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See detailLes objets éphémères du développement durable
Mougenot, Catherine ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Melard, François (Ed.) Ecologisation : objets et concepts intermédiaires (2008)

C’est donc un mécanisme qui se suffit à lui-même que nous avons voulu décrire dans ce texte, sans nous préoccuper des suites vécues par les acteurs de nos deux cas d’étude, la production des deux objets ... [more ▼]

C’est donc un mécanisme qui se suffit à lui-même que nous avons voulu décrire dans ce texte, sans nous préoccuper des suites vécues par les acteurs de nos deux cas d’étude, la production des deux objets qu’ils mobilisent nous apparaissant comme des moments de cristallisation de l’action collective qu’ils esquissent. L’efficacité de ces objets va rester limitée dans le temps et l’espace, ils sont en effet impossibles à utiliser dans d’autres contextes ou par d’autres acteurs. Mais en même temps, ils produisent « quelque chose » que nous avons cherché à expliciter dans les trois séquences de « convention », « représentation » et « transformation ». Ces trois séquences peuvent aussi être retraduites dans les questions suivantes : qu'est-ce qui permet un accord de départ dans un groupe qui n’est pas vraiment constitué et autour d’un problème qui n’est pas défini précisément ? Comment ce problème peut-il être représenté ? Et qu’est que la saisie de cette image provoque ou permet ? La première séquence rend compte d’un arrangement préalable à l’émergence de l’objet. Il traduit l’articulation entre la mobilisation d’une légitimité extérieure au groupe, toujours suspecte, et d’un engagement qui ne fait qu’émerger dans ce groupe. Et ce qui rend possible cette première convention est le format de la scène sur laquelle elle s’exprime, format que choisissent ou acceptent les acteurs. La convention de départ est donc un arrangement de composantes qui apportent des connaissances et un mode de relations utiles à l’action. La seconde séquence est celle de la représentation et du basculement qu’elle rend possible. Les images produites permettent en effet de saisir en un seul coup d’œil les tensions présentes dans le problème qui se découvre. Tenant ensemble individu et collectif, ici et ailleurs, elles opèrent un travail qui lie et délie, concentre et élargit, et qui ouvre la porte à la troisième séquence, qui est de l’ordre de la transformation. Ces images permettent en effet d’explorer, de tester, de questionner, de recomposer, soit autant d’actions qui s’appliquent aux connaissances mobilisées par les acteurs et aux relations qui se créent ou se renforcent. La première et la troisième de ces séquences sont passagères dans des histoires plus longues, mais elles s’inscrivent cependant dans la temporalité des projets que les acteurs cherchent à construire. C’est le temps que nécessite l’exploration des légitimités qui caractérise les connaissances et les relations, légitimités qui s’imposent autant qu’elles s’exposent et qui apportent des occasions d’ouverture et de fermeture. Mais l’efficacité du mécanisme que nous mettons en évidence tient aussi dans la force du basculement qu’il permet et qui s’exprime le mieux dans la deuxième séquence, celle où prédomine la forme et qui est de l’ordre de l’instant : la découverte collective et simultanée d’une image est le moment éphémère de ce mécanisme éphémère. Ainsi, à l’inverse d’une approche qui insisterait sur le caractère structurant des objets, nous soulignons ici leur caractère fugace ou évanescent. Ces intermédiaires ne sont pas des articulations solides, mais des points de basculement dont le degré de réversibilité est variable : ils ne tiennent que par les engagements des acteurs qui les mobilisent et les attachements aux contextes qui les ont produits. Prétextes pour accompagner les explorations et les transformations, ces objets libèrent des ressources nouvelles, qui restent cependant empreintes de toute leur fragilité. En ne disant pas ce qu’il y a à faire, leur force réside avant tout dans leur caractère souple, dans leur capacité à capter l’hétérogène et à le représenter. Or cet hétérogène, nous pouvons le voir à un premier niveau, quand il concerne l’ici et l’ailleurs, ou encore l’individuel et le collectif, soit des changements d’échelles qui constituent un premier enjeu du développement durable. Mais ces objets éphémères nous suggèrent des changements que l’on pourrait qualifier de second ordre, quand ils saisissent simultanément et « en tension » des éléments aussi différents que la quiétude de riverains ou la gestion du patrimoine foncier de propriétaires et un objectif de protection d’un bien commun, ou encore les exigences d’un distributeur à satisfaire au jour le jour son marché national et les préoccupations d’un petit groupe d’éleveurs qui recherchent une conduite « bio » de leur troupeau. Ces objets se situent dans des trajectoires qu’ils ont la capacité d’infléchir, de faire bifurquer, par un travail d’intégration paradoxal qu’ils réalisent en un seul coup d’œil, une force qui produit le basculement dans le changement de relations et de connaissances. Or ces changements nous intéressent puisque nous les voyons au cœur de ces dynamiques d’action collective vers plus de durabilité. Ces objets apparaissent alors comme des appuis stratégiques pour de nouveaux apprentissages collectifs. Et proposant de véritables esquisses de cartes maritimes de mers et d’océans jusqu’alors inconnus, ils apportent, selon nous, des ressources dépassant de loin ce que pouvaient offrir les portulans. [less ▲]

