikenne, Marc ULg; Matagne, René F.; Loppes, Roland ULg

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2001), 196(2),

Insertional mutagenesis was used in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to isolate original mutants hypersensitive to multiple drugs and physical agents. Out of 5200 transformants analyzed, 13 mutants belonging to ... [more ▼]

Insertional mutagenesis was used in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to isolate original mutants hypersensitive to multiple drugs and physical agents. Out of 5200 transformants analyzed, 13 mutants belonging to seven phenotypic classes were isolated. Five were exclusively sensitive to cadmium and represented two loci. The other mutants were pleiotropic and presented a cross sensitivity to several (2--6) of the following agents: cadmium, copper, lead, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, UVC and light. In all mutants analyzed, the hypersensitive phenotype was most probably due to a single mutational event. The sensitivity of several pleiotropic mutants to a broad range of physical and chemical agents suggests that the disrupted genes are involved in multiple stress responses. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(e-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites: effect of clay surface modifiers on the melt intercalation process
Pantoustier, Nadège; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Degée, Philippe et al

in e-Polymers (2001), (9), 1-9

Nanocomposites based on biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and layered silicates (montmorillonite) modified by various alkylammonium cations were prepared by melt intercalation. Depending on whether ... [more ▼]

Nanocomposites based on biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and layered silicates (montmorillonite) modified by various alkylammonium cations were prepared by melt intercalation. Depending on whether the ammonium cations contain non-functional alkyl chains or chains terminated by carboxylic acid or hydroxyl functions, microcomposites or nanocomposites were recovered as shown by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical and thermal properties were examined by tensile testing and thermogravimetric analysis. The layered silicate PCL nanocomposites exhibited some improvement of the mechanical properties (higher Young's modulus) and increased thermal stability as well as enhanced flame retardant characteristics as result of a charring effect. This communication aims at reporting that the formation of PCL-based nanocomposites strictly depends on the nature of the ammonium cation and its functionality, but also on the selected synthetic route, i.e. melt intercalation vs. in situ intercalative polymerization. Typically, protonated w-aminododecanoic acid exchanged montmorillonite allowed to intercalate e-caprolactone monomer and yielded nanocomposites upon in situ polymerization, whereas they exclusively formed microcomposites when blended with preformed PCL chains. In other words, it is shown that the formation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites is not straightforward and cannot be predicted since it strongly depends on parameters such as ammonium cation type and functionality together with the production procedure, i.e., melt intercalation, solvent evaporation or in situ polymerization [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles assisted by amphiphilic poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers
Gautier, Sandrine; Grudzielski, Nathalie; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg et al

in Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition (2001), 12(4), 429-450

When co-precipitated with amphiphilic copolymers from DMSO, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) can be readily converted into stable sub-200 nm nanoparticles by addition of an aqueous phase, free of any polymeric ... [more ▼]

When co-precipitated with amphiphilic copolymers from DMSO, poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) can be readily converted into stable sub-200 nm nanoparticles by addition of an aqueous phase, free of any polymeric stabilizers such as poly(vinyl alcohol) or Poloxamer. In this work, the ability of random poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers (PMMA-co-MA) to stabilize PLA nanoparticles was demonstrated, and the properties of PLA/PMMA-co-MA nanoparticles were investigated. When co-precipitated with PMMA-co-MA, PLA was totally converted into nanoparticles using a polymer concentration in DMSO (Cp) below 17.6 mg ml(-1), and a PMMA-co-MA proportion above a critical value depending on the content of MA repeating units (X). For instance, the lowest PMMA-co-MA proportion required was 0.9 mg mg(-1) PLA for X = 12%, and 0.5 mg mg(-1) PLA for X = 25% (for C(PLA) = 16 mg ml(-1) DMSO). The nanoparticle diameter was essentially independent of X, the proportion of PMMA-co-MA, and the PLA molecular weight, except for oligomers for which the nanoparticle diameter was smaller. It decreased when the organic phase was diluted (126 +/- 13 nm for Cp = 17.6 mg ml(-1), and 81 +/- 5 nm for C(P) = 5.6 mg ml(-1)). The time-dependence of the stability and the degradation of PLA/PMMA-co-MA nanoparticles was discussed. One of the main advantages of this technique is the ability to control surface properties and to bring functional groups to otherwise non-functionalized PLA nanoparticles. To illustrate this, a conjugate of PMMA-co-MA25 and biotin was synthesized, and used to prepare biotinylated nanoparticles that could be detected by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy after infiltration into ligatured rat small intestine. [less ▲]

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See detailRheology of compatibilized immiscible viscoelastic polymer blends
Iza, Mustapha; Bousmina, Mosto; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Rheologica Acta (2001), 40(1), 10-22

Rheological behavior of a PS/PE model viscoelastic immiscible blend compatibilized by two types of inter facial modifiers was investigated. Dynamic, steady shear, and transient experiments were performed ... [more ▼]

Rheological behavior of a PS/PE model viscoelastic immiscible blend compatibilized by two types of inter facial modifiers was investigated. Dynamic, steady shear, and transient experiments were performed to probe the effect of the interfacial modification on the rheological behavior of the blend. While the effect was relatively small in dynamic and steady shear experiments, significant signature of the presence of the copolymer was observed in transient experiments after start up of shear flow. The magnitude of the departure from Doi-Otha theory (worked out for non-compatibilized blends) was evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailSens de la cohérence, colère et trouble obsessionnel-compulsif
Lambert, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2001), 6(4), 5-16

This study assesses the relationship between the Sense of Coherence (SoC) of Antonovsky, anger and the obsessive-compulsive disorder. The sample is composed of 42 subjects divided in two groups, 21 ... [more ▼]

This study assesses the relationship between the Sense of Coherence (SoC) of Antonovsky, anger and the obsessive-compulsive disorder. The sample is composed of 42 subjects divided in two groups, 21 subjects suffering of obsessive-compulsive disorder and 21 subjects matched controls. They completed a demographic questionnaire, the list of obsessions and compulsions of Goodman & al.(1989), translation Mollard, Cottraux & Bouvard (1989), the Visual Analogues Scales, the Orientation Life Questionnaire of Antonovsky (1987), the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory of Spielberger (STAXI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Spielberger (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The results show higher scores of anxiety and depression in obsessive-compulsive patients than in controls subjects. According to the results obtained with the Anger Inventory, the obsessive-compulsive subjects show higher scores of state-anger, of anger-expression and higher scores of anger-control. The results of the Sense of Coherence scale reveal a lower SoC in TOC group than in control group. The SoC is also negatively associated with depression and anxiety in both groups. The SoC is negatively associated with the control of anger in the TOC group and with the suppression of anger in the control group. The theorical and clinical implications of these results are discussed. [less ▲]

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