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See detailCan an Electronic Nose Assess the Biomethanation Process?
Adam, Gilles ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege

Poster (2010, January 12)

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See detailModelling total soil respiration in agricultural soils.
Buysse, Pauline ULiege; Goffin, Stéphanie; Carnol, Monique ULiege et al

Poster (2010, January 12)

Soil respiration is a process which results in CO2 release from the soil to the atmosphere. It comprises two main components. The first one is heterotrophic respiration: CO2 is produced by soil ... [more ▼]

Soil respiration is a process which results in CO2 release from the soil to the atmosphere. It comprises two main components. The first one is heterotrophic respiration: CO2 is produced by soil microorganisms while decomposing the substrate. The second one is autotrophic respiration in which CO2 originates from roots and rhizospheric organisms. All the CO2 is then transported to the surface by diffusion (see Goffin et al., this session). Many biotic and abiotic factors play a role in soil respiration, making this process complex to analyze and understand. Temperature often appears as the most important driving variable. Besides that, interest in the future CO2 emissions from agricultural soils has been growing. Indeed, these ecosystems are a major concern from environmental, economic and social points of view. In particular, the choice of cultural practices and residue management techniques has a strong influence on CO2 emissions from agricultural systems. This work aims at getting to a better understanding of soil respiration in agricultural soils. To reach this goal, many semi-mechanistic models have been previously developed at very different spatio-temporal scales. We intend to adapt such an existing model to crop soils, within a spatial scale of a cultivated field and an annual temporal scale. The model will be validated by using flux measurements carried out at three different crop sites situated in the Hesbaye region in Belgium (Lonzée) and in the South West of France (Lamasquère, Auradé). The study was focused first on soil heterotrophic respiration. Within this part, short term sensitivity of this component to temperature was studied by means of a laboratory incubation experiment. This one was performed with soil samples taken at the Lonzée site. Among the many interesting results we got, it showed a clear sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to short term temperature changes. In parallel, the soil heterotrophic model was calibrated on soil chamber measurements taken at the Lonzée site (Belgium). Next steps in this part of the work will be to calibrate the model using the data from the French sites, and finally to validate the model on the three sites. Afterwards, an autotrophic respiration submodel will be implemented and the results compared to field measurements carried out at the three sites. A further development could consist in simulating agricultural practices to take their impacts on CO2 emissions from crops into account. [less ▲]

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See detailRemote sensing assessement of irrigated areas extension in the Kou watershed
Traore, Farid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege

Scientific conference (2010, January 12)

The Kou watershed is a geographical space having important water resources, whose are used between: drinking water supply of Bobo-Dioulasso city (Burkina-Faso’s second most important city) and surrounding ... [more ▼]

The Kou watershed is a geographical space having important water resources, whose are used between: drinking water supply of Bobo-Dioulasso city (Burkina-Faso’s second most important city) and surrounding localities; agriculture through very important irrigated surfaces; industry; fauna and flora preservation, through a minimal sanitary debit guaranteed. Since some decades, one observes more and more increased pressure on Kou water resources. From an agricultural point of view, a comparative visual observation of irrigated surfaces during the years 1980 and during years 2000 shows an increase of surfaces. It would be then appropriate to establish a potential of irrigation of the set of available water resources in order to estimate maximal irrigable surfaces by water resources. Thus, this study has for goal the evaluation of Kou watershed irrigated zones surface, with the help of remote sensing. In order to facilitate irrigated zones detection, the study will focused on the period between January and June, where all cultures are irrigated with Kou watershed surface water and/or groundwater. The chosen methodology is images classification in order to extract irrigated zones surface. We had for this study a set of images and various data: Landsat-4 TM, Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, SPOT 5, aerial views, agro meteorological data, cartographic data (GIS), data investigation reports, etc. Because of images various origins, we conducted images pretreatment that essentially consisted in image reflectance calibration. This operation appears to be indispensable when working with images from coming different sensors. Classification methods that we used are: a maximum likelihood classification, then a decision tree classification applied to images for which vegetation index (NDVI) has been calculated. The later classification method has been introduced in order to permit a better discrimination between natural vegetation and crops which can often react in similar spectral ranges. This method is based on threshold detection of vegetation classes. Classification methods used allowed us to estimate until a certain point irrigated surfaces, without having, however, a finer information. With 30 m spatial resolution images covering a survey zone with "reduced" to "mean" agricultural lands size, it is sometimes enough difficult to discern natural vegetation pixels from crop pixels. So, we should have considered mixed classes of pixels that strongly skewed our final results. The overall accuracy of our classifications are between 70% and 90%, with Kappa coefficients between 0.4 and 0.85. These Kappa coefficients our results between "tolerable" and "good". However, our evaluations seem to be near enough of those gotten by the means of hydro agricultural inventories led on the same zone. The committed mistakes remain in an interval of +/-20%. [less ▲]