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See detailLes kystes ovariens dans l'espèce bovine 3. Aspects thérapeutiques.
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Bascon, Frédéric; Theron, Léonard ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2008), 152(2), 103-115

Ovarian cyst treatment and its efficacy imply to make the diagnosis as early as possible during the end of waiting period or period of reproduction of cows potentially concerned. Moreover, we must keep in ... [more ▼]

Ovarian cyst treatment and its efficacy imply to make the diagnosis as early as possible during the end of waiting period or period of reproduction of cows potentially concerned. Moreover, we must keep in mind that during the early postpartum period 38 to 80% of cysts spontaneously regress. The choice of a treatment also depends on criteria and sensitivity level of the identified (follicular or luteinized) cyst. Cysts treatment can be curative or preventive. Give an adequate level of nutrition and reduce the frequency of puerperal diseases during the postpartum period can contribute to reduce the risk of ovarian cysts. Curatively, it's possible manually to rupture or to puncture the ovarian cyst by transvaginal way using or not an ultrasonographic control. Such method can be associated with an hormonal therapy. It's also possible to treat the cyst with hormones. Classically, follicular and luteinised cysts are respectively treated by luteotrope hormones (GnRH, hCG) and by PGF2alpha. As the goal of treatment is to assume a new follicular growth, both cysts can be also treated with progestagens given by intravaginal way. During the last years, different hormonal protocols have been used. Ovsynch has been evaluated and compared with others protocols. Until now, such hormonal associations have a rather limited effect on the pregnancy rates. Moreover, they appear rather expensive. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for the transfusion of red cells
Baele, Philippe; Muylle, L.; Noens, L. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2008), 63(5), 301-312

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See detailChronique de la 62ème session de la Société Internationale Fernand de Visscher à Fribourg
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Internationale des Droits de l'Antiquité [= RIDA] (2008), LV

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See detailAre Fair Trade Organizations necessarily Social Enterprises?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg; Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2008), 4(3), 186-201

Purpose – Fair trade organisations (FTOs) have been taken quite early as examples of Social Enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The purpose of this paper is to examine ... [more ▼]

Purpose – Fair trade organisations (FTOs) have been taken quite early as examples of Social Enterprises (SE) and have contributed to the shaping of the SE concept. The purpose of this paper is to examine more deeply the link between FTOs and SE, both at a conceptual and at an empirical level. Design/methodology/approach – First, different theoretical frameworks of SE are introduced and confront FT to each of these frameworks. The second step is an empirical study of FTOs across four European countries to illustrate and deepen the links between FT and SE, focusing on the goals and the governance structures of FTOs. Findings – All the FTOs combine in some way economic, social and sometimes also political goals. FTOs are thus coherent to the “hybrid goals” nature of SEs. FTOs' governance is also quite specific and often innovative in terms of organisational architecture and stakeholders' involvement. Some FTOs are closer to the European – participatory – approach while others are closer to US – individual – approaches. Finally, the governance structures of FTOs seem to reflect quite well their goal mix. Research limitations/implications – This paper provides a more solid basis for the often implicit link between FT and SE. Future researches could use this work to explore specific topics of the SE literature in the context of FT (e.g. stakeholders' involvement). The FT example could also be used to examine further the shifting boundaries of the SE reality. Originality/value – The originality of this paper is to apply the SE concept to a specific field and to show how, within this field, there is at the same time a diversity of organisations, reflecting the diversity of SE approaches; and a range of specific features (especially in terms of goal mix and governance) distinguishing SEs from other types of organisations. [less ▲]

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See detailMalnutrition proteino-energetique et morbidite liee au paludisme chez les enfants de 0-59 mois dans la region du Kivu, Republique Democratique du Congo.
Mitangala Ndeba, P.; Hennart, P.; D'Alessandro, U. et al

in Medecine tropicale : revue du Corps de sante colonial (2008), 68(1), 51-57

In the Kivu region located in east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, malnutrition and malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between malaria and malnutrition is ... [more ▼]

