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See detailModes de résolutions de conflits politiques
Kabamba, Bob ULiege

Learning material (2010)

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See detailPerspectives récentes pour une phénoménologie de l’intentionnalité
Seron, Denis ULiege

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2010), 6(8), 162-191

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See detailDes reins pas comme les autres...
Detry, Olivier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2010)

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See detailL'image du mois. A propos d'un cas d'hémangiome intramusculaire récidivant
Brüls, Samuel ULiege; KURTH, William ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(9), 483-5

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See detailUne organisation politique libertaire est-elle possible ? Marx, Proudhon, Socialisme ou barbarie, Altermondialisme
Frère, Bruno ULiege

Article for general public (2010)

On entend très régulièrement aujourd'hui au sein des nouveaux mouvements sociaux les uns et les autres se réclamer du réseau et de l'organisation en rhizome pour se distinguer au mieux des « anciennes » ... [more ▼]

On entend très régulièrement aujourd'hui au sein des nouveaux mouvements sociaux les uns et les autres se réclamer du réseau et de l'organisation en rhizome pour se distinguer au mieux des « anciennes » formes d'organisation que sont les partis politiques et les syndicats jugés trop « rigides » ou trop « hiérarchisés ». De l'économie solidaire aux mouvements soutenant les « sans » (sans papiers, sans logis, sans travail, ...) en passant par la galaxie des autres associations et ONG composant le mouvement altermondialiste au sens large, l'organisation en réseau, plus flexible, est le plus souvent valorisée. D'ailleurs, plusieurs spécialistes en font l’éloge contre les formes d'organisation traditionnelles évoquées plus haut : « contrat prédéfini, faible expression des adhérents, démocratie incertaine, bureaucratisation, etc., sont des héritages des anciennes grandes fédérations de type pyramidal qui tardent à jouer le jeu des réseaux horizontaux »1. Aujourd'hui, avancent les plus optimistes, la lutte contre le capitalisme se pratique donc en réseau. Sur les Forums sociaux, qu'ils soient mondiaux (Porto Alegre), européens (Paris 2003, Londres, 2004...) ou locaux, nous serions en présence d’une pure agrégation de forces en lutte directes et citoyennes qui se suffiraient à elles-mêmes, loin des formes « délégatrices » que sont les partis, syndicats et autres fédérations. La coopération spontanée des associations pour « créer » de projets transversaux de tout ordre suffit, dit-on, à exprimer l’unité virtuelle de cet engagement citoyen. On célèbre cette « nébuleuse qui désigne la manifestation positive d’initiatives de citoyens qui veulent agir ensemble et prendre leurs responsabilités dans des secteurs de la vie les concernant »2. C'est pourquoi il ne faut suggérer aucun cadre qui risquerait de freiner leur spontanéité. « Réglementer », « institutionnaliser », autant de notions évoquant la contrainte d’un pouvoir susceptible d’oppresser les actions spontanées qui émergent aux quatre coins des nouveaux mouvements sociaux. Quel que soit son objet, l'association doit rappeler son anti-autoritarisme, calquer son organisation connexionniste sur ses propres structures adhérentes et fonctionner dans la multilatéralité. Je voudrais montrer dans cet article que cette ferveur pour le réseau, pour l'horizontalité et pour le dynamisme a-hiérarchique n'est pas neuve. Elle plonge ses racines dans la tradition libertaire du XIXe Siècle et parvient jusqu'à nous par le biais d'auteurs, pas spécialement anarchistes au sens propre3, tels que Lefort, Castoriadis ou encore Deleuze. Et à chaque époque, elle a posé des questions analogues : Mis à part le fait que le vocabulaire du réseau (flexibilité, polyvalence, mobilité, projet, dynamisme, horizontalité, autogestion, a-hiérarchie etc.) est de toute façon déjà celui du Nouvel Esprit du Capitalisme, comme l'ont très bien montré Luc Botlanski et Eve Chiapello4, ne peut-on pas interroger l'idéologie du réseau pour ce qu'elle conduit précisément les nouveaux mouvements sociaux à ne se construire aucune identité stable qui puisse permettre de construire un front convergeant face aux politiques publiques et économiques contemporaines que tous critiquent ? Ou encore, pour le dire autrement, si l'organisation verticale est bannie du mouvement social depuis longtemps, n'y-a-t-il aucun risque à rejeter toute forme d'organisation elle-même ? [less ▲]