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See detailDeux types d'entité et deux modèles de système chez Ferdinand de Saussure
Sofia, Estanislao ULiege

in BRONCKART, Jean-Paul; BULEA, Ecaterina; BOTA, Cristian (Eds.) Le projet de Ferdinand de Saussure (2010)

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See detailAnnotation of Emmanuel Chukuwudi Eze's "Language and Time in Postcolonial Experience"
Tunca, Daria ULiege

in Routledge Annotated Bibliography of English Studies (2010)

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See detailLaboratoire et allergologie : nouvelles applications
Gadisseur, Romy ULiege; Cavalier, Etienne ULiege

Conference (2010, January 07)

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See detailHet belang van de tumormarge na conservatieve chirurgie bij borstkanker in een vroeg stadium
Coucke, Philippe ULiege; Vavassis, Peter; Vanderick, JEAN ULiege et al

in Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Verloskunde en Gynaecologie (2010), 6

Conclusie Zo conservatief mogelijk opereren is een prijzenswaardige benadering, zeker, maar niet alleen, bij jonge borstkankerpatiënten. Deze betrachting mag echter geen prioriteit worden ten opzichte van ... [more ▼]

Conclusie Zo conservatief mogelijk opereren is een prijzenswaardige benadering, zeker, maar niet alleen, bij jonge borstkankerpatiënten. Deze betrachting mag echter geen prioriteit worden ten opzichte van het risico op lokale recidieven met duidelijk nadelige gevolgen voor de overleving. Men dient zich ervan bewust te zijn dat, met name bij jonge patiënten en in het geval van een EIC, met radiotherapie het risico op lokale recidieven niet altijd voldoende verlaagd kan worden. Het verhogen van de dosis lijkt echter niet te helpen dit probleem op te lossen. Verhoging van de intensiteit van de chemotherapie verbetert de lokale controle wel, maar kan leiden tot een vertraging van de bestraling, vooral bij patiënten met een verhoogd risico op een lokaal recidief. Extra voorzichtigheid is daarom geboden bij patiënten met een krappe marge. Daarnaast dient de mogelijkheid van een chirurgische re-interventie overwogen te worden, en eventueel een mastectomie en reconstructie, vooral bij jonge patiënten en patiënten met een EIC. Dit artikel is eerder gepubliceerd in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology (Belg J Med Oncol 2009;3:93-100). [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionalized polypropylenes as efficient dispersing agents for carbon nanotubes in a polypropylene matrix; application to electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorber materials
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULiege; Huynen, Isabelle; Jérôme, Robert ULiege et al