In the Kivu region located in east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, malnutrition and malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between malaria and malnutrition is unclear and has never been studied in the Kivu region. This report presents an analysis of data from 5695 children aged 0 to 5 years, admitted to the paediatric ward of Lwiro hospital between November 1992 and February 2004. The weight/age (W/A) index and weight/height (W/H) index expressed with standard deviation in relation to the reference median were calculated (Z score). The association between protein-energetic malnutrition and malaria infection and nutritional indicators was measured based on prevalence ratios determined by univariate analysis and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) derived using a multivariate model. The prevalence of malaria at the time of admission was 35.8 % (n=5695). The W/A and W/H indexes and serum albumin level were correlated with malaria-related morbidity. Logistic regression showed that high malaria OR was associated with both anthropometric nutritional indicators [WHZ > -2: OR (CI 95 %) 1.7 (1.4-2.2)] [WAZ > -2: OR (CI 95 %) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)] and biological nutritional indicators [serum albumin > or = 23 g/L: OR (CI 95 %) 1.6 (1.2-2.1)]. Our findings indicate that malnourished children at admission have a lower risk of malaria infection. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilité de la neuroimagerie en psychiatrie
Muselle, A.; Desseilles, Martin ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2008), 108(6), 1-9

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See detailA fatal case of bupropion (ZybanR) overdose
Mercerolle, Magali; Denooz, Raphael ULg; Lachâtre, Gérard et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2008), 32

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See detailPromotion de la santé en milieu de travail : modèles et pratiques
Muller, Michel; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in Santé Publique : Revue Multidisciplinaire pour la Recherche et l'Action (2008), (Suppl. N° 3), 161-169

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See detailCompte rendu de Y. Gagneux, Reliques et reliquaires à Paris (XIXe – XXe siècle)
George, Philippe ULg

in Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (2008)

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See detailModave/Modave : poursuite de la fouille du murus gallicus à Pont-de-Bonne
Delye, Emmanuel ULg

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2008), 15

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See detailRecherche de nouveaux métabolites secondaires chez les Streptomyces
Craig, Matthias ULg

Scientific conference (2008)

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See detailNon-uniqueness of the natural and projectively equivariant quantization
Radoux, Fabian ULg

in Journal of Geometry & Physics (2008), 58

In [C. Duval, V. Ovsienko, Projectively equivariant quantization and symbol calculus: Noncommutative hypergeometric functions, Lett. Math. Phys. 57 (1) (2001) 61–67], the authors showed the existence and ... [more ▼]

In [C. Duval, V. Ovsienko, Projectively equivariant quantization and symbol calculus: Noncommutative hypergeometric functions, Lett. Math. Phys. 57 (1) (2001) 61–67], the authors showed the existence and the uniqueness of a sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization in non-critical situations. The curved generalization of the sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization is the natural and projectively equivariant quantization. In [M. Bordemann, Sur l’existence d’une prescription d’ordre naturelle projectivement invariante (submitted for publication). math.DG/0208171] and [Pierre Mathonet, Fabian Radoux, Natural and projectively equivariant quantizations by means of Cartan connections, Lett. Math. Phys. 72 (3) (2005) 183–196], the existence of such a quantization was proved in two different ways. In this paper, we show that this quantization is not unique. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of a novel aphid prenyltransferase displaying dual geranyl/farnesyl diphosphate synthase activity
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg; Santini, S. et al

in FEBS Letters (2008), 582(16), 19281934

We report on the cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthase from the aphid Myzus persicae. Of the three IPPS cDNAs we cloned, two yielded prenyltransferase ... [more ▼]

We report on the cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthase from the aphid Myzus persicae. Of the three IPPS cDNAs we cloned, two yielded prenyltransferase activity following expression in Escherichia coli; these cDNAs encode identical proteins except for the presence, in one of them, of an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide. Although the aphid enzyme was predicted to be a farnesyl diphosphate synthase by BLASTP analysis, rMpIPPS, when isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate are supplied as substrates, typically generated geranyl diphosphate (C10) as its main product, along with significant quantities of farnesyl diphosphate (C15). Analysis of an MpIPPS homology model pointed to substitutions that could confer GPP/FPP synthase activity to the aphid enzyme. [less ▲]

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See detailL'histoire que nous faisons. Contre les théories de la manipulation
Jamin, Jérôme ULg; Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Book published by Espace de libertés (2008)

Dans un monde de plus en plus interdépendant, il nous arrive de nous sentir manipulés par les acteurs dominants que sont les institutions économiques internationales, les entreprises mondialisées, les ... [more ▼]