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See detailEntrevista
Lázaro, Rosario; Willson, Patricia ULiege

in Mutatis Mutandis : Revista latinoamericana de traducción (2010), 3(2), 378-383

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. ACCORD-LIPID et ACCORD-EYE: vers un nouveau positionnement du fenofibrate chez le patient diabetique de type 2.
Scheen, André ULiege; Van Gaal, L. F.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(9), 533-9

Fenofibrate has been evaluated in the ACCORD trial, in combination with a statin, to prevent vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. In ACCORD-Lipid, the addition of fenofibrate was not ... [more ▼]

Fenofibrate has been evaluated in the ACCORD trial, in combination with a statin, to prevent vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. In ACCORD-Lipid, the addition of fenofibrate was not able to significantly reduce the incidence of a composite cardiovascular endpoint (no positive effect was also observed with the intensification of blood glucose or blood pressure control in this population). However, an interaction effect was observed according to basal lipid profile, suggesting a better protection by fenofibrate in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL cholesterol (so-called atherogenic dyslipidaemia). In ACCORD-Eye, the addition of fenofibrate to a basal statin therapy resulted in a significant reduction of the progression of diabetic retinopathy, in a similar manner as that observed with intensifying blood glucose control (but with a good safety profile and without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia). These observations, confirming earlier results from FIELD also with this fibrate, open new perspectives for a useful prescription of fenofibrate in patients with type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailSuspension de la commercialisation de la sibutramine et de la rosiglitazone en Europe
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(10), 574-9

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended the suspension of the marketing authorisations for sibutramine, a centrally-acting anti-obesity agent, and of rosiglitazone, an oral glucose-lowering ... [more ▼]

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended the suspension of the marketing authorisations for sibutramine, a centrally-acting anti-obesity agent, and of rosiglitazone, an oral glucose-lowering compound of the thiazolidinedione family. This decision was taken because of a possible increased cardiovascular risk, mainly ischaemic heart disease, associated with the use of sibutramine or rosiglitazone in patients with pathologies prone to develop cardiovascular complications. The conclusion was that the benefits no longer outweigh the risks. The present paper summarizes the up- and -down history of these two pharmacological compounds, analyzes the data that resulted in such a decision and briefly discusses the future implications regarding the pharmacotherapy of cardiometabolic diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Liraglutide (Victoza): analogue du glucagon-like- peptide-1 humain en une injection par jour pour le traitement du diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULiege; Van Gaal, L. F.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(7-8), 464-70

Liraglutide (Victoza) is a peptide produced by DNA recombinant technology, which presents 97% homology with human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but is resistant to dipeptidylpeptidase-4, the enzyme that ... [more ▼]

Liraglutide (Victoza) is a peptide produced by DNA recombinant technology, which presents 97% homology with human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but is resistant to dipeptidylpeptidase-4, the enzyme that degrades the natural hormone. It actives the GLP-1 receptor and exerts an incretin mimetic effect during at least 24 hours after a single subcutaneous injection. Besides a glucose-dependent stimulatory effect of insulin secretion, liraglutide inhibits glucagon secretion and retards gastric emptying. In patients with type 2 diabetes, it reduces glycated haemoglobin by at least 1%, without inducing hypoglycaemia. It also induces a moderate weight loss and a mild reduction in blood pressure. Gastrointestinal adverse events (nausea, vomiting) may occur during the initial phase of treatment, but rarely impose the interruption of the medication and usually diminish with time.Although indicated in combination with other glucose-lowering agents, liraglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium only if administered in patients with type 2 diabetes not sufficiently controlled with a combination of metformin plus sulfonylurea or metformin plus a thiazolidinedione. Victoza is presented in prefilled pens and is injected subcutaneously once a day. Treatment will be initiated with 0.6 mg to improve digestive tolerance and the daily dose will be increased to 1.2 mg (usual dose) after at least one week, and up to 1.8 mg (maximal dose) if necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailEducation therapeutique et mesure continue de la glycemie chez le patient diabetique insulino-traite.
Thielen, Vinciane ULiege; Radermecker, Régis ULiege; Renard, Eric et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2010), 6(260), 1596-600