in Polymer (2010), 51

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been dispersed within polypropylene with the purpose to prepare electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbers. In order to limit the reflectivity of the electromagnetic waves ... [more ▼]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been dispersed within polypropylene with the purpose to prepare electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbers. In order to limit the reflectivity of the electromagnetic waves at the interface of the materials while achieving good absorbing properties, the CNTs concentration must be kept low (<3 wt%) which means that a perfect dispersion must be ensured. Since CNTs do not disperse well within apolar polymer matrices such as polypropylene, two compatibilizers bearing aromatic moieties, i.e. pyrene and pyridine, able to develop π-π interactions with the CNTs have been synthesized starting from polypropylene grafted by maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA). A masterbatch is first prepared by dispersion of CNTs within the compatibilizers by melt-mixing and coprecipitation followed by further dispersion within the PP matrix. Rheological and electromagnetic characterizations of the nanocomposites have demonstrated the efficiency of these compatibilizers to promote the dispersion of CNTs in PP and the good EMI shielding effectiveness of the PP matrix at a low CNTs concentration (2 wt%). [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of shell failure for periodic quasi-brittle materials
Mercatoris, Benoît ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2010)

In a context of restoration of historical masonry structures, it is crucial to properly estimate the residual strength and the potential structural failure modes in order to assess the safety of buildings ... [more ▼]

In a context of restoration of historical masonry structures, it is crucial to properly estimate the residual strength and the potential structural failure modes in order to assess the safety of buildings. Due to its mesostructure and the quasi-brittle nature of its constituents, masonry presents preferential damage orientations, strongly localised failure modes and damage-induced anisotropy, which are complex to incorporate in structural computations. Furthermore, masonry structures are generally subjected to complex loading processes including both in-plane and out- of-plane loads which considerably influence the potential failure mechanisms. As a consequence, both the membrane and the flexural behaviours of masonry walls have to be taken into account for a proper estimation of the structural stability. Macrosopic models used in structural computations are based on phenomenological laws including a set of parameters which characterises the average behaviour of the material. These parameters need to be identified through experimental tests, which can become costly due to the complexity of the behaviour particularly when cracks appear. The existing macroscopic models are consequently restricted to particular assumptions. Other models based on a detailed mesoscopic description are used to estimate the strength of masonry and its behaviour with failure. This is motivated by the fact that the behaviour of each constituent is a priori easier to identify than the global structural response. These mesoscopic models can however rapidly become unaffordable in terms of computational cost for the case of large-scale three-dimensional structures. In order to keep the accuracy of the mesoscopic modelling with a more affordable computa- tional effort for large-scale structures, a multi-scale framework using computational homogeni- sation is developed to extract the macroscopic constitutive material response from computa- tions performed on a sample of the mesostructure, thereby allowing to bridge the gap between macroscopic and mesoscopic representations. Coarse graining methodologies for the failure of quasi-brittle heterogeneous materials have started to emerge for in-plane problems but remain largely unexplored for shell descriptions. The purpose of this study is to propose a new periodic homogenisation-based multi-scale approach for quasi-brittle thin shell failure. For the numerical treatment of damage localisation at the structural scale, an embedded strong discontinuity approach is used to represent the collective behaviour of fine-scale cracks using average cohesive zones including mixed cracking modes and presenting evolving orientation related to fine-scale damage evolutions. A first originality of this research work is the definition and analysis of a criterion based on the homogenisation of a fine-scale modelling to detect localisation in a shell description and determine its evolving orientation. Secondly, an enhanced continuous-discontinuous scale tran- sition incorporating strong embedded discontinuities driven by the damaging mesostructure is proposed for the case of in-plane loaded structures. Finally, this continuous-discontinuous ho- mogenisation scheme is extended to a shell description in order to model the localised behaviour of out-of-plane loaded structures. These multi-scale approaches for failure are applied on typical masonry wall tests and verified against three-dimensional full fine-scale computations in which all the bricks and the joints are discretised. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of fire-resistant poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) foams using supercritical CO2 technology
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULiege; Bourbigot, Serge; Calberg, Cédric ULiege et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2010), 20