Dans un monde de plus en plus interdépendant, il nous arrive de nous sentir manipulés par les acteurs dominants que sont les institutions économiques internationales, les entreprises mondialisées, les grands médias ou les principaux responsables politiques. Pour autant, l’homme ordinaire d’aujourd’hui n’est-il vraiment qu’une marionnette comme le prétend toute une partie de la critique de gauche ? Ne sommes-nous pas davantage acteurs qu’on nous le prétend et n’avons-nous pas mieux à faire que de voir partout des manipulations et des « agendas cachés » ? C’est à cette réflexion que nous invitent les auteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailTLR-4, IL-1R and TNF-R signaling to NF-kB: variations on a common theme
Verstrepen, L.; Bekaert, T.; Chau, Tieu-Lan ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2008), 65

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-R) and interleukin-1 (IL-1R) play an important role in innate immunity by regulating the activity of distinct ... [more ▼]

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF-R) and interleukin-1 (IL-1R) play an important role in innate immunity by regulating the activity of distinct transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). TLR, IL-1R and TNF-R signaling to NF-kappaB converge on a common IkappaB kinase complex that phosphorylates the NF-kappaB inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha. However, upstream signaling components are in large part receptor-specific. Nevertheless, the principles of signaling are similar, involving the recruitment of specific adaptor proteins and the activation of kinase cascades in which protein-protein interactions are controlled by poly-ubiquitination. In this review, we will discuss our current knowledge of NF-kappaB signaling in response to TLR-4, TNF-R and IL-1R stimulation, with a special focus on the similarities and dissimilarities among these pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary approach to study of design cognitive process: the case of human errors in architectural preliminary design
Safin, Stéphane ULg; Leclercq, Pierre ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

Conference (2008)

This contribution aims to show a multidisciplinary method to understand and formalize design process, from a cognitive point of view, in the particular case of human errors in architectural preliminary ... [more ▼]

This contribution aims to show a multidisciplinary method to understand and formalize design process, from a cognitive point of view, in the particular case of human errors in architectural preliminary design process. We first emphasize the importance of error detection and recovery in the sketching phase in architecture. After the description of our methodology, we explain the general theory and model on human error, the short study we made and our proposition of a model on hu- man error in architectural design. We finally conclude by giving some first re- quirements from this model in order to improve to the development of sketch- based CAD tools. [less ▲]

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See detailThe charge conjugation quantum number in multiquark systems
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2008), 1038

We discuss the charge conjugation quantum number for tetraquarks or meson‐meson molecules, seen as possible interpretations of the newly found XYZ charmonium‐like resonances.

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See detailGroup Theoretical Analysis of the Wave Function of the $[ 70,1^-]$ Nonstrange Baryons in the $1/N_c$ Expansion
Matagne, Nicolas; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in AIP Conference Proceedings (2008), 1038

Using standard group theoretical techniques we construct the exact wave function of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet in the orbital, spin and flavor space. This symmetric wave function is compared to that ... [more ▼]

Using standard group theoretical techniques we construct the exact wave function of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet in the orbital, spin and flavor space. This symmetric wave function is compared to that customarily used in the $1/N_c$ expansion, which is asymmetric. The comparison is made by analyzing the matrix elements of various operators entering the mass formula. These matrix elements are calculated by the help of isoscalar factors of the permutation group, specially derived for this purpose as a function of $N_c$. We also compare two distinct methods used in the study of the $[{\bf 70},1^-]$ multiplet. In the first method the generators are divided into two parts, one part acting on a subsystem of $N_c-1$ quarks called core and another on the separated quark. In the second method the system is treated as a whole. We show that the latter is simpler and allows to clearly reveal the physically important operators in the mass formula. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosing the extreme surface melt event over southwestern Greenland in 2007
Tedesco, Marco; Serreze, Marc; Fettweis, Xavier ULg

in Cryosphere (The) (2008), 2

Analysis of passive microwave brightness temperatures from the space-borne Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) documents a record surface snowmelt over high elevations (above 2000 m) of the Greenland ... [more ▼]

Analysis of passive microwave brightness temperatures from the space-borne Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) documents a record surface snowmelt over high elevations (above 2000 m) of the Greenland ice sheet during summer of 2007. To interpret this record, results from the SSM/I are examined in conjunction with fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis and output from a regional climate model. The record surface melt reflects unusually warm conditions, seen in positive summertime anomalies of surface air temperatures, downwelling longwave radiation, 1000–500 hPa atmospheric thickness, and the net surface energy flux, linked in turn to southerly airflow over the ice sheet. Low snow accumulation may have contributed to the record through promoting anomalously low surface albedo. [less ▲]

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