L’efficacité d’un programme éducationnel fondé sur l’utilisation d’une mesure continue du glucose avec un affichage en temps réel a été évaluée chez des patients diabétiques de type 1 (système couplé à ... [more ▼]

L’efficacité d’un programme éducationnel fondé sur l’utilisation d’une mesure continue du glucose avec un affichage en temps réel a été évaluée chez des patients diabétiques de type 1 (système couplé à une pompe à insuline externe - Paradigm Real Time®) et chez des patients diabétiques de type 2 mal contrôlés sous insuline (système Guardian RT® une semaine par mois pendant 3 mois versus automesure classique). Ces deux essais pilote montrent une diminution du taux d’hémoglobine glyquée (HbA1c) avec le « glucose sensor », avec moins d’hypoglycémies symptomatiques. Malgré certaines difficultés techniques (surtout chez les diabétiques de type 2), l’approche représente un outil intéressant d’éducation thérapeutique. Ces résultats prometteurs plaident pour des études de plus grande envergure chez des patients diabétiques bien sélectionnés. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos de l'inertie et de la non-observance therapeutiques.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2010), 6(260), 1571-2

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See detailPatient coronarien avec co-morbidites: integrer indications et contre-indications dans le raisonnement pharmaco-therapeutique.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(7-8), 476-81

A patient with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is exposed to a high risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and/or renal insufficiency. The ... [more ▼]

A patient with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is exposed to a high risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and/or renal insufficiency. The management of such a patient requires different medications, which should be prescribed by taking into account both (relative and absolute) indications and contra-indications to improve overall prognosis. The present clinical case report illustrates the therapeutic reasoning leading to an appropriate pharmacological polytherapy, combined with life-style changes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Saxagliptine (ONGLYZA): nouvel inhibiteur de la dipeptidylpeptidase-4 pour le traitement oral du diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(9), 527-32

Saxagliptin (Onglyza) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4), which inhibits the activity of the enzyme for at least 24 hours after one single oral administration. It ... [more ▼]

Saxagliptin (Onglyza) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4), which inhibits the activity of the enzyme for at least 24 hours after one single oral administration. It increases the circulating levels of incretin hormones (GLP-1, GIP), which contributes to amplify the insulin secretory response to meals and to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and, subsequently, fasting glycaemia. Saxagliptin, 5 mg once daily, has been shown to be effective in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet alone, metformin, sulfonylurea or glitazone, with a favourable tolerance profile. Reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) averaged 0.6-0.8%, without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia or promoting weight gain. The only indication of saxagliptin that is currently reimbursed in Belgium is the treatment of patients not controlled with metformin, the oral antidiabetic agent that is recommended as first line therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du moi. Dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa): anticoagulant oral, inhibiteur direct selectif de la thrombine
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(10), 588-92

Dabigatran (Pradaxa) is a new oral, direct, selective and reversible thrombin inhibitor (factor IIa) acting as anticoagulant. Pradaxa does not require monitoring or dose adjustment, except in cases of ... [more ▼]

Dabigatran (Pradaxa) is a new oral, direct, selective and reversible thrombin inhibitor (factor IIa) acting as anticoagulant. Pradaxa does not require monitoring or dose adjustment, except in cases of moderate renal insufficiency or in elderly patients (>75 years old). It is currently indicated for prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement surgery. Pradaxa has been shown to be as effective as enoxaparin in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement surgery, with a similar safety profile. The recommended dose of 220 mg is administered once-daily, starting with a half-dose 1-4 h after surgery. The total duration of treatment is 10 days for knee surgery and 28-35 days in case of hip replacement. Contrary to enoxaparin, with Pradaxa there is no risk of drug-related thrombocytopenia. Of note, this promising new anticoagulant has also shown to be more effective than warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and as effective as warfarin for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (indications not recognized yet). [less ▲]