This work deals with the preparation and characterization of fire-resistant poly(styrene coacrylonitrile) (SAN) foams containing (organo)clays and/or melamine polyphosphate (MPP) as fire retardants using ... [more ▼]

This work deals with the preparation and characterization of fire-resistant poly(styrene coacrylonitrile) (SAN) foams containing (organo)clays and/or melamine polyphosphate (MPP) as fire retardants using supercritical CO2 as the foaming agent. The additives dispersion was first characterized with X-ray and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Their presence clearly affected the cellular morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat evolved (THE) were determined with a cone calorimetry test, performed on each foamed sample as a function of the foam density. Incorporation of clay (3 and 5 wt%) in the exfoliated state into the SAN foam clearly led to a significant decrease of PHRR, while intercalated and aggregated clay had a lower effect. Similar results were obtained with 10 and 20 wt% of MPP. The best results were obtained when exfoliated clay and MPP were combined, with a PHRR drop as large as 75%, thanks to the synergistic action of both additives. The magnitude of PHRR drop, related to the fire resistance, was found to be in direct relationship with the cohesiveness of the protective carbonaceous layer formed at the sample surface during combustion. Clay and MPP, when added together, are thus believed to favour the formation of a highly cohesive protective layer able to act as an efficient shield against the flame, despite the fact that the sample is originally composed of ~90% of voids. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of blood pressure control in hypertensive patients seen in third referral centers
Persu, Alexandre; Ngueta, G.; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2010, January 02), 65(1), 68

This work was designed to look for the main characteristics of hypertensive patients seen in Academic Centers from Belgium, with special emphasis on factors influencing blood pressure (BP) control.

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See detailMEASURING SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN CROPLANDS AT REGIONAL SCALE USING AIRBORNE IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY
Stevens, Antoine; Udelhoven, Thomas; Denis, Antoine ULiege et al

in Geoderma (2010), 158

Conventional sampling techniques are often too expensive and time consuming to meet the amount of data required in soil monitoring or modelling studies. The emergence of portable and flexible ... [more ▼]

Conventional sampling techniques are often too expensive and time consuming to meet the amount of data required in soil monitoring or modelling studies. The emergence of portable and flexible spectrometers could provide the large amount of spatial data needed. In particular, the ability of airborne imaging spectroscopy to cover large surfaces in a single campaign and to study the spatial distribution of soil properties with a high spatial resolution represents an opportunity for improving the monitoring of soil characteristics and soil threats such as the decline of soil organic matter in the topsoil. However, airborne imaging spectroscopy has been generally applied over small areas with homogeneous soil types and surface conditions. Here, five hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS-160 sensor (430 nm–2540 nm) were analysed with the objective to map soil organic carbon (SOC) at a regional scale. The study area, covering a surface of ∼420 km2 and located in Luxembourg, is characterized by different soil types and a high variation in SOC contents. Reflectance data were related to surface SOC contents of bare croplands by means of 3 different multivariate calibration techniques: partial least square regression (PLSR), penalized-spline signal regression (PSR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR). The performance of these statistical tools was tested under different combinations of calibration/validation sets (global and local calibrations stratified according to agro-geological zones, soil type and image number). Under global calibration, the Root Mean Square Error in the Predictions reached 5.3–6.2 g C kg−1. Under local calibrations, this error was reduced by a factor up to 1.9. SOC maps of bare agricultural fields were produced using the best calibration model. Two map excerpts were shown, which display intra- and inter-field variability of SOC contents possibly related to topography and land management. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-radial oscillations in the red giant HR 7349 measured by CoRoT
Carrier, F.; De Ridder, J.; Baudin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 509

Context. Convection in red giant stars excites resonant acoustic waves whose frequencies depend on the sound speed inside the star, which in turn depends on the properties of the stellar interior ... [more ▼]