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See detailUn cavigliere "al femminile" di parmigianinesca leziosità: la cetera D.MR.R.434 del Musée de la Musique di Parigi
Bugini, Mariaelena ULiege

in Santarelli, Cristina (Ed.) Ut musica pictura (2010)

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See detailCommunication financière : Un outil pour améliorer la liquidité des entreprises françaises
Ajina, Aymen ULiege; Sougné, Danielle

in Revue Banque = Banque Magazine (2010), 724

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See detailEfficacy and safety of saxagliptin in combination with metformin compared with sitagliptin in combination with metformin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Scheen, André ULiege; Charpentier, Guillaume; Ostgren, Carl Johan et al

in Diabetes/Metabolism Research & Reviews (2010), 26(7), 540-9

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs (metformin ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs (metformin, sulphonylurea, or thiazolidinedione). This 18-week, phase 3b, multicentre, double-blind, noninferiority trial compared the efficacy and safety of two dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, saxagliptin and sitagliptin, in patients whose glycaemia was inadequately controlled with metformin. METHODS: Adult type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (N = 801) with glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) 6.5-10% on stable metformin doses (1500-3000 mg/day) were randomized 1 : 1 to add-on 5 mg saxagliptin or 100 mg sitagliptin once daily for 18 weeks. The primary efficacy analysis was a comparison of the change from baseline HbA(1c) at week 18 in per-protocol patients. Noninferiority was concluded if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval of the HbA(1c) difference between treatments was < 0.3%. RESULTS: The adjusted mean changes in HbA(1c) following the addition of saxagliptin or sitagliptin to stable metformin therapy were - 0.52 and - 0.62%, respectively. The between-group difference was 0.09% (95% confidence interval, - 0.01 to 0.20%), demonstrating noninferiority. Both treatments were generally well tolerated; incidence and types of adverse events were comparable between groups. Hypoglycaemic events, mostly mild, were reported in approximately 3% of patients in each treatment group. Body weight declined by a mean of 0.4 kg in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Saxagliptin added to metformin therapy was effective in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by metformin alone; saxagliptin plus metformin was noninferior to sitagliptin plus metformin, and was generally well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral nervous system: a conductor orchestrating metabolic regulations harmed by both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2010), 36S3

Recent evidence suggests that the brain has a key role in the control of energy metabolism, body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems, which regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and ... [more ▼]

Recent evidence suggests that the brain has a key role in the control of energy metabolism, body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems, which regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and endogenous glucose production, sense and respond to input from hormonal and nutrient-related signals that convey information regarding both body energy stores and current energy availability. In response to this input, adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels in the normal range. Defects in this control system are implicated in the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The central nervous system may be considered the conductor of an orchestra involving many peripheral organs involved in these homeostatic processes. However, the brain is mainly a glucose-dependent organ, which can be damaged by both hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia unawareness is a major problem in clinical practice and is associated with an increased risk of coma. Stroke is another acute complication associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in elderly people, and the control of glucose level in this emergency situation remains challenging. The prognosis of stroke is worse in diabetic patients and both its prevention and management in at-risk patients should be improved. Finally, chronic diabetic encephalopathies, which may lead to cognitive dysfunction and even dementia, are also recognized. They may result from recurrent hypoglycaemia and/or from chronic hyperglycaemia leading to cerebral vascular damage. Functional imaging is of interest for exploring diabetes-associated cerebral abnormalities. Thus, the intimate relationship between the brain and diabetes is increasingly acknowledged in both research and clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailHomme de lettres, écrivain, auteur. Déclinaison sociale d'une fonction symbolique
Durand, Pascal ULiege

in Luneau, Marie-Pier; Vincent, Josée (Eds.) La Fabrication de l'Auteur (2010)

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