Context. Convection in red giant stars excites resonant acoustic waves whose frequencies depend on the sound speed inside the star, which in turn depends on the properties of the stellar interior. Therefore, asteroseismology is the most robust available method for probing the internal structure of red giant stars. <BR /> Aims: Solar-like oscillations in the red giant HR 7349 are investigated. <BR /> Methods: Our study is based on a time series of 380 760 photometric measurements spread over 5 months obtained with the CoRoT satellite. Mode parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation of the power spectrum. <BR /> Results: The power spectrum of the high-precision time series clearly exhibits several identifiable peaks between 19 and 40 μHz showing regularity with a mean large and small spacing of Πν = 3.47 ± 0.12 μHz and δν[SUB]02[/SUB] = 0.65 ± 0.10 μHz. Nineteen individual modes are identified with amplitudes in the range from 35 to 115 ppm. The mode damping time is estimated to be 14.7[SUP]+4.7[/SUP][SUB]-2.9[/SUB] days. The CoRoT space mission has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA, Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat sets up the destiny of a man: Laudatio of Jean Mélon, Szondi Award 2008
Stassart, Martine ULiege; Johnson, Arthur C.

Speech/Talk (2010)

Honorary President of the SIS (Szondi's International Society) and Honorary Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Liege, Jean MELON (born 1942) is one of the most famous follower of ... [more ▼]

Honorary President of the SIS (Szondi's International Society) and Honorary Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Liege, Jean MELON (born 1942) is one of the most famous follower of Leopold SZONDI (1893-1986) and the Continuer, as fellow-worker of Jacques SCHOTTE (1927-2007), of the SZONDI's genial work. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar-like oscillations in massive main-sequence stars. I. Asteroseismic signatures of the driving and damping regions
Belkacem, Kevin ULiege; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 510

Motivated by the detection of stochastically excited modes in the massive star V1449 Aql, which is already known to be a β Cephei star, we theoretically investigate the driving by turbulent convection ... [more ▼]

Motivated by the detection of stochastically excited modes in the massive star V1449 Aql, which is already known to be a β Cephei star, we theoretically investigate the driving by turbulent convection. By using a full non-adiabatic computation of the damping rates, together with a computation of the energy injection rates, we provide an estimate of the amplitudes of modes excited by both the convective region induced by the iron opacity bump and the convective core. Despite the uncertainties in the dynamical properties of these convective regions, we demonstrate that both regions are able to efficiently excite p modes above the CoRoT observational threshold and the solar amplitudes. In addition, we emphasise the potential asteroseismic diagnostics provided by each convective region, which we hope will help us to identify the region responsible for solar-like oscillations, and to place constraints on this convective zone. A forthcoming work will be dedicated to an extended investigation of the likelihood of solar-like oscillations across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CoRoT target HD 49933 . I. Effect of the metal abundance on the mode excitation rates
Samadi, R.; Ludwig, H*-G; Belkacem, Kevin ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 509

Context. Solar-like oscillations are stochastically excited by turbulent convection at the surface layers of the stars. <BR /> Aims: We study the role of the surface metal abundance on the efficiency of ... [more ▼]

Context. Solar-like oscillations are stochastically excited by turbulent convection at the surface layers of the stars. <BR /> Aims: We study the role of the surface metal abundance on the efficiency of the stochastic driving in the case of the CoRoT target HD 49933. <BR /> Methods: We compute two 3D hydrodynamical simulations representative - in effective temperature and gravity - of the surface layers of the CoRoT target HD 49933, a star that is rather metal poor and significantly hotter than the Sun. One 3D simulation has a solar metal abundance, and the other has a surface iron-to-hydrogen, [Fe/H], abundance ten times smaller. For each 3D simulation we match an associated global 1D model, and we compute the associated acoustic modes using a theoretical model of stochastic excitation validated in the case of the Sun and α Cen A. <BR /> Results: The rate at which energy is supplied per unit time into the acoustic modes associated with the 3D simulation with [Fe/H] = -1 is found to be about three times smaller than those associated with the 3D simulation with [Fe/H] = 0. As shown here, these differences are related to the fact that low metallicity implies surface layers with a higher mean density. In turn, a higher mean density favors smaller convective velocities and hence less efficient driving of the acoustic modes. <BR /> Conclusions: Our result shows the importance of taking the surface metal abundance into account in the modeling of the mode driving by turbulent convection. A comparison with observational data is presented in a companion paper using seismic data obtained for the CoRoT target HD 49933. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developped and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CoRoT target HD 49933 . II. Comparison of theoretical mode amplitudes with observations
Samadi, R.; Ludwig, H*-G; Belkacem, Kevin ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 509

Context. The seismic data obtained by CoRoT for the star HD 49933 enable us for the first time to measure directly the amplitudes and linewidths of solar-like oscillations for a star other than the Sun ... [more ▼]

Context. The seismic data obtained by CoRoT for the star HD 49933 enable us for the first time to measure directly the amplitudes and linewidths of solar-like oscillations for a star other than the Sun. From those measurements it is possible, as was done for the Sun, to constrain models of the excitation of acoustic modes by turbulent convection. <BR /> Aims: We compare a stochastic excitation model described in Paper I with the asteroseismology data for HD 49933, a star that is rather metal poor and significantly hotter than the Sun. <BR /> Methods: Using the seismic determinations of the mode linewidths detected by CoRoT for HD 49933 and the theoretical mode excitation rates computed in Paper I for the specific case of HD 49933, we derive the expected surface velocity amplitudes of the acoustic modes detected in HD 49933. Using a calibrated quasi-adiabatic approximation relating the mode amplitudes in intensity to those in velocity, we derive the expected values of the mode amplitude in intensity. <BR /> Results: Except at rather high frequency, our amplitude calculations are within 1-Ï error bars of the mode surface velocity spectrum derived with the HARPS spectrograph. The same is found with respect to the mode amplitudes in intensity derived for HD 49933 from the CoRoT data. On the other hand, at high frequency (ν ⪠1.9 mHz), our calculations depart significantly from the CoRoT and HARPS measurements. We show that assuming a solar metal abundance rather than the actual metal abundance of the star would result in a larger discrepancy with the seismic data. Furthermore, we present calculations which assume the â newâ solar chemical mixture to be in better agreement with the seismic data than those that assumed the â oldâ solar chemical mixture. <BR /> Conclusions: These results validate in the case of a star significantly hotter than the Sun and α Cen A the main assumptions in the model of stochastic excitation. However, the discrepancies seen at high frequency highlight some deficiencies of the modelling, whose origin remains to be understood. We also show that it is important to take the surface metal abundance of the solar-like pulsators into account. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27 2006, has been developped and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-17b: an ultra-low density planet in a probable retrograde orbit
Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2010), 709(1), 159-167

We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense planet currently known. It is 1.6 Saturn masses but 1.5-2 Jupiter radii, giving a density of 6-14 per cent that of Jupiter ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting giant planet WASP-17b, the least-dense planet currently known. It is 1.6 Saturn masses but 1.5-2 Jupiter radii, giving a density of 6-14 per cent that of Jupiter. WASP-17b is in a 3.7-day orbit around a sub-solar metallicity, V = 11.6, F6 star. Preliminary detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect suggests that WASP-17b is in a retrograde orbit (lambda ~ -150 deg), indicative of a violent history involving planet-planet or planet-star scattering. WASP-17b's bloated radius could be due to tidal heating resulting from recent or ongoing tidal circularisation of an eccentric orbit, such as the highly eccentric orbits that typically result from scattering interactions. It will thus be important to determine more precisely the current orbital eccentricity by further high-precision radial velocity measurements or by timing the secondary eclipse, both to reduce the uncertainty on the planet's radius and to test tidal-heating models. Owing to its low surface gravity, WASP-17b's atmosphere has the largest scale height of any known planet, making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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